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TC l^CI 

DEC 29 1887 

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I. — Masons' Marks at Westmimler Hall. By Edwin Fbeshpield, 

LL.D., V.P. 1—4 

II. — A Note on the Hall of William Bufus at West^ntnster. By J, T, 

MiCKLETHWAlTE, F.8.A. - ... - 5 — 8 

in. — The west side of Westminstei- Hall. By Somees Clabke, F.8.A. 9 — 16 
lY.— •-Some Remarks upon the Book of Records and History of the Parish 

of St. Stephen, Coleman Street, in the City of London. By Edwin 

Fbeshpield, LL.B., V.P. - ... - 17—57 

Y.-^Noies on recent excavations on the supposed site of the Artemisimn, 

near the Lake of Nemi, made by Sir John Savile Lvmley, G.G.B. 

By E. P. PuLLAN, F.S.A. 58—65 

VI. — On a Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire. By John Henet 

MiDDLBTON, M.A., F.8.A. . . - - - 66—71 

VII. — Remarks on the fifteenth-century IHptych of the Chevalier Philip 

Hinckaert, Chastelain de Tervueren, in Brahant. By Bvbbaed 

GrBEBN, F.8.A., Son. Member of the Spalding Society - 72 — 80 

nil.— The Manor of Aylesbury. By John Pakkeb, F.8.A. - ■ 81—103 

IX. — Some further Notice of the Diamond Signet of Henrietta Maria, 

queen of Charles I. ; of the King's Diajnond ; a/nd of the Sapphire 

Signet believed to be that of Mary Queen of William HI. By C. 

Deurt E. Foetnum, V.P.8.A. .... 104—117 
X. — The Seal of Cardinal Andrea de Valle, A.D. 1517, idth remarks on 

some other cardinals' seals of that period, ascribed to Lautizio of 

Pei-ugia, and to Cellini. By C. Dbtiet B. Fortnum, F.8.A. 118 — 128 

XI. — On the English medieval drinking bowls called Mazers. By W. H. 

St. John Hope, M.A. - . . . . 129— 19a 

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XII. — On Archaic conceptions of jyroperty in relation to the Laws of 
Succession ; and their survival in England. By G. Laueenob 

GoMME, F.8.A. 195—214 

XIII. — Documents relating to the death and burial of king Edward II. By 

Stuabt Akchibald Moore, F.8.A. - - - - 215 — 226 

XrV. — Some remarks upon the Regia, the Atrium Vestae, and the original 

locality of the Fasti Gapitolini. By P. M. Nichols, F.S.A. 227—260 

XV. — The Alien Priory of St. Andreto, Hamhle, and its transfer to 

Winchester College in 1391. By Thomas F. Kibbt, M.A. 251—262 

XVI. — Further Notes upon Excavations at Silchester. By F. G. Hilton 

Peice, F.S.A. 263—280 

XVII. — On the Mural Paintings in All Saints Church, Friskney, Lincoln- 
shire. Communicated by the Rev. Heney John Chbalbs, M-A., 
Vicar of Friskney, and Rural Dean of Candleshoe - - 281 — 286 

XVIII. — On Basket-work Figures of Men represented an Sculptured Stones. 

By Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D. .... 287—294 
XIX. — Reginald, bishop of Bath (i iJ^—i IQ i) ; his episcopate, aiid his 
share in the building of the church of Wells. By the Rev. C. M. 
Church, M.A., F.S.A., Sub-dean and Canon Residentiary of 

Wells 295—360 

XX. — Notes on an Ancient Boat found at Brigg. By Alfred Atkinson, 

A.M. Inst. C.E. ...... 361—370 

XXI. — Notes from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, lAncolnshire. 

By Edward Peacock, F.S.A. .... 371—382 

XXII. — On excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford, in Lincoln- 
shire. By Georoe William Thomas, Esq. - - 383 — 406 
XXIII. — On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. By Edwin 

Febshfield, Esq., Vice-President .... 407 — 420 

XXIV. — The History of Malmesbury as a Village GoTmnunity. By G. L. 

GoMME, F.S.A. ...... 421—438 

XXV. — Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, dated 
respectively 1$45 and 1403 ; now, for the first time, printed, with an 
Introduction. By "W". Sparrow Simpson, D.D., F.8.A., Sub-dean 
of St. Paul's, and Keeper of the Records ... 439 — 524 

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1. The Standing Gup of the cihj of Westminster - - 527 — 529 

2. On an iron sword of Scandinavian type found in London, now 

in the British Museum ; and a bronze stirrup of the same period 
found near Bomsey, in Hampshire, in the possession of Philip 
B. Davis Cook, Esq. ..... 530—533 

3. Notes on a Danish sword found near Wallingford - 534 — 536 

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t I*. Masons' Marks. "Westminster Hall, west side - - facing 2 

t II*. Westminster Hall, west side. Positions of the Masons' Marks 

facing 2 

+ III*. Westminster Hall, west side. Positions of the Masons' Marks 

facing 2 

t I*V*. Westminster Hall, west side. Positions of the Masons' Marks 

facing 2 

I. Longitudinal section of Westminster Hall - between 6-7 

II. Elevation and Ground Plan of the West Side of Westminster 

Hall ...... facing 9 

t III. Plan of the West Side of Westminster Hall (first-floor) between 10-11 
t IV. Plan of part of the West side of Westminster Hall between 10-11 
t V. Plan of the First-floor of the West Side of Westminster Hall 

between 14-15 
+ VI. General Plan showing the Buildings round Westminster Hall 

in 1716 - . . . . between 14-15 

VII. Plan of Excavations at Lago di Nemi, on the site of the 

Artemisium ..... facing 60 

VIII. Ex Votos, from the Artemisium, near Lake Nemi - facing 62 

IX. 1. Portion of a Terra-Cotta / \ 

Frieze - 

o T • i- J _!.■ From the Artemisium, I ^ - 

2. Inscnption and a portion ! ^^^^ j^ake Nemi '^"8 

of a White Marble 

Cornice - . \ / 

t Presented by Edwin Fi-eshlield, LL.D., V.P. 


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X. Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst - - • - facing 68 

Inscribed Slab in Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, Grloucestershire - 69 

Greneral View of Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, GHoucestershire - 71 

XI. Dexter Panel of the Diptych of Philip Hinckaert - facing 76 

Badge or Rebus of Philip Hinckaert . - - - 80 

Crold Signet Ring of Mary, Queen of William III. - - 111 

Diamond Signet of Charles I. - - - - - 112 

XII. Seal of Cardinal Andrea de Valle, 1517 j f ' IIQ 

Sealof Cardinal. Egidio da Viterbo, 1517 1 " " ^^^^^ 

Xni. Examples of Mazer Prints .... facing 136 

Print of a Mazer at Harbledown Hospital, Kent - • 138 

Early fourteenth-century Mazer at Harbledown Hospital, Kent 139 

Print of a Mazer at Harbledown Hospital, Kent - - 140 

Print of a Mazer at St. John's Hospital, Canterbury - • 144 

Mazer at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ... 144 

Part of band of a Mazer at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge - 145 
Sectional elevation of a Mazer at Corpus Christi College, 

Cambridge .--.--- 146 
Plan of top of piUar inside a Mazer at Corpus Christi College, 

Cambridge ...... 146 

Print of a Mazer at St. John's Hospital, Canterbury . . 146 

Mazer, and ring of its cover, at All Souls College, Oxford - 151 
Print from a Mazer at All Souls College, Oxford, with arms 

and initials of Thomas Ballard .... 151 

Standing Mazer at Pembroke College, Cambridge - - 152 
Print of a Mazer (with section) at Fairford Church, Gloucester- 
shire ....... 156 

Print of a Mazer at Holy Trinity Church, Colchester - - 156 

Print of a Mazer at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge . 157 

Maaer at Oriel College, Oxford .... 159 

Mazer in the possession of the "Worshipful Company of Iron- 
mongers - ...... - 160 

Standing Mazer at All Souls College, Oxford ... 166 
Merchant's mark on print of a Mazer at St. Grdes' Church, 

Cripplegate, London ..... 167 


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Mazer, with inverted tazza for a foot, in the possession of W. 

Jerdone Braikenridge, Esq. .... 169 
Portion of the band (with section] of a Mazer in the possession 

of W. Jerdone Braikenridge, Esq. ... 170 

Mazer (1585-6) in the possession of the Rev. H. F. St. John - 173 
Print of a Mazer (1585-6) in the poBsession of the Rev. H. F, 

St. John ....... 174 

Plan of Ruins between the Temple of Vesta and the Sacred 

"Way .-.-... 229 
XIV. Fragment of Marble Wall and Tufo substructure of Marble 

Buildings ------ facing 230 

Marble Wall of the Stanza dei Fasti - - - - 237 

Restored plan and south elevation of part of the Regia - 247 
Plan and architecture of the SvAwnms Janus, as designed by 

Ligorio ...-..- 249 

* XV. Silchester. (Jeneral Plan . . _ _ facing 266 

* XVI. Silchester. Plan of a building between the Forum and the 

Temple (Block VII.) - - - between 268-269 

' XVII. Silchester. Plan of the Baths (Block IX.) - between 274-275 

' XVIII. Silchester. Bird's-eye view of the Baths (Block IX.) between 27&-277 
i XIX. Silchester. View showing section of Hypocaust in the Baths 

(Block IX. Chamber 8) - - - between 278-279 

XX. Fr Jskney Church, Lincolnshire. Wall Painting of the Ascension 

facing 281 
XXI. Friskney Church, Lincolnshire. Wall Painting of the Resur- 

. rection ..... facing 283 

XXII. Sculptured Cross-shaft at Checkley, Staffordshire facing 288 

Sketch showing position of an ancient Boat found at Brigg - 361 
Sketch of stem-board - - - - - •363 

Longitudinal section of bottom of Boat .... 363 

Section of floor-ridge ...... 364 

Section of shelf at stem ..... 364 

Roman Intaglio found in an Anglo.Saxon grave at Sleaford - 404 
XXIII. [Antiquities found in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Sleaford 

facing 406 

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Antiquities found in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Sleaford 



XXV. Antiquities found in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Sleaford 


XXVI. Silver-gilfc Standing Cup of the city of Westminster 
Sword of Scandinariim type found in London - 
Hilt of Sword of Scandinavian type found in London 
Bronze Stirrup found near Bomsey, Hants 

XXVII. Danish Sword-hilt found at Wallingford 




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—The Alien Priory of St. Andrew, Haynble, and its transfer to Winchester 
College in 1391. By Thomas F. Kiebt, M.A. 

Bead March 25, 1866. 

The priorj of St. Andrew, at Hamble, near Southampton, was a cell to the 
Benedictine abbey of Tyrone (Tinin or Turun), in La Beauce, a district south- 
west of Chartres, included in the old province of Orl^annois. In the Monasticon 
and Tanner's Notitia it is called a Cistercian abbey, but this is a mistake, and so 
is the statement in the Notitia that the priory was annexed to New College, 
Oxford. The priory stood on a "rise" or point of land. — " Hamele-en-le-rys " 
or " Hambleriee " is its old name — at the confluence of the Hamble river with 
Southampton Water, opposite Calahot castle. Hamble gets its name from Hamele, 
a thane of the Saxon Meonwaris. Leland calls the place " Hamel Hooke." The 
priory chtu-ch of St. Andrew is now the parish church. It was rebuilt by "Win- 
chester college' in the early part of the fifteenth century, and consists of chancel 
and nave, to which a south aisle was added five or six years ago, and a tower 
with three bells. There are scarcely any traces above ground of the priory 
buildings. Like those of the Benedictine convent of St. Swithun, at Winchester, 
they stood on the south and south-west of the church, so that the graveyard, as 
at "Winchester, is on the north side of the church. 

I do not know at what date the monks from Tyrone came to Hamble, or upon 
whose invitation, but they owed their pied a terre to William GifEard, bishop of 
Winchester, 1098 — 1128, who gave "to the monks of St. Andrew," a hyde of 
land called Hamle. The grant is not extant ; but I exhibit a confirmation of it 
by Henry de Blois (bishop 1129 — 1171). This little charter is in excellent 
preservation (see Appendix I.) The seal is in chocolate wax, and was 3J inches 

' See Archaeological Journal riii. 86. 
VOL. L. 2 L 

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252 TJte Alien Priory of 8t. Andrew, Hamhie, 

long when perfect. The counteraeal is oval, f inches long, no legend, subiect, a 
gem with two heads facing each other, " like Philip and Mary on a shilling." 

I have here also a certified copy of a bull of pope Innocent II. in which the 
pope confirms Gulielmus, abbot of Tyrone, and his successors, in the possession 
of divers churches which had been given to that abbey, including the church of 
'* St. Andrew de Anglia," which, coming as it does from the drawer of Hamble 
documents in the Winchester college muniment room, must be taken to mean 
St. Andrew's Hamble. 

This interesting document is written in a characteristic hand of the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century, and was no doubt made to be handed over to the college 
with the title-deeds upon the completion of the purchase of the priory. The 
original bull appears to have been " given at Valence by the hand of Almeric, 
cardinal deacon and chancellor of the Roman Church, xvij. Kal. Ap. Indict. 
10"" A.D. 1132 Pontif. III." 

I have here also a charter of Hemy 11. confirming the right of the monks 
of Tyrone to a pension of fifteen marks per annum ad calceamenta (for shoe 
leather) which had been granted to them by a charter of Henry I. that is not 
extant. The charter before you is in excellent preservation, but the seal is a 
mere fragment. Thomas a Becket attests as chancellor, proving the date of 
the charter to he between the years 1155 — 11 62. The charter of Henry I. (1100 — 
1135} may have been contemporaneous with the grant of bishop Giffard 
(1098 — 1128) and with the arrival of the monks in this country. We have 
another charter of Henry II. exempting the monks of Hamble from toll, passage, 
pontage, etc. throughout England and Normandy, but the seal is missing. We 
have also a charter of Henry, duke of Normandy, as he describes himself, granting 
to the monks a pension of twenty marks per annum in lieu of the above- 
mentioned pension of fifteen marks, and another of five marks granted by the 
empress Maud : but here again we have to regret the loss of the seal. 

The property of this priory cannot have been large at any time. They had 
bishop GifEard's hyde of land, represented by the present manor of Hamble, and 
the tithes, services, and dues arising from it and from another hyde of land at 
" Brixedone," which they had under a grant from Henry de Blois, made with the 
consent of Christopher, the parson of Bishop's Waltham, to which church these 
tithes had belonged. I am sorry to say that this grant of Henry de Blois, as 
well as some other documents of equal interest, are not now to be found in the 
college muniment room. 

They had also the chapel of Hound, the adjoining parish, and the chapel of 

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and its iramfer to Winchester College in 1391. 253 

"West Worldham, near Alton, wHch was given to them by one Richard de 
Annecy, temp. Henry II. as I gather from the character of the writing of the 
deed of gift. Early in the twelfth century they were endowed by Qoce de Dinan 
with the church of Stanton Fitzwarren in "Wilts and by Herbert Fitzherbert with 
half a hyde there and two parts of the tithes of his demesne. Instead of keeping 
the church in their own hands, and paying a vicar, the monks made the mistake of 
letting the parson into possession of the church, on condition of paying them an 
annual pension ; and this is how Stanton Fitzwarren comes to be a rectory in other 
patronage instead of an appropriation to "Winchester college. A writ of the 
bishop of Salisbury directing the archdeacon of "Wilts to enforce payment of this 
pension to the monks of Hamble, bears date a.d. 1421. 

Then they had an acre of building land in the new town of Southampton 
which they acquired in the following manner : — One Richard Leycester had given 
them a rent-charge of 28 pence per annum, issuing out of this acre, " ad inveni- 
endum vinum ad missas." The rent-charge got into arrear, and, there being 
nothing on the land to distrain, the monks entered into possession of the acre, 
and in 42 Hen. III. made an agreement with one Nicholas Beket respecting it. 
(Appendix III.) 

I exhibit this agreement, as well as Leycester's grant, as the earliest example 
that I am acquainted with of a building agreement. The terms of the agreement 
were as follows ; — ^Beket was to be at liberty to enter on the acre and build houses 
and repair them without any limit of time (so that it was, in fact, a lease in 
perpetuity), and was to pay the 2Bd. a-year to the priory, as well as a prior 
charge of 20(i. per annum to the hospital of (Jod's House at Southampton, which 
was, I believe, the original freeholder, Leycester being their grantee. 

Then they had a place called Flexland, in Soberton parish, for which they paid 
a modus of one mark to the parson of Meonstoke, under an award of bishop 
Godfrey de Lucy (1189 — 1204). They had also the tithes of a meadow at 
Allington, near Bishopstoke ; and a pension of 408. per annum out of the rectory 
of that parish, which is mentioned in a taxation of the archdeacon of "Winchester 
in 20 Edward I. as then payable to the monks of Hamble, and is now received 
by "Winchester college, their auccessorB in title. 

The number of monks at Hamble must have been small, possibly six. I say 
this because they had a corrody from the monastery of St. Swithun at "Winchester 
of 6 gowns (pellidae), 6 pairs of shoes, and 6 pairs of boots (botae) per annum, 
with 21 loaves and 42 flagons (justae) of ale (quales in refectorio coram monachis 
ponuntur) weekly, which works out half a loaf and one flagon per diem if six was 
2l 2 

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254 The Alien Friory of 8L Andrew^ Ha/mile, 

the number, The monks of St. Swithun used to receive 20,000 oysters at mid- 
Lent from the prior of Hamhle, as an acknowledgment of this corrody. 

The delivery of so much bread and beer at Hamble must have been a difficult 
task for the monks of St. Swithim's, though they had the advantage of water 
carriage all the way from "Winchester by reason of bishop Lucy having made the 
river Itchen navigable to Southampton. One is not surprised to find that dis- 
putes arose about the corrody in consequence. I exhibit a deed of agreement, 
dated April 6, 1337 (Appendix: IV.), between Alexander, prior of St. Swithun's, 
and Richard de Bello Monte, prior of Hamble, for compromise of an action by the 
latter for nonpayment of the corrody. The compromise amounted to this, that 
during the rest of prior Richard's life the bread should continue to be delivered, 
but not the beer and other things. 

Shortly after this adjustment of the dispute the troubles of the ahen priories 
began; and, on the breaking out of the great war with France, king Edward III. 
seized their estates. Hamble suffered the same fete as all other alien priories. 

The monks of St. Swithun seem to have taken advantage of the sequestration 
of the estates of Hamble priory to drop the pajrment of the corrody. At any rate, 
it ceased to be paid, and the wrong was not remedied until the year 1394, when 
bishop Wykeham decreed that it should be paid for the future. 

The bishop's decree is addressed to Robert Rodeboume, prior of St. Swithun; 
and to Tideman de "Winchcomb, abbot of BeauUeu, and Sir Bernard Brocas, the 
farmers of the priory under the Crown; and is dated July 24, 1394; at which 
date the sale to the college had been completed, as we shall see presently ; but 
the sequestrators had not yet given up possession. 

The decree is dated from the bishop's manor of Esher, and has appended to it 
the bishop's secretum in red wax. This is a circular seal, 1^ inch in diameter, 
nearly perfect, with the bishop kneeling to St. Swithun, with Our Lady and Child 
above, and SS. Peter and Paul on either side. In base are the bishop's arms, and 
the legend is — 

SKCttum tuglUImt be tuBlttiiain epi losntlon. 

The history of this corrody has interest for us at Winchester ; for, after the 
property of the priory became vested in "Winchester college, the corrody became 
the endowment of Wykeham's chantry in our cathedral church. 

At this time (4 Henry "V.) the estimated annual value of the corrody was 
ten pounds. 

I exhibit the duplicate grant of the corrody by warden Morys and the college 
to prior Nevyle and the convent of St. Swithun. (Appendix V.) The grant is 

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and its transfer to Winchester CoUege m 1391. 255 

expressed to be in accordance with the intention and at the request of the late 
biahop, for a chantry of three monks to celebrate three masses daily in the chapel 
in which he is buried. Each monk is to receive one penny a day from the prior. 
The sacrist of St. Swithun is to find all things needful for the purpose ; and alms- 
boys are to sing every night in the chapel, in honour of the blessed Virgin, the 
antiphon " Salve Regina," or "Ave Regina," and then " De Profundis," with the 
Prayer of the Faithful, or "Inclina;" and the prior is to assign six shillings and 
eight pence yearly at the Feast of the Annunciation, for the use of the boys. 

The original deed of endowment should be, if still in existence, in the custody 
of the dean and chapter. The duplicate that I exhibit represents the acceptance 
of the endowment by the convent of St. Swithun. Of the conventual seal, a 
splendid impression in bright red wax, about two-thirds remains. 

A transcript of a charter establishing the chantry with this corrody, and a 
pension of forty-five shillings and nine pence given by bishop Wykeham in his 
lifetime out of the manor of West Meon, will be found in the Monasticon* 
*' Winchester Monastery," No. XIX. 

In the case of Hamble priory and, as far a& I know, of aU other alien priories, 
the "legal estate," as lawyers call it, was vested in the parent monaatery abroad; 
and the prior and brethren here exercised powers of management only, and paid a 
sort of tribute to the parent monastery. One of the grounds of complaint against 
the alien jiriories was that they sent specie abroad. There were several cells to 
the abbey of Tyrone besides Hamble and Andwell ; and the abbey kept an agent, 
or proctor, in this country to superintend them all. 

I have here letters under the seal of abbot John and the abbey of Tyrone 
appointing John le Eoier, abbot of St. Mary de Artisis, to bo their agent or 
proctor in England. 

The date is 28 January, 1360-1. The convent seal is much flattened, and 
only a fragment remains of the abbot's seal. 

Raoul dit I'Ermite, prior of Andwell, was pi^ctor-general of the abbey in 
13 Edward II. and in that year concurred in a lease by prior Beaumont to one 
John Poussart " de tons les servises corvees et coustumes," of Hamble manor. 

I exhibit the lease. The seals are almost perfect, in dark green wax. 

The seals are (a) that of the prior of Hamble, a pointed oval If inch long with 
the martyrdom of St. Andrew, with a moon and star on either side, and a praying 
monk in base. Legend : 8' peioeis DS [tiA]MaL[a] ; (b) that of the prior of 

• Ed. 1817. Vol. 1, page 215. 

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256 The Alien Priory of St. Andrew, Hamhle, 

Andwell, a pointed oval If inch long, with figures of Our Lady and Child 
and St. John Baptist beneath a double canopy, with a half effigy of Our Lord 
above, and a praying monk under a canopy beneath. Legend : 8' priobib DS 

Here is a similar lease granted in 30 Edward III. by prior James Pasquier, 
who was proctor for the abbey as well as prior of Hamble. I have said that 
at the breaking out of the great war with France Edward III. sequestrated the 
property of all the alien priories, under a pledge (so it is said) that it should be 
restored on peace being made. The custody of the priory of Hamble with the 
priories of Andwell and St. Cross, two other cells of the abbey of Tyrone, was 
granted by letters patent on 22 January, 49 Edward III. (1376), to Thomas de 
Duffield. In 1371 bishop William of Wykeham had granted the custody of the 
priory in spiHtualUms to William de Salariis, a monk of Tyrone, and others his 
fellows. It does not appear whether the brethren were actually ejected. I 
incline to think they were not. William de Foxle, prior 1375-1390, had property 
in three counties and may have been able to maintain them. There was a vacancy 
in the year 1390, and the abbot of Tyrone presented two clerks, John Beel and 
John Kent, to the bishop, and he instituted John Beel to the priory. 

I exhibit the letters of presentation of John Beel, for the sake of the seals of 
the abbot and convent, which are in splendid preservation. 

The seal of the abbot is of English workmanship. It is a pointed oval 3 inches 
long, with the Holy Trinity under a fine canopy. In base is a kneeling figure of 
the abbot under an arch, between two shields, each bearing three falcons volant. 
The legend is : — 

; S. POTEI : [ABBATI8] ainOTS [TEiniTAT' Dff TI]EOniO. 

The convent seal is that ad cav^as, and is of earlier date than the abbot's. It 
is a pointed oval 2^ inches long, with Our Lord sitting in majesty, under a slight 
canopy. Legend: 

8'. aovoTVi - saec • theitatis • Da • Tmonio * ad ans. 

The alien priories were not finally dissolved until the Parliament of Leicester 
(1 Henry v.), but in the state of suspended animation to which Edwardlll. reduced 
them they can have been of no value to the abbeys abroad, who must have been 
glad to get rid of them when a purchaser offered, and this is the way in which 
William of Wykeham acquired a good deal of the property with which he endowed 
his two St. Mary colleges. The prices paid may not have been high, say six or 

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and its transfer to Winchester College w 1391. 257 

eight years* piu-chase, but the coBts and expenses were considerable, owing to the 
number of people, from the Pope's nuncio downwards, who had to be contented. 

The first step was to obtain the sanction of pope Bonifaee IX. We have a 
copy only of his bull, dated iv. Non. Feb. 1391. The royal licence to prior 
John Beel to grant to the warden and scholars, clerks, the manor of Hamble, 
and the churches of Hamble Hound and "West Worldham, bears date the same 
year. Then we have a licence to alienate by Peter, abbot of Tyrone and the 
convent, and a grant by prior Beel pursuant to that licence. 

Then there is a letter of attorney by the prior, appointing John de Campeden, 
master of St. Cross ; John de Keten and others, his attorneys, to deliver seisin. 

Then we have a confirmation by the abbot and convent of Tyrone, in whom 
I have said the legal estate was vested. It is dated 1 Sep. 1391. The seals are 
perfect, in dark green wax ; that of the abbot has been already described. The 
common seal is a pointed oval, 3J inches long, with a rudely executed figure of 
the Trinity beneath a slight canopy. Legend : — 


Then we come to a letter of attorney from the warden and scholars, clerks, to 
receive seisin, and the title is completed with a release by Tideman de "Winchcomb, 
abbot of Savigny, one of the sequestrators of the priory. (Appendix VI.) 

This Tideman de Winchcomb waa made abbot of Beaulieu, Hants, in ] 393 ; 
bishop of LlandafE the same year; and in 1395 was translated to the see of 
"Worcester. He died in 1401. 

So much for the conveyancing part of the business. Now for the purchase- 
money and expenses. I exhibit an acquittance under the private seals of William 
de Siguenaux, prior of Trehonderia, and Giles, prior of G^ardens, as agents of the 
abbot and convent of Tyrone, for a sum of 1300 francs (ecus worth about 53. 
each), the price of the priories of Hamble, St. Cross, Andwell, and Titley, and the 
churches of Hamble Hound and West Worldham. The seals are circular, in dark 
green wax, f in. in diameter. 

The acquittance by the abbot and convent for the purchase-money bears date 
three days later, 8 September, 1391. 

Then we have receipts by the said William de Siguenaux and Tterius Morini, 
domdeellvs, for 100 francs paid them by the purchaser for their trouble in expe- 
diting the matter ; and by the priors of Trehonderia and Gardens for 30 francs 
" pro feodo sigilli," as sealing money, and for carrying the writings to Rouen and 

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258 The Alien Pri&ry of St. Andreic, Samble, 

Tbis last mentioned acquittance is dated 19th June, 1392, but everything else 
was settled before the end of September 1391. In fact, the purchase only took 
seven months to complete. It would not be completed more quickly now. The 
only difficulty was to get rid of the sequestrators or farmers of the priory. One 
of them, Tideman de Winchcomb, executed a release, as we have seen, with some 
promptitude, for it bears date 15 Sept., 1392; but the other, Sir Bernard Brocas, 
seems to have stood out for compensation, as we have an acquittance of his dated 
17 Sept. 1394, for a pension of 10 marks, granted to him by the king out of the 
priory. And it would seem from "Wykeham's decree quoted above, that both 
sequestrators were in possession at this date — 24 July, 1394, nearly three years 
after the nominal completion of the purchase. 

The following list of priors is taken from a certificate of bishop Wykeham, 
dated 5 Feb., 1392, for the information of the sequestrators: — 

Name of prior. 

Where iiistiCDted. 


John de Estrepamacho 

South wark 

4 Jan. 1317. 

Richard de Beaulieu (sic) 


2 July, 1322. 

James Pasquier 


10 March, 1344 

■William de Monasteriis 


28 Feb. 1361. 

"WUliam de Foxle 


10 Aug. 1375. 

John Beel 


20 Feb. 1390. 

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emd its transfer to Winchester College in 1391, 259 



HeDiicna del graoia WiDton Gpiscopas, Archidiaconis, Decanis, et nniTerso cloro per 
Dpiscopatum Wintoa constitnto, salutem. Donationem qaam Predecesaor noster bono 
memorie Willelmns Criffard regis Heurici senioris sssensn, et ConveDtus Winton concessionej 
fecit deo et monachis de Sancto Andrea de ana hida terre qne Tocatnr Haffia, sicat eorum 
Carte testantar, ratam habemus et presentis scripti monimine roboramnB. Testibns biia : 
BadnUo archidiacono Winton, Roberto archidiacono Snrreie, Magistro Nicbolaho, WaitFePO 
clerico, Willebno Capellano Episcopi, Criatoforo clerico, Willebno milite nepote Episcopi. 

Seal of the biahop in red -was., with effigy. Legend all 

broken away. Gonnterseal, a claeaical gem with two 

heads respectant. 


Henricns Rex AngUe et Dox Normannie et Aqnitanie et Comes Andegavie Archi- 
episcopis, Episcopis, Abbatibos, Comitiboa, Baronibas, Jnsticiarii^ Yicecomitibns, MiDistria, et 
omnihns fidelibus Bois totias Anglie et Normannie, salutem. Sciatis me concessisse et confir- 
masse deo et monachis de Tyroii. in perpetoam elemosinam, pro salute anime mee et 
antecesBomm et sncceasornm meomm, quindecim marcas argenti ad calcefunenta eoram, 
accipiendas de thasauro meo ad acaccarinm menm in feato sancti Michaelis annnatim in 
perpetunm, sicnt Rex Henricns avns mens illaa eia dedib et carta ana confirmavit. Qnare 
volo et firmiter precipio quod ipsi singnlia annis illaa habeant bene et in pace ad predictnm 
terminom absque omni distnrbacione. Testibns : Fhilippo epiacopo Baioc*, Era' episcopo 
Lexovienai, Toma Cancellario, Roberto de novo b, Jollano dapifero, Hugone de claera. Apad 

Remains of the great seal. 


Hec est convencio facta anno Regni Regis Henrici filii Regis Johannia xl" qnarto 
inter dominnm priorem et monacos do Hamele ex una parte et Nicolanm Beket Bath ex 
altera, videlicet qnod idem prior et monachi conceaserunt pro ae et euccesaoribns suis dicto 
Kicolao libemm aditnm edificandi conatmendi et reparandi domos in quadam acra terre 
-eisdem priori et monachis in carta qnadam Ricardi de leycestria assignata. Que qaidem 
-acra terre proxima est stegiia dicti Nicolai in Niwet* que vocantnr la galee * ex parte anstrali, 
Ita quod predictua Nioolaus et heredea aui sive sui assignati sive inhabitatorea eiusdem loci 
plene sine frande et dolo annnnm redditum viginti et octo denar' predictis priori et monachis 
■ Query French Sti-eet. 
VOL. U 2 M 

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260 . The Alien Priory of St. Andrew, Ramble, 

sd festnm sancti tnichaelis solvant inperpetnnm. Et hospital! domae dei Satti viginti 
denarioe annnatim. PredictuB Tero Nicolaos concessit pro se et heredibns Baia vel biub 
assignatis sive pro predict! loci inhabitatoribaB predictis priori et moDachis efc eomndem 
BQCcessoribas quod libere et sine aliqua contradictione possint in loco predicto et in feodo 
dicti Nicolai qui rocatur ia galee distringere per quemcnnque modum districcionis si con- 
tingat dictum redditum eisdem auo termino non solvi. In coins rei testimonium presens 
BCriptum per modom cirographi inter se fecerout et sigillis suis mutuo roborari (ate) adiectis 
hiis testibus: Matb Gese aldremanS Buth, henrico fiendr' einedem ville senescallo, Johanne 
Blnndo et Jacobo ysembard ballivis, Jolianne fortin, andrea de cruce, Radnlfo parro, Thoma 
de Andevare et aliis. 

Seal lost. 


Presens Bcriptnm indentatnm inter religioaos viroB ffratrem Alexandmm priorem Ecclesie 
cathedralis sancti Swythi Wyntoti confectnm ex parte una et ffratrem Richardnm de Bello 
Monte Priorem de Hamele ex alters testator qnod cum Abbas de Tironio tulisset versos 
predictum Priorem Wjnton quandam assisam noTe disseiBine de quodam corrodio capiendo in 
dome sancti Swytthi Wynton qualibet hebdomada viginti et unum panem qoales in Refectorio 
coram ffratribns ponnntur qnadraginta duas jostas cervisie singulis annis pellicias sex et sex 
paria caligarom totidemque botarum de illis que deputantor elemosine fratmm Postea pre- 
dictoB Prior de Hamele attomatos predict! Abbatis in hac parte remiait predicto Priori 
Wynton et eiusdem loci conventoi omnimodam accionem exigendi predictae cerrisiam pellicias 
Cftligas et botaa pro| toto tempore bqo. Et pro liac remissione predictos Prior Wynton con- 
cessit quod predictuB Prior de Hamele et monaclii ibidem deo servientes pacifice percipient 
et habebunt predictos panes qoalibet septimana toto tempore predict! Prions de Hamele sine 
fXmtradiccione aliquali. In cuius rei testimonium uni parti presentis script! indentati penes 
predictum Priorem de Hamele remanent! predictus Prior Wynton sigillum sunm apposuit. 
Alteri vero parti penes predictum Priorem Wynton resident! predictos prior de Hamele 
Bigillam soum appoauit. Datum Wynton sexto die mensis Aprilis Anno domini m" ccc" 
tricesimo septimo, Anno vero regni regis Edward! tercii a conqoestn undecimo. 

Small oval seal in green wax, 1 ,^ by 1 inch. Subject : witbin a sexfoil, 
in cbief five billets, 2 and 3 j on a band in fess the bust of a bishop 
or mitred prior between a key and sword ; in base, two lions rampant. 
The fields are variously diapered. Legend : 8'AIi€XAni)BI • PBIOBIS ' 

winionia saoK'Tvm. 

Onmibns Christi fidelibus presens Bcriptum indentatom visuris vel audituris Johannes 
morys custfts ooUegij beate marie prope civitatem Wyntoii seynte marie college of Wyn- 
chestre vulgariter nnncopati et eisdem collegij socij et scolares salntem in domino sempi< 
temam. Cam quoddam corrodium sive preatacio annua subscripta a domo Prioratos sancti 
Swithuni Wynton Prioratui de hamele in the Rys in Comitatu Soth et eiusdem loci 
monachis debita videlicet nnaqoaque ebdomada viginti unua panes conventuales qnadraginta 

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and its transfer to Winchester College in 1391. 261 

due JDBte cerriaid qualea in Befectoris coram monaoliiB dioti prior&taa sftncti Switnntu 
confratribns ibidem ponimtor necnon singoliB annia aex pellicie meliores de illia que depn- 
tantor elemosine fratrmn sex paria caligarum necnon sex paria botamm quomm omnium valor 
annnus ad decern librae efc amplina ae eztendit Poatmodum in et ad nos costodem aocioe et 
ficolarea noatrumque collegium auctoritarte apostolica et regia legitime et eSectaliter fuerit et 
sit translst' Noveritia noa prefatoa castodem aocioa et scolarea collegij antedicti obtcntu et 
contemplacione Reverendi in Chriato patria et domini nostri domini Wilielmi de Wykeham 
dei gracia Wyntoniensis Episcopi fondatoris nostri ao ad requisitiousm eiasdem necnon pro 
quadum cantaria trium monaoborum tres missas pro reverendo patre et fundatore antedicto 
et eina benefactoribas in capella in qua cnm in fata deceaaerib diapoanit tumulari cotidie 
celebrare debencium quorum quilibet a priore aancti Switbuni qui pro tempore fuerit siugnlis 
dieboa unum denarium bone et uanalia monete percipiet quibaa eciam Sacrista ecclesie snpra- 
dicte inveniet omnia officio misse neceasaria pro qao eoiam reverendo patre pneri elemoai- 
narie de elemoaina diet! Prioratua virentea qualibet nocte perpetnis futoris temporibus ad 
capellam predictam oantabunt in honorem beate Virginia autipbonam Salve Begina vel Ave 
Begina et conaeqneuter dicent paalmnm De Profundia cum orations ffidelium vel Inclina ad 
quomm opua et ntilitatem sepedictus Prior pro tempore eziatens aolvet annuatim Elemosi- 
uario dicti Prioratua aez solidoa octo denarios in ffesto aununciationia beate marie imper* 
petuum in dicto priorata per priorem et eiusdem loci confratres nnanimiter fundata ordinata 
pariter et concesea, pront in tenore ordinacionia dicte cantarie pleniua apparet unanimo 
consensu et asaenaa remiaiaae relevaase et onmino pro nobia et auccesaoribua noatris imper- 
petunm quietom clamaaae venerabili viro Thome Nevyle Priori dicti Prioratua aancti 
Switbnai et eiusdem loci Conventui eommque successoribna totum iua et clameum que 
habemus babnimua vel aliqno modo in futurum habere poterimna in predicto corrodio sen 
preatacione annua. Ita quod nee noa nee aacceaaores nostri aliquod ius vel clameam in 
eodem corrodio aive preatacione annua versus eosdem Priorem et conventum aut eorum 
sncceaaorea ezigere ve! vendicare poterimna iufuturum sed inde per preaentea imperpetnom 
sumua inclnai. Et noa vero predictus Thomas Nevyle prior eccleaie cathedralia Wynton et 
eiaadem loci conventaa ananimi aaaensu et consensu remiaimus relazavimus et onmino pro 
nobis et snccesaoribas nostria qoietum clamavimua prefatia Johanni Morya custodi collegij 
predict! et eiusdem loci aocijs et acolaribua imperpetunm omnimoda accionea clamea et 
demandas que habemna babuimua sen quovismodo habere poterimus infutumm reraus 
prefatos cnatodem socioa et acolares sen eorum successorea raciune Prioratua de Hamele in 
the Rys predicti sen alicuiaa parcelle eiusdem in manibus predictoram cnstodia sociorum et 
Bcolarium seu auccessores auorum ezistentis necnon omnimoda proficna occnpaciones et 
clamea que in eodem Prioratu de hamele in the Eya habere poterimus vel clamavimua pro 
corrodio predicto. Ita quod neo noa nee auccesaorea nostri aliquod iua vel clamenm versus 
eosdem cnstodem socios et scolares aut eorum ancceasorea ezigere vel vendicare poterimus 
infutumm racione corrodij supradicti aed inde per preaentea simus exclusi imperpetuum. In 
caina rei teatimoniom uni parti huina acripti indentati penes predictoa custodem socios et 
scolares remanenti prefati Prior sancti Swithuni et eiuadem loci conventus sigillum sunm 
commune apposuerunt alteri vero parti penes prefatoa Priorem et conventnm remanenti 

Digitized by 


262 . The Alien Priory of St. Andrew, Hamble. 

prediott custoB socij et scolares sigillom eanm eciam commane apposneniiit. Datum vicesimo 
primo die mensiB angnati anno regai regis hearici qaarti post conqaeBtnm Anglie qainto. 


Memorandam qaod carta antiqiia de corrodio infrascripto liberata fait Priori et con- 
ventoi infrascript' die et anno infrascript* in presencia magistri Johannis de Campeden de 
mandato domini nostri fnndatoris et consensu omniam sociomm collegij. 

THe seal and counterseal of the priorj of St. Swithnn is appended, in bright 
red wax, bat only one-half the impression remains. The following 
deecription has been supplied from other and more complete examples: 
Seal — Subject : St. Swithpn sitting under a fine canopy with sitting figures 
at the sides of SS. Peter and Paul, also nnder canopies. Legend : 
+ S' ■ aOMMVnff : OATriSDEALIS : SXtdQ. AFL'OR' : PttT : ST PATLI 

ecT sai swiTtii winron. 

Connterseal — Subject : A sitting figure of a king between the erect figures 
of a bishop and mitred prior, all nndar fine canopies. At the sides two 
lions of England and nnder an arch in base foar praying monks with 
the manue Dei issuing from a cloud above them. Legend : + FAQTTM 
Anno : eEIff : M : Cftc : ROnACaS' : inf : €tT : AnnO : EffCni 
EffSie : eCDWAEDI xx° n.° 

Examples of dated seals are very rare. 

[Onmibus Christi fi]delibus hoc presens scriptam visuria vel auditnris Tydemannos 
de Wynchecombe monschns ordinis Cisterciensis salatem in domino. Noveritis me conces- 
sisse et [confirmajsse ffratri Johanni Beel monacho ordinis sancti Benedicti Priori de hamele 
in the Bys Wyntoii dioc'. totum statum meum jus et clamenm et quicquid [juris] vel tituli 
habeo vel aliquo modo habere potero in firma sea cnstodia Prioratns predicti et in omibuB 
terris et tenementis redditibua eb serricija ad predictum prioratum qnalitercamque spectan- 
tibua cam omnibus snis jaribus et pertiaentijs uniTersis. Ita vero qnod nee ego Tydemannos 
predictas nee aliqnis alius nomine meo aliquid ions tituli Tel clamei in predicto Prioratu cum 
pertinenciis nee in aliqua parcella einsdem de cetero habere exigere vel vendicare poterimas 
set imperpetnum iade simus exclasi per preeentes. In cnias rei testimoniam huic scripto 
sigillnm meum apposni. Datum quartodecimo die Septembris anno Regni Begis Bicardi eecundi 
post conqnestum qointodecimo. 

Fine seal of English work,* in red wax, a pointed oval 2^ inches long. Sub- 
ject : Our Lady, nimbed and with a sceptre in her left hand, holding the 
Divine Child on her right arm, beneath a canopy with panelled bat- 
tresses. In base, under an arch set in masonry, is a kneeling figure of 
the abbot. Legend : S' FBI8 : TIDCCfnAni D€CI 6BA : ABBTI8 \TM 
8]ATiniAaO : 

' See Proceeding*, 2nd S. ii. 46. 

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XVI. — Further Notes upon Excavations at Silchester. By F. G. Hilton Peice, F.8.A. 

Read February 11, 1886. 

Some years liave now elapsed since any paper has been read before this Society 
upon Silchester, which is without doubt the most interesting Roman city in this 
country. Comparatively speaking, very little has been done there since the death 
of the Eev. James Gerald Joyce, F.S.A., the rector of Stratfieldsaye, whose 
elaborate and valuable papers upon Silchester, amply illustrated with plans and 
drawings, published in vols. xl. and xlvi. of Archaeohgia, are well known to you 
all. Had it not been for him we should probably have remained in ignorance of 
the existence of the city, as it was he who inspired the late Duke of Wellington 
with such a keen interest in the place that he authorised excavations to be under- 

Between the dates of Mr. Joyce reading his last paper here in June, 1873, and 
his lamented death in June, 1878, several excavations have been carried out, but 
have not been described. The Rev. H. G. Monro, the present rector of Stratfield- 
saye, being naturally very much interested in the work, carried on the supervision 
for the Duke of Wellington, and completed some excavations that had been com- 
menced by Mr. Joyce, notably of the baths, and the block of buildings to the west 
of them, which he called the " cavalry barracks," and some others that have since 
been covered up. 

Shortly after this I visited Silchester, and was very much struck by the 
magnificent remains then recently excavated near the south gate. Ascertaining that 
no plans had been made of them, permission was obtained from the late Duke of 
Wellington to draw them; accordingly in the autumn of 1881 Mr. Henry Hodge 
was instructed by me to make the necessary and accurate plans and drawings, 
which are shown in the accompanying plates ; they appear to reveal the founda- 
tions of an important series of baths, which shall be presently described. 

In 1884 Mr. Hodge again visited the city and recorded the more recent dis- 
coveries which will be also explained. 

Digitized by 


264 Further notes upon Excavations at Silchester. 

A short distance Bouth of the Forum, upon the via prmdpalis, Mr. Monro 
subsequently made another excavation of considerable interest, but, finding the 
distance from Stratfieldsaye too great to be constantly in attendance to watch the 
old men at the excavations, at his suggestion the late Duke of "Wellington asked 
the Rev. Thomas Langshaw, M.A., rector of Silchester, a careful archaeologist, 
to supervise the work for him, which he has since done with much zeal, and hae 
completed the clearing out of the foundations of this building, which will be 
described under the head of Block VII. 

Mr. Langshaw then excavated portions of a building near the temple, which 
exhibited very curious construction : a plan was made, but it is incomplete, as the 
excavation was stopped, and all filled in before it was finished ; it will therefore 
be as well to delay the description of it until such a time aa the ground can be 
again removed. 

These plans have been lying for many months to await a favourable opportunity 
of bringing them before this Society, with a view not only of placing upon record 
the new excavations, but of endeavouring to revive the dormant interest for the 
grand old city of Calleva Atrebatum. 

Early in the year 1884, the late Mr, James Fergusson, Mr. "W. H. Hall, of 
Six Mile Bottom, and myself, all greatly interested in the welfare of the old city, 
conferred together as to what had better be done for its preservation, and we 
decided that we should first of all see the late Duke of Wellington, and ascertain 
his grace's views, and to what extent he would be willing to go. We accordingly 
went to see him, which appeared to revive his former interest in the place, as he 
granted me permission to have further plans made, and undertook to employ some 
extra labour to supplement the two old men who, as he said, scrape the ground, 
and who were the remains of four, the other two having become effete; he further 
said he wished Mr. Langshaw, who lived upon the site, to conduct all the excava- 
tions, and if we could undertake to supervise him and assist him when necessary 
with a few hints he would be obliged. This was agreed to, and the next day his 
grace called upon Mr. Langshaw, and told him of our conversation, brought him 
copies of Mr. Joyce's journals made by Mr. Monro, and beautifully illustrated by 
Miss Monro, and promised that he should have a cabinet of coins to show to the 
visitors who came to see the remains; this was all carried out and things looked 
favourable for the future, when his lamented death put a stop to all further work. 

Application has since been made to the present Duke to have these favours 
continued, but he hesitates to sanction any further excavations at present. 

We proposed that, with permission of the tenant who leases the land, exca- 

DigitJzed by 


Further notes itpon Excavations at Silckester. 265 

vations should be made in certain spots upon the sides of the roads or elsewhere, 
paying him compensation for the land so taken out of cultivation, then to map 
and describe the building or buildings uncovered ; should it prove to be of insuffi- 
cient importance to retain open, to fill it up and excavate another, and so on, 
until the whole or greater part of the city should be placed upon the Ordnance 
map, which Mr. Hodge has enlarged seven times for the purpose, and which 
would become a permanent record of the work done. This plan, which is now 
exhibited, has all the excavations up to date marked upon it of sufficiently large 
a scale to enable you to see every chamber in the various buildings distinctly.' It 
is reproduced by photo-lithography on Plate XV. 

In addition to the excavations made since Mr. Joyce's death, of which plans 
are now before you, a large block of buildings was discovered close to the south 
gate by Mr. Joyce himself, which he called " cavalry barracks," and which have 
long since been covered up. They have never been described, but Mr. Langshaw 
has kindly favoured me with a plan of the eastern portion, which he made before 
the excavation was filled in, and which is now placed upon the large map. 

Before describing to you the recent excavations, it will be useful to give a 
short account of the site. 

Oalleva Atrebatmn was the Roman name of Silchester, which the Britons 
called "Caer Segonte;" the present walls are of great strength, and probably 
occupy the site of the ancient British earthworks. In some places, more 
especially near the south gate, the wall is about 21 feet in height, and in others 
from 10 feet to 15 feet high, and about the same in thickness ; the masonry is 
composed of rough flints, blocks of greensand, and oolite, bound together with 
mortar ; and at intervals of about 2 feet 6 inches bonding coia^es of stone 
occur, and in some places these stones are laid in herring-bone pattern. The wall 
is supported with buttresses from the inside, and was surrounded by a wide and 
deep fosse, which may have been at times filled with water. Trees of great 
growth root themselves into the top and sides of the wall and adjacent debris, 
forming a continuous and sombre, forestal-like belt, completely enclosing the 
dormant city. The total circumference of the walls is nearly one mile and a half, 
and the area within comprises 100 acres. 

There were five entrances, or gates; four being on the north, south, east, 

' The Ordn&nce map of 25 incheB, 344 parts, to a mile, enlarged eeveo times, gires 14 feet 
9 incheB to a mile. For rongh measnrementa irith an inch rale, 3g inches Black = 100 feet, and 
1 inch = 29 feet' 4 inches , 

Digitized by 


266 .Further notes ti^on Excavations at Silckesier. 

and west sides of tlie city, which were the exits on the principal roads, arid a 
fifth a Uttle to the north of the east gate, apparently leading to the amphitheatre. 
The road from the north to the south gate is 2410 feet in length, leading on the 
south to Venta Belgarv/m, CWinchester) and to Sarvm. The road from LoTidmium 
and Pontes (Staines) entered the city on the east side, leading out at the west gate 
to Aqitae Soils (Bath), and to Coriniimi (Cirencester) by Spinae (Speen near 

The east gate was 28 feet 6 inches wide in the clear, and set in a curtain 
recessed back from the main wall, the rounded inward sweep forming two flanking 
towers ; and connected with these were two guard-rooms on each side. These 
important discoveries were made during Mr. Joyce's investigation. The small 
gate, likewise on the east side, leading to the amphitheatre, was called by him 
the Porta Orientalis Circensis. The south gate is, however, the most perfect ; 
it is 22 feet 6 inches wide at the entrance, and the passage is 28 feet in length. 
Two roads converged to enter here; the one from Sarum and the other from 

Outside the walls, on the north and south, are some considerable intrench- 
ments, probably of British date. 

A modem road traverses the area. It enters the city at the farm a little to 
the south of the east gate, and leads out a little to the north of the west gate, 
dividing it into two unequal parte. 

There were several minor streets, leading off from the principal ones, which 
can be easily traced in dry seasons, when the com is ripe. 

The first excavation, that of the villa of 1833, was made in the south-eastern 
comer, not far from the wall mentioned in Archaeohgia.* 

The sites of all subsequent excavations Mr. Joyce described under the term 
"blocks," which designation should be adhered to. 

Block I. was at the angle of two minor streets on the north-east side of the 
city ; it consisted of a house, with a corridor 60 feet long by 9 feet wide, and seven 
chambers, paved for the most part with tesserae.^ 

Block II., a much more important excavation, was on the east of the via 
prindj^alis, at an angle of the road. It is about 365 feet north of the Forum ; and 
contained upwards of forty-five rooms, one having a good tessellated floor — ^which 
was removed to Stratfieldsaye, where it is now laid down — and some unusual forms 
of hypocausts. 

Block m. was another bouse, on the east side of the main street, upon the 

■ Vol. XL. page 404. *> Ibid. 

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Further notes v^on Excavations at SUchester. 267 

opposite comer to Block II. in the street running at right angles east and west : 
it was a most interesting bnilding. A full account of it wiJl be found in Archaeo- 
hgia, vol. xl. 

Block rV. was a smaller excavation, on the west side of the main road, north 
and south, and quite insignificant.' 

Block V. This is the most interesting featia* in the whole work. Here, 
in nearly the centre of the area, we have a forum and basilica ; the forum is. of 
the Greek type, nearly square, surrounded upon its three exterior sides by a 
double ambulatory, the fourth side being occupied by the walls of the basilica. 
The forum represents a rectangle; the longer side, east and west, measures 313 
feet, and the shorter side, north and south, measures 276 feet. The ambulatories 
were probably covered by roofs. There were three entrances from outside ; that on 
the south was on the forum side ; the north entrance was common to both forum 
and basilica ; the principal entry was on the east. The quadrangle, or market- 
place, in the centre, is 131 feet by 144 feet. There were seventeen rooms or 
shops round the forum, which have been described by Mr. Joyce in Archaeologia, 
vol. xLVi. The basilica on the west side of this block is 60 feet wide by 268 feet 
long J at each end it terminates in an apse. Many objects of interest were dis- 
covered here, notably that unique specimen of a Roroan eagle in bronze,** found in 
what was supposed to be the aerarivm or treasury, the most southern chamber. 
Another eagle, of steel, also found in Silchester, was exhibited to the Society of 
Antiquaries by the Bishop of Carlisle in 1788.° 

Block VI. was at the angle of a road east of the forum, of which we know 

Block VII. was south of the forum, upon the side of the street, leading south- 
wards ; upon the opposite side of which wm another excavation, undescribed. 

South of this, again, was a temple, which the late Mr. James Fergusson con- 
sidered to have been a serapewn, it being of polygonal structure, having sixteen 
sides to both the inner and the outer lines of wall, with an ambulatory round it. 
In all probability this was an open building, as no remains of roofing slabs 
have been discovered. The quoins or angles of these walls are built with stone, 
the remainder of flints. The extreme diameter is 64 feet 6 inches, and the inside 
area 35 feet 2 inches in diameter ; the thickness of the walls 2 feet 8 inches. 
The ambulatory is 9 feet 4 inches wide. The height of the walling visible is 
about 2 feet. 

* See Arckaedogia, vol. XLVi. Plato xvii. ^ Ibid. vol. ilvi 

■■ Ibid. vol. IX. p. 370. 
VOL, L. 2 

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268 Further notes wpon Excavations at Silchester. 

There is no trace of oolumiia, altar, statue, or mscriptioiij or any other indica- 
tion of the god or goddess to whom it was dedicated; but, taking into considera- 
tion its circular form, it may be open to supposition that the- goddess Vesta might 
haye been worshipped there, and that the adjacent building was the house of the 
Vestals. It may have contained sixteen figures of divinities at the various angles. 

The excavation of Block VII. was commenced by the Rev. H. G. Monro and 
completed by the Rev. T. Langshaw, rector of Silchester. It is situated 228 feet 
6 inches south of the Forum, and has a frontage of 62 feet 1 inch upon the east 
side of the via principalis, which traverses the city from the north to the south 
gate. This building is 111 feet 3 inches long from east to west, with a width of 
35 feet. The additional excavation on the south, which can hardly be considered 
to belong to this building, marked L on the plan (Plate XVI.), is 28 feet by 23 feet, 
and the corridor on the north side, marked M on the plan, is 52 feet by 14 feet. 

There are eight principal chambers and a corridor running eastwards to the 
large room at the end. It is probable that one of those marked G H may have been 
two separate rooms, as there is evidence of the footing of a wall that crossed it ; 
but whether this was so divided when the house was demolished one can hardly 
say, but in all likelihood it was the wall of the previous building, or of the same 
one having been altered, of which we have other evidence. For matters of con- 
venience, we have given letters to the chambers, by which we shall subsequently 
describe them. 

A. This appears to be the chief entrance to the building from the street, 
opening on the west, the pavement of which is about two feet below the present 
surface of the ground. The exterior wall is here wholly absent, with but slight 
indications of the footings. This vestibule, if so we may term it, is 19 feet 5 
inches in width, with frontage on the street ; at the southern end of this it extends 
eastwards to a wall, about 10 feet from the line of the street ; this wall is 11 feet 
in length north-east and south-west, and, unlike the other walls of this building, 
it slopes at a considerable angle. The northern end of this vestibule opens out 
into a long corridor, B, 84 feet long, which extends to the large room marked I on 
the plan. This corridor varies in width from 9 feet 2 inches to 9 feet 4 inches. 
Near the pavement of red tesserae which crosses this corridor is a slight indication 
of a cross-wall, or the footing of one. On the west end of this corridor the ground 
appears to have been more disturbed or removed. The south wall is here 
2 feet 3 inches high, with three courses of flints on both sides, and concrete below ; 
the lowest course and concrete being set out to 2 feet 3 inches, while the upper 
courses are only 1 foot 9 inches thick. 

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Further notes upon Excavations at Silchester. 269 

C. This chamber, which may probably have been a shop opening on the street, 
is 20 feet wide north and south by 15 feet 8 inches east and west, inside measure- 
ments. At the north-west angle there is 8 feet 6 inches of wall remaining, 2 feet 
3 inches in breadth, by about 2 feet in height. The remaining portion of the wall 
facing the street is gone, only the footing remaning. The north wall of this 
chamber varies in width from 1 foot 9 inches on the west, to 2 feet 8 inches in the 
middle, and 2 feet 7 inches on the east.- The eastern wall is internal, and is there- 
fore only 1 foot 9 inches in width ; the south wall is 2 feet in thickness. There is 
no trace of any pavement in this chamber. There are some massive stones in the 
wall at the north-west angle, and also where the wall is thinner, i. e. where it is 
only 1 foot 9 inches, breaking out to 2 feet 8 inches. Many of the stones in other 
places are exceptionally large, and are mostly of a ferruginous conglomerate, 
or pudding-stone, roughly axed or hammer-dressed and shaped, laid in mortar or 

D. This chamber is nearly of the same dimensions as the last described, being 
20 feet by 15 feet 6 inches, the width of the exterior wall on the north varies in 
thickness from 2 feet 9 inches to 2 feet 6 inches, and is carefully constructed of 
large blocks of a coarse conglomerate set in concrete; the party wall between 
this and the next chamber eastwards is 1 foot 10 inches in width, and is composed 
of three courses of flint ; there is no pavement. 

E. is 20 feet in length by 9 feet in width ; it is paved for the most part with a 
salmon-coloured concrete, with a well-finished surface of broken tiles. At the 
south-west comer of this chamber is a red tessellated pavement, 6 feet by 6J feet, 
nearly perfect, composed of 1-inch cubes of pottery tesserae; this runs beneath the 
wall on the south, crosses the corridor B, and passes beneath the south wall of the 
same and onwards for a considerable distance southwards to be hereafter described 
(under L). The walls of this room are 2 feet 3 inches thick on the north, 2 feet 
on the south, (partly destroyed), 1 foot 10 inches on the west, and 1 foot 7 inches 
on the east ; the height varies from 4 feet to 2 foot 3 inches. 

F. This is a chamber of larger dimensions, being 20 feet by 17 feet 8 inches, 
with an opening into the corridor B, on the south-west comer, 6 feet wide ; there 
is no trace of any pavement ; the north wall is 2 feet thick, the south wall 2 feet, 
(partly destroyed), and the east and west walls are only 1 foot 7 inches. In this 
room there is a depression 1 foot deep, and the stones following the subsidence lay 
in a confused position. There are however several other depressions and gaps 
throughout the walls generally from various causes. 


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270 Further notes upon Excavations at Silchester. 

G. ia a narrow chamber, 20 feet by 7 feet 9 inches. The wall on the east is 
2 feet in width, composed of rubble and pebbles, and is merely a footing. It is 
possible that this chamber included H as well, and that at some remote period it 
was altered, and the dividing-wall removed, and that previously this wall was a 
portion of the large block of masonry to be seen outside the wall of this chamber 
on the north, running in a northerly direction, thus shewing an alteration in the 
ground-plan during the later Roman occupation of the building. The other walls 
are of the same dimensions. 

H. This chamber is 20 feet by 6 feet 6 inches, with a 2 feet wall on all sides ; 
it probably formed one room with G. 

I. This is a large chamber approached from the corridor B ; its dimensions 
are 31 feet 1 inch by 24 feet 1 inch, with an opening at the east end of the 
corridor 9 feet 4 inches in width. . There is a slight indication of a division having 
obtained north and south in this chamber. The walls are solid and well con- 
structed, but irregular, as in some places the stones are laid very uniformly, whilst 
in others they are quite at random ; the characteristic herringbone method has 
been adopted, and is very observable in the lowest course of the three walls, and 
it may be also seen elsewhere. At the south-east angle a layer of one-inch red 
tesserae was found beneath the wall, indicating previous occupation ; the wall 
on the north and east is 2 feet 1 inch in width and 1 foot 11 inches on the south. 
Outside the east wall of this chamber ia another waU running parallel with it, 
which no doubt belongs to some other building, or perhaps it is a boundary. 
The walls on the south side of the corridor are composed of flints. 

K. This chamber was probably a shop, with a frontage to the street, 15 feet 
1 inch by 17 feet 3 inches, with a massive pier of masonry on the north-west 
angle. Part of the wall shghtly projects over the roadway. The wall is wanting 
on the west side, south of the pier, and also a few feet of it on the south-west. 
The width of the wall on the north is 2 feet ; that of the south and east walls ia 
1 foot 10 inches. 

L. This appears to have been only an open court-yard of irregular shape 
bounded on the east and south by a one-inch red tesserae pavement 7 feet 6 
inches wide on the east and 29 feet in length, and 24 feet 3 inches in length 
east and west on the south. On the southern edge of this the tesserae appear 
to have been intentionally rounded off, so as to form a gutter. There is a 
portion of another corridor extending from it on the south. These paved ways 
appear to have been used either for passages between houses or they are the 

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Further notes upon Excavations at Silchester. 271 

remains of a long paved corridor of some earlier building. The corridor or 
passage on the north, marked M on the plan, evidently belongs to or connecte 
some house or alley on the north with the building already described. It is 
composed of one-inch red tesserae, the pavement is 35 feet long by 8 feet broad, 
the wall on the east side of it ib 1 foot 5 inches broad and returns. This 
pavement is in a fair state of preservation, but it is undulating, and in one 
place there is a circular depression about 7 feet in diameter and 1 foot deep, 
partially filled with a mass of red concrete. The paving follows the depression 
evenly and free from disturbance, almost as though the sinkingwas intentional and 
so constructed. It is, however, contrary to reason that a basin should have been 
made in a passage, therefore one would almost suppose that before this corridor 
was paved a well had been sunk here, and that it had subsequently sHghtly sub- 
sided ; or, it might even have been caused by the agency of the earth-worms, 
continually at work bringing up fine earth from beneath the floor and casting it 
on the surface, which would cause the level of the tesserae to subside in the centre. 
Darwin ' instances several cases of similar subsidence at Silchester, the observa- 
tions having been carefully carried out by his sons and the late Mr. Joyce. On 
page 214 he gives a figure of a section of a floor measuring north and south 
7 feet 9 inches wide ; the tesserae were laid up to a wall on either side; the surface 
of the field sloped from north to south at an angle of 3° 40'. The pavement, 
which was neariy level along lines parallel to the side-walls, had sunk in the 
middle as much as 7| inches; from such a fact as this and others accurately 
made by this great observer, we may therefore readily imagine the subsidence in 
this instance to have been caused by the earth-worms. 

Block VIII. (Plate XV.) was a building with three sides, and with an open 
quadrangle ; it is situated a little to the east of the south gate, and is connected by 
a wall with the south wall of the baths, which I shall presently describe as BlocklX. 
The buildiags of Block VIII. were of considerable extent ; their excavation was 
commenced m 1875 by the late Mr. Joyce, who called them " cavalry barracks," 
because part of the building was paved with very rough, and great heavy flints, 
such as might have been required for stables. The greater portion of it was 
covered in about 1880, and has never been described. I am greatly indebted 
to Mr. Langshaw for kindly furnishing me with measurements and materials 
of the most southern portion. This he styles "Building B," and considers it to 
be separate from the northern part, which he calls "Building A." The plan 

' Vegetable mould and earthtcorms. 

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272 Further notee upon Excavations at Silchester. 

of B, appears to consist of fourteen chambers, with an entrance on the north- 
east comer. Its length is about 128 feet by 40 feet at the entrance, and 35 
feet in the other part. The outside wall on the south was about 2 feet in 
thickness; that on the east side was 3 feet 3 inches, composed of flints. 
The measurements of the various chambers are as follows : A, the large one on 
the south-east, 24 feet by 18 feet; B, 7 feet by 18 feet; C, 11 feet by 18 feet; 
D and B, 7 feet by 9 feet each; F, 17 feet by 18 feet; G, 13 feet by 18 feet; 
H, 19 feet by 18 feet; I and J, 7 feet by 13 feet each; K, 24 feet by 11 feet; 
L and M no doubt were the porters' lodges, and measure 9 feet by 3 feet 
6 inches each ; N, the doorway, is 6 feet in width ; the corridor, 0, is 70 feet 
by 11 feet. In the latter chamber an abundance of oyster shells was discovered. 
Should excavations be ever sanctioned again, it would be of extreme interest 
to re-open this block, and have the remaining portion placed upon the large 
plan. Mr. Langshaw tells me there were other buildings to the north of it ; 
attached to one was a fine hypocaust. 

The space between this last described building and the baths, apparently, 
was a garden, or open court-yard, as nothing was found there when excavations 
were made. It is about 170 feet in length by from 60 to 80 feet in width. 

The court and buildings seem to have been enclosed by a boimdary wall, 
running from the north end of the Baths, and turning with a rounded comer 
away to the west. 

Block IX. — The Baths. This excavation was commenced by the late Mr. 
Joyce and completed by the Rev. H. G-, Monro : they are probably the baths 
which were first discovered in 1833, and then covered in, as the following 
accounts tend to prove. A short account of the 1833 Baths, by the Rev. John 
Coles, appeared in Archaeologia.* 

There is another account in the Gentleman's Magazine for Feb. 1833, by Mr. 
Kempe, giving an interesting description of these baths.'' 

A careful investigation has been made respecting the site of the baths which 

• Vol. xxYii. p. 418. 

" " Some labourers employed in catting a drain in the nine-acre field, within the wallB of 
Silchester, and abont 200 yards to the south- westward of the chnrch, stmck upon some fonnda- 
tioQB of Roman hnildingB. The Rev. John Coles being informed of the ciranmstance, obtained 
permission of Mr. Barton the farmer to prosecate the discovery, which he liberally did at his own 

In a short time the foundations of a 1ar^e building, npwards of 80 feet in length, probably the 

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Further notes upon Excavatiom at Silchester, 


were expoeed in 1833 by Mr. Colea, in consequence of a doubt as to the accuracy 
of records made about that time by Mr. Kempe and Mr. MaoLaughlan in reference 
to the site of that building.' 

The similarity between the 1833 remains and those now illustrated led to the 
belief they were identical. 

It appears that the Eev, J. Coles, in 1833, excavated a portion of the baths^ 
of which he prepared a plan. This was lithographed at the time, but a copy of 
it cannot now be discovered. Under the pressure of the farmer the remains and 
excavations were abruptly filled in. 

The Bev. H. G. Monro again excavated and completed the investigation 

Thermae or public hot-baths of the city, were revealed. The annexed Unee will show the general 
difiposition of the rooms of (his edi6ce. 

Nob. I, 2, 3, were apartmente, the dimensions of 
which I derive from a neat litho^raphio plan presented 
to me bj Mr. Coles, and from the information of John 
Brace, Esq. F.S.A. No. 1, 11 feet 8 inches hj 25 feet. 
No. 2, 12 feet 9 inches by 25 feet. No. 3, 19 feet by 
26 feet. These were hypocansts, or sndatory apartments, 
the floors of which stood npon nnmerons ronnd and 
square pillars of Roman brick, each abont 3 feet 4 inches 
in height. The walls were 3 feet thick. The eastern- 
most chamber is No. 1 ; the floor of this room had been 
supported by seven ranges of pillars, seven in a row; 
the three first rows from the east were circular, the re- 
mainder square. The diameter of the pillars 9 inches; they stood on a plinth formed of a 
single tile of larger dimensions. The apertures 6 and 7 afforded a brisk draught to the praefnmium 
or furnace, and heat was thus di&ised all over the floor of the sweating rooms, and to the general 
volnme of air by dne-tiles placed as pipes, perforated with holes, in ranges against the walls. The 
floor was composed of large square tiles, on which, in a bed of cement, was probably laid a beaselated 
pavement. 5 was undoubtedly the natatio or water-bath ; here, at figure 8, was a leaden pipe 
inserted in a tile, having a triangular aperture, through which the element was sapplied. 4 was 
probably the apodytenum or frigidarium, the anti-room, where the bathers nndressed, as 3 was the 
media cella, or tepidarium, where they were shampooed (to adopt a term in modem use) by the 
strigils of the alvptae or vnctorei. The anti-room was paved with large square tiles, surrounded by a 
border of tesserae, each an inch square. A quantity of fractured window glass, fall of air bubbles, 
and having a coarse surface, somewhat resembling the graining of wood, was found on the spot. 
Such a substance mnst have been peculiarly necessary in the sudatories, as light would be ttans> 
mitted, while the cold external air was excluded." — Qent. Mag. ciii. 124, 125. 

■ Mr. A. J. Kempe's Map, etc. Arckaeologia, vol. xxvii. p, 419, Plate xxzii. Appendix. Mc. 
Haolaughlan, Archaeological Journal, vol. Vllt. 

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274 J^rth&r notes ti^on Excavations at Silcheater. 

■which had previously been so very imperfectly performed, although that which 
had been done appears to have been carefully recorded and described at the time. 

In a communication to The Beading Mercury, Feb. 11, 1833, the Rev. John 
Coles announced his discovery, and in the same journal, Feb. 18, 1833, a corres- 
pondent (S. H.) furnishes a descriptive article upon Silchester. The following 
extracts are important : 

" To the indefatigable ardour of the Rev. Mr. Coles, the respected rector of the 
parish, aided by the exertions of another neighbouring clergyman, we are indebted 
for some recent curious discoveries. Within and as near as may be to the south- 
east part of the octagonal wall, which is distant less than a quarter of a mile from 
the Amphitheatre, excavations have been made, which lay open the base of 
structures, calculated to form matter of pleasing investigation for the antiquary, 
and which present the following appearances : — 

At the eastern end is a vault (or camera) of a hot bath, in which now stand 
about fifty pillars, some round and some square, composed of thick paving-tiles, 
seven inches in diameter, which it is conjectured supported the plaster floor of 
the sudatorium above. The remains of flues and a large accumulation of char- 
coal and ashes evidently show that here the heated air wm generated -which filled 
the sudatorium. The size of this vault is 24 feet by 12-J feet, and there is another 
west of it, divided by a brick wall, of similar size and appearance. Beyond that 
is another vault with a strong separation of wall between, near 5 feet high, 
whose dimensions are about 24 feet by 20 feet, and in this the bases only of 
pillars are visible. 

Adjoining to this is a bath, not ornamental but in a most perfect state ; it 
measures 12 feet by 8 feet, has a floor of large earthen pavement, and its sides 
are encrusted by an adamantine cement. The way in which it was supplied with 
water is still visible, by means of a lead pipe formed of very drossy metal or else 
in a state of great corrosion. 

Above and just beyond the bath is a large apartment, supposed to be the 
portico or vestibule, in which some portions of a tessellated pavement still remain, 
and a moulded skirting composed of cement. Many relics were gathered including 
(in the bath) a human skeleton, and in the leaden pipe connected with the same 
upwards of 200 Roman brass coins." 

Upon comparison it will be observed how similar these apartments are to the 
southern rooms shown in our illustration, and in several matters of detail which 
•are now absent, these contemporaneous descriptions of earlier excavations are 
extremely valuable and interesting. 

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Fmih&r notes upon Excavations at Silchesier, 275 

In a communication Mr. Monro says: "The baths of 1833 are the last 
excavated portion "which has been dug out since Mr. Joyce's death," This 
statement corroborates the identity of the two exoayations. 

Therefore we may conclude that Mr. A. J. Kempe was somehow mistaken in 
the situation of the baths of 1833, as being near the modem road and the 

The Rev. J. Coles, about the same time, opened three or four places, all close 
together. Marked upon the published plans of the city contiguous to these baths 
will be observed "Site of Roman Villa." This was probably another of these 
excavations, and the baths and villa are well remembered by old inhabitants. 

The plans made in the autumn of 1881 by Mr. Henry Hodge are repro- 
duced on Plates XVII., XVIII., and XIX. 

This excavation, which is in the nine-acre field, appears to indicate the founda- 
tions of an important series of baths. They extend about 114 feet from east to 
west and 94 feet from north to south. The general structure of the walls shows for 
the most part regular bedded, coursed masonry, not random work, and occasionally 
one observes instances where alterations or reparations have been made. The 
south main wall, which varies from 2 feet 6 inches in width at the western end 
to 2 feet 7 inches on the east, is built of four courses of flint and stone and two 
courses of bricks, then five courses of flint and stone and one course of bricks (or 
occasionally two courses), then three courses of flint and stone and two courses of 
bricks ; this observation was made in the wall close to the flue tile hypocaust in 
No. 8 where it is 5 feet 6 inches in height. The mortar is of brown colour, 
and the bricks, which ^e of the usual size of Roman bricks, are laid in reddish 

The stones are mostly hammer-dressed and roughly squared ; they consist of 
grey grits, oolites, and now and then marble and even blocks of chalk. In the 
western and north-western portions of the buildings flint mainly predominates. 
Large portions of the division-walls eastwards are built of bricks, which are well 
tied in and returned on the main walls by brickwork. The quoins and angles are 
generally of brick. 

There are sixteen chambers, and for convenience they shall be numbered. (See 
Plate XVII.) We will commence with that at the north end, which shall be called 
No. 1 ; the walls on the north-east and west are 2 feet 1 inch thick ; as No. 2 is 
of the same dimensions the two shall be dealt with together. They are evidently 
hypocausts, and measure 13 feet 9 inches in length by 9 feet 3 inches in breadth ; 
they each terminate in a semi-elliptic apse towards the east. In the apse of No. 1 
VOL. L. 2 p 

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276 .Further notes ufon Excavations at Sikhester. 

was a 3-inch leaden pipe, which passed through the wall at the level of the 
ancient floor ; the ends showed a rough fracture. This has been placed in the 
museum for better security. The praefumium existed at the north end, the 
entrance to the hypocauet was in the - centre of the wall, the passage being 5 feet 
in length and 1 foot 8 inches in width. 

The boundary wall near this point is surmounted by a course of bricks, 
embedded in thick white mortar about 2 inches in thickness. The bricks measure 
17^ inches and 11^ inches by 1| inch. 

In chamber No. 1 were 27 pilae of square tiles 8 inches by 8 inches on plinths 
12 inches by 12 inches ; they are built with half -joints of red mortar. No. 2 
contained only 20 piles of tiles, but in both cases some few had been destroyed 
in excavating. The two chambers communicated by means of three air-passages 
cut in the wall. There was evidence when first discovered of one of these 
passages having been arched over, but that was entirely obliterated when last I 
visited the remains. 

No. 3 is a chamber measuring 12 feet 6 inches on the west side by 11 feet 
10 inches on the east, and 13 feet 9 inches across. At the west end is an opening, 
evidently a doorway leading into the long corridor No. 5. There is an aperture 
in the wall on the east side, and two on the west side, both at the north end of 
the chamber, probably intended for drainage. 

No. 4 is a solidly-constructed chamber projecting two-thirds of its width beyond 
the main western wall. The outside walls are 3 feet 4 inches in thickness ; the 
inside measurement is 6 feet from east to west by 5 feet from north to south ; the 
depth is 2 feet 9 inches. It is lined with regular courses of brick, and there are 
no remains of wall plastering. It is paved with large bricks. From the fact of 
a chamber of such small size being so substantially built, it appears to indicate a 
superstructure of great weight, or one requiring extra protection. 

No. 5. This chamber, perhaps the apodyterium, is 52 feet 2 inches lq length 
by 17 feet 8 inches in breadth ; it is upon the same level as No. 3, whereas all 
the remaining parts of the excavations are some feet below. This chamber is 
paved with loose red brick tesserae, with some slight indication of pattern for 
25 feet on the north side of it ; the remainder consists of eleven bands of rammed 
tile, with uncertain intervals of fragments of tile near the surface. The difference 
in level we thought might be accounted for by the presence of hypocausts beneath, 
but, finding a hole made by vermin, it was tested by Mr. Hodge early in August 
1884, who made a section in the floor of room 7, which is upon this same level, 
and he found the floor to be composed as follows : — 4 inches thickness of flints in 

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black maddy wet soil, then 2 inches or so of fragments of 1^ incli broken tiles. 
On this foundfttion was a stratum of red concrete 11 inches thick, not compact. 
On the top was a stratum of 9 inches of very perfect salmon-tinted concrete 
graduated from coarse to fine, which latter was 1^ inch thick. The whole 
measured 2 feet 2 inches in thickness, or with the pavement about 2 feet 
B inches. 

The external wall at the north is almost entirely composed of flints ; at the- 
south end there are large brick blocks and a double course of thin tiles. This- 
may be accounted for by difference in period or object of construction. 

At the north-east comer of this chamber is a deep cutting, perhaps we- 
may call it a cloaca^ 7\ feet deep, which extends southwards for 14 feet 4 inches ; 
the lower part up to the second set-off is built of bricks, the upper being flints. 
This cloaca emptied itself outside the building on the eaat side through a passage- 
1 foot 2 inches wide into an open court situated between the walls of No. 6 and 
No. 15. Even now the ground is very swampy at this spot. In company with 
Mr. Langshaw we dug in it a year or two ago to ascertain the course of this- 
drain, and we then discovered it about 2 feet beneath the surface ; it was paved' 
with 8-inch square tiles in two thicknesses, and passed under the floor of No. 16. 
Above it, in that chamber, oak beams were laid. There are four exits from 
the long chamber No. 5 ; one on the east side, leading into No. 7, the entrance- 
being in the centre of the wall of that chamber, which has had a tessellated 
door; the next exit was also on the east side, leading into No. 8, but the wall ia 
here destroyed, so very little now remains of it; the third exitwas on the west side, 
nearly opposite the latter, and leads into an ambulatory, which appears to connect 
these baths with the buildings of Block VIII. ; the fourth leads into No. 3 on the 

No. 6 is a chamber 14 feet 6 inches north and south by 12 feet 9 inches ; 
its walls all differ in thickness, that of the north and south is 2 feet 1 inch, 
the west wall is 2 feet 6 inches, and that of the east wall is 2 feet 8 inches. The 
floor is composed of loose red brick tesserae, with some indications of a pattern ; 
there is an opening in the south-west comer 3 feet in width. 

No. 7. This chamber is 12 feet 11 inches by 12 feet 9 inches. On the east, at 
1 foot 6 inches from the angle of the north-east wall, is an opening 3 feet 5 inches 
wide leading into No. 9 ; this doorway was paved with white tesserae laid on a bed 
of red concrete 8 inches in thickness. This chamber was paved with concrete, but 
no tesserae were visible. At 4 feet 9 inches from the north, on the west side, is an 
entrance into No. 5, whioh doorway is 4 feet wide. At the south end the wall is 

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278 Further Twtes upon Excavations at SUckester. 

of unusual thickness, i.e., 4 feet 1 inch ; part of it on the west side is broken 

No. 8. This is a hypocaust of more than ordinary interest, exhibiting a series 
of horizontal flues composed of a layer of what are usually termed box flue tiles, 
measuring 17-^ inches in length by 9^ inches in width and 6 inches high, and of 
J inch in thickness, of red pottery, with two openings on each side 3 inches wide, 
and the entire internal height is 4^ inches. 

The chamber itself in which this hypocaust is contained measures 34 feet 
5 inches east and west, and 15 feet 11 inches north and south; but the flue-tile 
hypocaust is in the western recess of it, which measures 11 feet 5 inches east and 
west by 8 feet 10 inches north and south. It may possibly have been quite 
distinct. There is only one upcast flue visible, and that appears to be somewhat 
of a similar pattern to the others set vertical, but it was so broken and also filled 
with red mortar that an exact opinion could not be formed. This arrangement was 
laid upon a bed of red concrete, the thickness of which is not obvious. These 
flue-tiles are overlaid with a solid covering about 10 inches thick of very superior 
concrete in three layers of strata, the lowest composed of white mortar mixed with 
nodules of chalk and pounded red tile, the next is salmon colour mixed with finely 
sifted unslaked lime, and the upper, which forms the bedding for the floor of 
tiles, is of red mortar with finely pulverised tile, the whole forming a very solid 
mass of perfect concrete. 

The paving tiles are about 8 inches square and about 1^^ inch thick; on 
these, overlying a portion of the surface, is a layer of white mortar or stucco 
5 inches in thickness, on which, in the north-west angle of the rec^s, are laid a 
few ordinary building bricks as a pavement. (See Plate XIX.) 

The enclosing walls of this flue-tile hypocaust recess have been stuccoed, and 
there are evidences of various colours, but all is much perished, and the pattern 
or design is untraceable. The only other example of stucco plastering remaining 
is at the two doorways observable in the plate ; this has been much coloured, and 
some of the tints are visible. 

The whole depth of this chamber is 5 feet 6 inches, from the top of the 
south main wall, the composition of which has been already described when 
speaking of the walls of these buildings. 

There appears to be evidence of alterations having been made in this chamber 
at some time or other, as the floor over the horizontal flues has, no doubt, been 
added, and the upcast flue-pipe been filled up with salmon-coloured concrete. 
It had probably been constructed in the first instance as a hot bath, and then 

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Further notes upon Excavations at Sikhester. 279 

subsequently changed into a tepid plun^ or swimming bath, which may account 
for the immense thickness of the floor. Over the eastern portion of the room 
were several pilae of the usual 8-inch square red tiles, upon which a floor had 
been suspended, heated by hot air. 

No. 9. A chamber to the north of the last described, measures 14 feet 10 inches 
by 6 feet 11 inches. It has an opening or doorway 2 feet 9 inches in width, in 
the centi^ of the eastern wall leading into No. 10. On the south side, at a 
distance of 1 foot 2 inches from the west wall, is a block of brickwork 1 foot 
9 inches in width, extending for 5 feet 9 inches along the wall ; a similar block 
obtains at the north end, only it is 2 feet 5 inches in width. There ai'e three 
piUie of red 8-inoh square tiles upon the floor, all that remained of a hypocaust. 
There is no doubt but that the blocks of brickwork likewise formed part of it. 

No. 10, the adjoining chamber on the east, is 14 feet 10 inches by 10 feet 
2 inches ; it likewise contained three pilae of tiles. Outside the east wall is a 
block of rough debris, 5 feet in width, through which a channel 2 feet wide has 
been cut, no doubt the passage from the praefumiwm; there is likewise an 
opening on the south, leading into chamber No. 11 on (he east. 

No. 11. This chamber measures 27 feet 6 inches east and west, 24 feet 4 inches 
north and south ; it is divided into four compartments, the two southern ones may 
even have been separate rooms, but in the absence of sufficient evidence, I include 
them in this one. It was heated by means of a hypocaust, as twenty pilae of the 
usual red tiles were found upon the floor. A passage on the eaat, 2 feet 8 inches 
in width, leads into a chamber at the end, which may have been the kitchen. 

Upon either side of this channel are two small chambers. 

That upon the north we will call No 12 ; it measures 6 feet 5 inches east and 
west by 5 feet 7 inches north and south ; the thickness of the walls on the north 
and east are 2 feet 8 inches, and on the south by the channel only 1 foot 9 
inches. It has a narrow opening into No. 11. 

No. 13. This small chamber measures 6 feet 5 inches east and west by 3 
feet 4 inches north and south. It has no apparent outlet ; its walls are of the 
same thickness as the last described. 

No. 14. The most easterly chamber, measures 14 feet north and south by 12 
feet 6 inches east and west. Adjoining its northern wall is a siogular angular 
projection, forming a small recess, which was probably a latrina. 

No. 15. This is a long chamber, 49 feet in length east and west by 6 feet 
11 inches north and south. The walls are composed of flints laid upon brick 
footings. On the north this wall is 1 foot 8 inches in width. It has in the 

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280 Further notes upon Excavations at Silchester. 

centre an opening 6 feet 8 inches wide ; upon each side of which is a large block of 
stone 2 feet 1 inch square by 5 inches in thickness, with 2 inches of mortar below. 
This appears to have been a main entrance ; it is the only one on the north 
side. Several attempts have been made to discover the road or street leading to 
this building, but without effect. It was probably approached by a long passage, 
connecting it with a minor street running east and west, which has not as yet 
been made out, but which, it is to be hoped, may yet be ascertained and placed 
upon the map. 

No. 16. This chamber is situated at the south-east end of No. 15. It measures 
15 feet 6 inches east and west by 12 feet 4 inches north and south, and was 
probably floored with planks of wood, as on the south end of it are two long 
stripe of oak round-timber, beneath which, as already stated, the drain flowed. It 
wonld appear from the plan that there was another entrance on the south west, 
approached by an ambulatory, 60 feet long, from the building of Block VIII. 
which, as far as we can at present tell, may have formed a portion of the same 
building. It is certain that there was no entrance or exit on the south, as- 
the wall is there quite massive. 

There is reason to suppose that no other building existed between this and 
the city wall, but that the space formed the pomoerium. 

I cannot conclude without thanking Mr. Langshaw for his able assistance, and 
for much useful information rendered during the preparation of this paper. 

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XVII. — On the Murai Painthigs in All Saints Church, Friehiey, Lincolnshire. 
Communicated by the Bev. Hbnby John Cheales, M.A., Vicar of Frishney, and 
Sural Dean of Gandle$hoe. 


Read Ma^ 15, 1884, and Majr 13, 188$. 

Thb accompanying plates are copies of two fresh subjects in the series of 
mural paintings lately discovered on the clerestory'irallB of All Saints church, 
Friskney. Four of this series have been already described in the Archaeohgia,'' 
viz., the Assumption, the Stable at Bethlehem, the Last Supper, and the Gathering 
of the Manna ; the copies before us of the newly-found pictures represent (I) the 
Ascension, and (II) the Resurrection. 


This picture (Plate XX.) is on the spandrel over the easternmost pillar of the 
north arcade of the nave. It adjoins on the east the painting of the Assumption of 
the Blessed Virgin, a tracing of which has been shown to the Society as having 
been found on this clerestory next to the chancel arch. The size of the entire 
spandrel on which this was painted is 8 feet 7 inches in width by 7 feet 6 inches 
high. Unhappily the lower part of the painting was quite destroyed in fixing to 
the wall, at the restoration of the church in 1879, the scaffolding for repairing the 
clerestory windows, so that little more than half, the upper half, of the picture, as 
shown in this tracing, remains ; the lower part of this too ia so much injured as to 
make it extremely difficult to assign any meaning to the lines which faintly survive. 

Fortunately the best preserved portion of the picture is the central and 
principal figure, that of the Saviour himself. This stands out in very effective 

" Vol. xLTiii. 270. 

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282 Mural Paintings in All Saints Churchy Friskney. 

prominence — light, and with rays of light, as from a " glorified body," upon a 
broad background of deep crimson. 

The dark background, by which, as in the painting of the Gathering of the 
Manna, is represented the distance, extends over the whole of the upper part of the 
spandrel, and from it stands out alone and conspicuous, even now, from the floor 
of the church below, the figure of Christ — alone, except that at each comer a 
small angel, with wings as in flying, holds forward with both arms extended a 
long scroll reaching downwards to the group below. 

That this painting represents the Ascension seems evident from the general 
character of the grouping, and may be said to be proved by one characteristic, 
which belongs to all medieval representations of this subject, viz., the footprints 
on " the Mount " beneath the Christ. This, as so frequently seen in illimiiuated 
manuscripts, is a small round summit, with the top, on which the footprints are 
seen, formed something like the section of a truncated tree. The slope up to this 
is painted green. 

Upon this green slope stand a group of figures, fewer in number than usually 
represented, four on the right and five on the left being discernible. The nimbus 
marking each head is almost all to show them, except in one instance, the head on 
the extreme right, which alone (on this side) is turned towards the Saviour. The 
eye of this face has been curiously preserved better than anything else in the 
painting, inasmuch as a little hollow in the wall, just the size of an eye, was 
chosen to contain it, and, thanks to this little recess, it has remained almost as 
clear and fresh as when first painted. 

To this figure, apparently, belongs the scroll which reaches upwards to that 
proceeding from the right hand of the Christ. 

On the left, next to the footprints, is a figure (the face resembling that of 
St. Peter in the Last Supper,) who also is looking upwards towards the Lord, with 
his right hand raised as high as his head. In an illuminated manuscript of this 
subject ' there is, as here, one figure with right arm extended ; but I have seen no 
instance in which any of the group of figures at the Ascension is represented with 
a scroll, as speaking. In the lower part of the space there appear hands, probably 
those of figures the outlines of which have perished. 

On either side of the group of figures are conventional trees, their foliage, like 
the slope of the mount, coloured green. The stems of these trees, as also the 
footprints and the nimbus round each head, are in yellow ochre. 

• British Mnseam, 2, 13, xv. Horae Beatae Vii^nia ei alia ogieia. 

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'ints Church, Frishney. 283 

ni the same subject in illuminated 
usual treatment, viz. : — 
^e incident in paintings of the 

'o represent only the lower 
of the robe and the feet, 

'teen of these, 
■laced quite in the 

■■ 7 feet 5 

e north 




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Mural Paintin-gi in All Saints Church, Frishney. 283 

Comparing tliis painting with examples of the same subject in illuminated 
mMiiiBcripts there are slight Tariations from the usual treatment, viz. : — 

1. The cross bearing a banner, an inseparable incident in paintings of the 
Resurrection, but rare in those of the Ascension. 

2. The full figure of Christ. It is more usual to represent only the lower 
portion of the Lord's body, often only just the bottom of the robe and the feet, 
rising above the mount with the footprints in it. 

3. The small number of figures. There are frequently fifteen of these. 

4. The absence of the Blessed Virgin, who is usually placed quite in the 


This painting (Plate XXI.) occupies the space, 8 feet 7 inches by 7 feet 5 
inches, of the spandrel over the second column from the chancel of the north 
arcade, and stands, in the series of Scriptural subjects, between that of the Nati- 
vity on the west and the Ascension on the east. No painting of the Crucifixion 
haa yet been found. I hope to discover it on the opposite wall, probably next to 
the Last Supper.' 

This painting, in its manner of treatment, offers some points which are sug- 
gestive of the great change which had been and was taking place in Christian art, 
when, on the completion of the enlarged church, circa 1420, this decoration was 
added to the new clerestory. 

The effect of the Renaissance, following the introduction of Byzantine artists 
into Europe after the conquest of Constantinople in the thirteenth century, had 
been a gradual but vigorous development from the rigid austerity and meagreness 
of eastern art. New, freer, and bolder conceptions of form and composition pre- 
vailed over mere servile repetitions of former traditional treatment. The manly, 
vigorous life of the west, and I think we may aay especially of the north-west 
countries, coming into contact with eastern art, touched and made the dry bones 
to live. 

The growth of architecture and increased church building at that period had 
their undoubted effect in the same direction, as the treatment requisite for large 
spaces, such as church walls, called forth a bolder method, more graceful outline, 
and greater skill in composition than had been possible in the miniature work of 
illuminated manuscripts. 

■ Archaeotogia, xltui. Plate xui. 
VOL. L. 2 Q 

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284 Mural Paintings in All Saints Church, Frigkney. 

Together with this came also a new departure, noticeably on this subject of the 
Resurrection, in the treatment of the theme itself, viz., in the representation of 
Christ himself rising out of the tomb. 

The reverence of early art had forborne to supply by any effort of imagination 
more than Holy Scripture had recorded. According to the maxim of the Venerable 
Bede, " "We cannot know that on which Truth keeps silence." 

As Mrs. Jamieson remarks, " an artist in the early ages of the church shrank 
from, or never dreamed of, a representation of a mystery not revealed to human 
sight over which the silence of Scripture rested like a pall forbidden to be 

In the painting before us I think we have examples of this transitional stage of 
medieval decorative art. 

The conventional treatment is maintained, but with a degree of individual 
adaptation which agrees with that development which is admitted in the words of 
DuranduB, even a century before this, that " various subjects of the Old and New 
Testament were painted according to the discretion of the painters." 

And that also, which had not until the end of the fourteenth century entered 
into the treatment, the actual rising of the Lord out of the tomb, is tere a pre- 
dominant feature. 

Hitherto, as in a lovely altar-piece by Duccio, as late as the fourteenth century^ 
the act was only referred to by representing an angel pointing out to the Three 
Maries the open tomb, and that treatment prevailed up to the fourteenth century. 

Here is represented a combination of incidents, in themselves separate and not 
simultaneous — the actual rising — the descent of the angel — the approach of the 
women — and the appearance (as when the Lord subsequently appeared to her 
alone) of the Magdalene. 

The picture before us plainly tolls all this with realistic simplicity. 

The central figure of the Christ is raised above and prior to all else in interest. 
It stands out from the dark background, which does not, I think, represent the 
darkness of night — not as signifying that the rising was before the dawn of day — ■ 
but is merely, as in all the other pictures of this series, employed to represent 
distance, as a medium for throwing out effectively the group of figures. 

This background is not carried on over the head of the Christ. That part of 
the wall is unfortunately so defaced that I can gain no clue to the meaning of the 
few lines which remain above the head. The right hand is raised, with the two 
fingers uplifted in benediction ; in the left is held the staff with flag of victory 
surmounted by a cross. The right knee and foot are advanced as if stepping out 

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Mural Paintings in All Saints Church, Frishney. 285 

of the square tomb, the lid of which is closed — as showing the passing of the 
glorified body through the closed tomb, as afterwards through the locked doors of 
the upper chamber, where the disciples were assembled. This representation of 
the tomb as closed is exceptional ; the general use being to show the lid or upper 
slab lifted or placed transversely, as having been removed. It points to the change 
in treatment which prevailed in later examples (sixteenth century pictures), in 
offering proof that the rising was miraculous. In an example quoted by Mrs. 
Jamieson, by Annibale Caracci, there is represented the Christ rising not only 
through the closed lid, but also the lifeless body of a soldier lying upon the lid. 

Close by the knee which appears out from the lid, and on the right extremity 
of the tomb, is the figure of one of the soldiers fallen forwards on the tomb, the 
peaked helmet downwards, the shoulders and back curiously but not ungrace- 
fully foreshortened ; the right arm doubled up under the head, showing at the 
bend of the elbow a joint in its armour ; evidently the hand, though hidden by the 
helmet, still maintains its grasp of the spear, which is held upright, with a small 
pennant attached to it just below the blade. The character of the helmet— flugar- 
loafed and high, with 8hu*p peak— seems to mark a period certainly before 1450, 
for in the latter part of the fifteenth century the helmets were worn lower, and 
gradually became more flat or round. Beneath the tomb, and in the lower centre 
of the picture, are lines which seem to indicate the recumbent figures of two 
other soldiers; and out of the wreck of this portion of the picture there sur- 
vives a palpable sword as it were dropped from its owner's hand, for the clearly- 
marked hilt shows no trace of fingers grasping it. 

From the extreme right a group of women enter, whom we may conclude to 
represent Mary the wife of Cleophas, Salome, and Joanna, the drapery carefully 
drawn after the manner usually seen on medieval brasses. 

The central figure of the three, whose headdress is manifestly different from 
the other two, raises to her breast her clasped hands, the right arm being sup- 
ported by her companion on the right. The third, with face slightly inclined 
towards the figure with clasped hands, points with her left hand towards the 
Christ, while her right hand holds before her breast a vase containing (doubtless) 
the sweet spices for embalmment. 

On the opposite extreme left is a graceful figure of, I think we may say, the 
Magdalene, the head bent reverently downwards, and the right hand pointing, with 
two fingers extended, towards the Christ. The left arm, which hangs down, 
seems to holds a scroll, which, contrary to the usual treatment, is dravra almost 
in straight lines downwards. 


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286 Murat Paintings in All Saints Church, Frishiey. 

In all the picture, to wbicb I think we may assign considerable merit in 
grouping and composition, no feature is more graceful than the figure of the 
angel, which is poised with great lightness and delicacy of movement, as that of 
a bird just alighting on a spray, upon the surface of the tomb at its extreme edge 
on the left of the central figure. 

The wiugs, half folded, are beautifully placed ; and the hands, palmis mihlatvt, 
turned in adoring homage towards the risen Lord. I wish that any tracing could 
do justice to the expression of this and the other faces ; but it is impossible. 
Although there lingers about them in their effaced condition signs of a grace 
which I am sure they possessed, yet to trace here the bits of features which sur- 
vive would spoil them. 

I have therefore omitted these altogether, leaving the general outline only 
without marring the effect by the grotesqueness which mutilated features might 

The nationality of the painter is an interesting matter of conjecture. Possibly 
he was one of the monastic body of that house of St. Catherine's, Friskney, 
subsidiary of Bolington Priory, which we know had, since the time of Stephen, 
been there reclaiming the lands from the marsh and civilizing the fen-men. 
Possibly a German or Italian brother of the monastery, he may have learned art 
in the school of Siena or Pisa or Cologne, and so a faint ray from the light 
kindled by the genius of Giotto or Meister Wilhelm may have penetrated even so 
far as to this remote place. 

But may he not have been one of a native English gild who has left us in this 
work a suggestion that there was too an English school of painting, and that our 
country shared in a measure in that spring-tide of art which was rising on the 
continent P 

Certainly, I humbly submit, he has left us in the careful and graceful out- 
line, the skill of composition and grouping, in reverent feeling, in the general 
merit which this pictiuH) possesses, proof of a development of the trade or industry 
of decorative ornamentation in England into something worthy of the name of 

Whoever he were, I am thankful that his reverent conscientious work for the 
glory of God and advancement of art has escaped the ruthless hands both of 
Puritan scraper and churchwarden whitewasher, and that enough survives, after 
the lapse of nearly five hundred years, for a new generation, now at the end of 
the nineteenth century, to rise and call him benefactor. 

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XVIII. — On Basket-work Figures of Men represented on Sculpiwred Stones. By 
Rev. G. F. Beownb, B.D. 

Bead Hay SO, 1886. 

I BEG to invite the attention of the Society of Antiquaries to the occurrence of 
human figures sculptured on stones at Checkley and Ilam, in Staffordshire, the 
bodies being represented as formed entirely of interlacing bands, and producing 
the effect of wickerwork images. As far as I know, attention has not hitherto 
been called to this remarkable and suggestive feature, which seems to throw us 
far back into the past, and reminds us of the earliest descriptions of the land 
of Britain. 

The stones in the churchyard at Cbeckley, near Uttoxeter, are mentioned by 
Camden," in Plot's History of Staffordshire,*' and in a letter on the Penrith pillars 
in Archaeohgia, v6[. a. p. 4S. Gough makes Camden say (a.d. 1607), "in the 
churchyard of Cbeckley stand three stones like pyramids, two of them adorned 
with figures, but the middlemost is highest. The inhabitants say here was 
fought a battle between two armies, one armed and the other not, and three 
bishops fell in it, in memory of whom these were erected. The historic truth 
concealed under this tradition I have not yet been able to trace." 

Dr. Plot says of them (a.d. 1686) that they are certainly Danish, and that " the 
inhabitants report them to be memorials of three bishops slain in a battle here 
about a quarter of a mile E.N.E. from the church, in a place still called Kahed 
Fields, because the bodies lay there naked an4 unburied for some time after the 
fight." This tradition still remains, only the bishops have been made into kings. 
The stones are called the Battle-Stones. Dr. Plot gives an engraving of the 
stones, curiously inadequate and incorrect, but still very interesting. The stone 

» Cough's Camden, vol. ii. p. 49. " Ch. x. 63, 6*. 

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288 On basket-worh figures of men represented on Smiptured Stones. 

I call No, 2 was then (1686) nearly twice its present height, and at the top a 
projection is shown, as if the commencement of an arm of a cross or a " wheel." 

The writer in Archaeologia (Dr. Ljttelton, then Dean of Exeter), writing in 
1755, says that he was informed several years hefore, by an ancient inhabitant 
of the place, that the present plain pillar was placed there in the room of one of 
the old ones, thrown down and broken by accident. 

They are figured in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, vol. 
sxxiii., and in Redfern's History of Uttoxeter. In neither case has the artist 
■detected the special features to which I desire to call attention, nor indeed do the 
illustrations profess to represent the patterns on the panels. At the same time 
it should be said that Mr. Lynam's illustrations, in the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association, are very careful and interesting, and valuable as shew- 
ing the general appearance of the stones. 

The larger of the two stones, which I will call No. 1, is about 4 feet 8 inches 
high; its four faces are shown on Plate XXII. The east and west faces are 
20 inches wide at bottom and 16 inches at top, the corresponding dimensions of 
the north and south edges being 10 inches and 9 inches. Stone No. 2 is about 
3 feet 8 inches high ; its east and west faces are 18 inches wide at foot and 
14^ inches at top ; the north and south edges 9 inches and 8 inches. Each of 
the stones is the lowest part of a loftier pillar, being broken abruptly at the 
top but coming to an unsculptured termination at the bottom. It is said that 
they stand in stone sockets, sunk some little distance in the ground. 

No. 1 has on the north side two panels. In the upper is a figure of a man, 
with good legs ssiA. feet and with a staff in each hand. His head is gone, the 
stone being fractured at the neck. . His body is composed entirely of one band, 
interlacing with itself, the two ends projecting at the shoulders and grasping the 
two stafEs. The lower panel, which has an arched head, is filled with a double 
row of Stafford knots, formed by an endless band. On the south side are three 
panels. At the top is another basket-work body, with no head and with two 
staffs. In the place where the legs and feet would come, there is an interlacing 
pattern composed of two narrow ovals crossed, intersected by a broader oval. 
The lowest panel is filled with Stafford knots. On the east face there is at the 
top a pattern composed of three concentric circles, intersected by four semicircles 
formed by endless bands which pass on to a second system of concentric circles, of 
which only the lower half is left, the rest being broken off by the fracture of the 
pillar. Below are three basket-work bodies, side by side, with heads and legs, 
the central figure being the tallest and the figure on the observer's right the 

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shorteBt. On the west face there are at the top what appear to be the tronks of 
three men, side by side, in pleated dresses, without feet, the upper part being- 
broken away. Below this are three basket-work bodies, side by side, with heads 
but no legs. Lower still, in a panel with an arched top, are three more basket- 
work bodies, side by side, with heads but no legs, and below them again a like 
trio. Thus there are on this stone portions of 21 human figures, 18 of which are 
represented as formed of wicker-work. In some cases the ends of the interlacing 
band, which emerge at the shoulders, are shewn as arms; in other cases they pass 
up on each side of the face and look like a nimbus ; or they pass across into the 
system of the wicker-work figure standing nest to that to which they belong. 
The nimbus arrangement is more evident in the case of the Ham stone to be 
described later. The division of the panels is at the same height on each side of 
the stone. The west face, which is in several respects the most remarkable, is a 
good deal obscured by lichen, and it is almost close to the railings of a huge tomb, 
so that it is impossible to do justice to it. This is unfortunate, especially as it 
appears to be in better preservation than the other sides, owing something- 
perhaps to the protection which the tomb has afforded for many years. 

No. 2 has on the north side at the top a pEmel filled with interlacement, and 
below two figures face to face ; probably some kind of nondescript monster. This 
side is so much perished that comparatively little can be made of it. On the south 
side there is at the top a well-executed serpent-dragon head downwards, with its 
own tail in its mouth, and its body tied in triquetrae or Stafford knots, and below 
are two human figures of basket-work. On the east face, the upper panel is filled 
with Stafford knots, enriched by the interlacement of a second band, and shewing 
a sharp turn and doubling back of the band which is very unusual indeed on 
English stones, but is found in manuscripts and embroidery of the Oarlovingian 
period, in sculpture at Ravenna, and in Roman pavements. The lower part of 
this face ia occupied by four large triquetrae ; this arrangement being very un- 
usual on English stones. On the west face there are at the top a pair of bird- 
dragons, only decipherable by comparison with an almost identical panel on a 
stone at Dam, and below this are two rows of three human figures. Thus there 
are on this stone portions of eight human figures, and while No. 1 has no repre- 
sentation of a dragon or other monster, there are dragons on three of the four 
sides of No. 2. But nothing can be built on diversities of this kind, for neither 
stone is complete. 

The two stones in the churchyard at Ham, at the mouth of Dovedale, are 
figured iu the Journal of the BHtisk Archaeological Association, vol. xxxiii. on the 

Digitized by 


290 On baaket'Work jigures of men represented on Sculptured Stones. 

plate already referred to. One of them may be passed over on the present 
occasion, as it has not the special feature to which I am calling attention. 

The other stone is almost complete, only the head and arms of the croBS being 
broken ofi. It is 7 feet 6 inches high, from the socket, and has been about 8 feet. 
The east and west faces are 17 inches to 18 inches wide at the foot, and 8 inches at 
the top ; the north and south edges 8J inches at foot, and 6 inches at top. The 
east face has four panels. The panel at top has an interlacing pattern, the two 
ends of the band passing up beyond the shaft of the cross and following the curves 
towards the arms, where no doubt they formed interlacing patterns arid passed 
away in like manner into the uppermost key of the cross. The panel next 
below has six Staffordshire knots, enriched by the interlacement of an additional 
band. The panel next below this has two concentric circles above and three 
below, with bands interlacing in semicircles. The lowest panel has two bird- 
dragons, with forepaws crossed and their bodies or tails interlaced ; this inter- 
lacement I could not decipher, on account of the presence of an upright grave- 
stone close by, but that hindrance has been removed since my second visit, and I 
should think the pattern can now be determined. In that case, the corresponding 
panel at Checkley will probably be decipherable also. The upper panel of the 
west face has been much the same as the corresponding panel on the east, but it 
has perished too much to say with certainty. The two panels below this are 
practically the same as those on the east face. The lowest panel has three basket- 
work human figures, much perished and undecipherable except by the experience 
of Checkley. The arrangement is much the same as at Checkley, the central 
figure the highest, the figure on the observer's left the next highest, and that on 
the right the lowest ; they have legs, and the bands more decidedly form a ring 
round the head than in some of the Checkley instances. On the north and south 
edges the uppermost panel has in each case an interlacing pattern, and the panel 
next below a system of plain Staffordshire knots. The lowest panel on the north 
has some very clear interlacements, but for their pattern and meaning I have no 
solution, except by a somewhat forced explanation ; that on the south has a basket- 
work man with a staff, all much perished. 

After working out this stone, I was taken to see a fragment some little distance 
off, in the Ley, a piece of ground lying below Ham Hall, above the place where 
the Manifold and Hamps rivers flow out of the rock after a subterranean course 
of some miles. This is a very massive stone, about 5 feet high, standing in a 
socket on two steps formed by two ancient stones of large size. It is a rectangular 
shaft, about 18 inches by 16 or 17. It was taken from the foundations of an old 

Digitized by 


On basket-work Jigures of men represented on Sculptured Stones. 291 

cottage, when Mr. Scott Russell was transforming Ham into a model village, but 
its memory had not been lost during the time of its service as building material, 
and it was known as the battle-stone. At first sight it was hopeless to make 
anything of it, worn, battered, and covered with lichen and moss. But, after a 
sound scrubbing with a stable-brash, one basket-work man after another stood 
revealed to an eye instructed by the decipherment of the Oheckley stones. On 
the south side there are three large basket-work men in the upper panel, and three 
in the lower. On the north side, three basket-work men in the upper panel, and 
three concentric circles in the lower, interlaced with four semicircles, large bosses 
being used to fill up vacant places, as on some of the Checkley panels. The east 
side is worn away at the lower part, it is said by the wheels of carts when it 
stood in the village ; the upper part has a system of Staffordshire knots, enriched 
by the interlacement of an additional band. The west side also has almost 
perished, but the upper part has two large basket-work men, and the lower has 
the remains of four very bold triquetrae, arranged as at Checkley. 

Thus these four remarkable stones in Staffordshire, two at Checkley and two 
at Ham, ring the changes on basket-work images, Staffordshire knots, concentric 
circles, and interlacements, with a few dragons and triquetrae. There are on 
them thirty-eight human figures, eight panels of Staffordshire knots, seven sets 
of concentric circles with four systems of three circles and three of two, and six 
panels of simple interlacement; two panels of triquetrae, four of dragons or 
beasts, and one which is as yet a puzzle, but may mean three serpents, complete 
the inventory. Three of the four stones, it must be remembered, are only the 
lower parts of shafts, which, from the squareness and massiveneas of these por- 
tions, may have reached to a very considerable height. 

The only example of a human figure formed of basket-work which I have 
found on a stone other than these four is at Sandbach, in Cheshire. On one of 
the stones placed upright, round the platform on which the two magnificent 
sculptured shafts in the market-place at Sandbach stand, is the figure of a man 
from the waist upwards, the body made of an interlacing band, and the head 
being, as at Checkley and Ham, an isolated oval. The Sandbach stone has the 
peculiarity, that round the neck, as it were, is a separate collar, partly hid of 
course by the head, which presents the full face to the observer, and emerg^g 
from behind the head about half-way up the cheeks. The ends are tucked in at 
the top of the interlacing band which forms the body, and cross in front like a 
" comforter." It may be that there has been such an arrangement in some of the 
Checkley and Ham figures, but I have not detected any signs of it. Other figures 

VOL. L. 2 E 

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292 On hasket-worlc figures of men represented on Sculptured Stones. 

at Sandbach give me the imprcBsion tbat they have had basket-work ornament on 
them which has now perished. 

On one stone in Scotland (Brodie) the characteristic and unexplained "elephant" 
has its body covered with an interlacing band, and on another (Glenferness) there 
are remains of interlacement on the " elephant" ; but in neither case is the body 
formed of the interlacing band, it is merely an ornament covering the body, which 
has the usual complete outline. 

In manuscripts of the Hibernian type, serpents and other creatures have their 
bodies ornamented sometimes with interlacements, as in the case of the Brodie 
"elephant," but the only figure really formed of basket-work which I have found 
in a manuscript is the figure of Our Lord, in the " Irish " Psalter at St. John's 
College, Cambridge. In that case the whole of the trunk is basket-work, the legs, 
arms, shoulders, and head being shown by ordinary outlines ; the beard, too, is a 
variety of the triquetra, with an interlaced ring, but it has an ordinary outline 

It will be clear to any one who knows the very great variety of patterns on 
sculptured atones, and the remarkable manner in which the early artists contrived 
to make each stone unlike others, that between the Checkley and the Ham stones 
there must have been some unusually close connection. The only key which 
tradition gives to this connection is the fact that the Checkley stones and the 
Btone in the Ley at Ham are called battle-stones. Looking to the three accounts 
of the Checkley tradition, Camden's, Plot's, and the one now current, we see that 
besides the three important persons, accounting for the number of stones, there is 
probably another feature in common. The idea of one of the two armies being 
unarmed is unreasonable, and we may fairly suppose that one army fought in 
defensive armour, and the other fought without such protection ; perhaps the 
battle was sufficiently early for one of the armies to have but little clothing of any 
description. This would give us a meaning for the " naked fields." The basket- 
work trunks of the figures on the stones might represent the appearance of coats 
of armour, or it is possible that it may have been an attempt to indicate a naked 
figure in which the bones shewed prominently. Chain armour, when reproduced 
in stone, has something the air of interlacement, as on the effigies in the Temple 
Church; one of the finest shields there is covered with " basket-work." 

If it had not been for this tradition, I should have looked no further than the 
well-known fact that wicker-work was very extensively used from the earliest 
times in this island, times which we may call prehistoric so far as our predecessors 
here are concerned. And I cannot help thinking that, notwithstanding the special 

Digitized by 


On basket-work figures of men represented on Sculptured Stones. 293 

tradition of the battle-stones at Checkley, and the connection with them which 
the identity of ornament and of name gives to the Ham stone, it is to this use of 
wicker-work that we must look for our explanation. But then there remains the 
question, to which I confess that I liave no answer ready, to what age must we go 
back to find artiste who could design and execute these elaborate monuments 
contemporaneously with a familiar use of basket-work images P The Sandbach 
stone, I may remark in passing, seems to me to account, by the collar it gives to 
the figure, for the high-shouldered appearance presented by early ecclesiastics 
when shown in profile on sculptured stones. The collar may represent the bood, 
or it may represent a special part of a priest's dress, something of the nature of an 

Mr. G. F. French's paper in the Journal of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion, vol. XV.,' in which he argued for a wicker-work origin for the interlacing 
ornamentation, at that time supposed to be all but peculiar to the British Islands, 
brought together a considerable amount of information on the subject. It is 
rather a fashion now to laugh at the Druids, but I for one quite believe Caesar's 
story of their basket-work images of monsters or of men. No theory accounts for 
the paneled interlacing ornamentation of our English sculptured shafts, and of 
the crosses sculptured on Scottish stones, so well as that of its being the 
descendant of early representations in stone of perishable crosses of wicker-work 
made by the first British Christians. Even if the early inhabitants had not been 
in the habit in Pagan times of erecting wattle-work pillars in places where mono- 
liths could not be got, we may take it as certain that, when they were told by 
Christian missionaries to erect crosses as a symbol of their new faith, they would 
employ for the purpose the beautiful art which had made their manufacture 
famous at Rome. That wicker-work crosses were made in the Middle Ages is 
certain; the last example on record, so far as Mr. French's researches went, 
indeed the only example on record, was in 1630, when Lord Dillon found on 
" S. Patrick's altar " on Lough Derg (the " altar " being a heap of stones at the 
east end of the church) a cross made of interwoven twigs. 

The parts of these stones wMch are not occupied by human figures call for 
the remark that there is nowhere any approach to a foliage scroll. I am accus- 
tomed to attribute the superposition of this scroll upon interlacing ornamentation to 
Wilfrith, and there is a good deal to be said for its being somewhat of a party 
badge at the end of the seventh century. The Staffordshire knot is not a wicker- 

» i,.D. 1859, pp. 63—80. 

Digitized by 


294 On bashet-worh figwres of men represented on Sculptured Stones. 

work pattern, and it is found sculptured at Ravenna. The concentric circles, with 
semicircles interlaced, could be made in wicker-work, no doubt, and as we are deal- 
ing with " battle-stones " it may be that they are the descendants of the repre- 
sentation of a wicker-work shield, in which case the bosses would be something 
more than a mere device to fill a void space. Concentric circles of this character 
are uncommon on English stones ; there is an example on the fine shaft at Hope, 
in Berbyshire. Of the dragons and other creatures it is unnecessary to speak. 

It is probable that, when once attention is called to these basket-work figures, 
other examples will be found; indeed, I shall not be surprised if other examples 
are known already, for the field of sculptured stones is so large that no one need 
be ashamed not to know them all. However that may be, I feel that their pre- 
sence requires some special explanation, which I am not at all satisfied that we 
have as yet got, and I am not without hope that they may open a new and unex- 
pected chapter in historical archaeology. 

I may say, in conclusion, that we have examples from Peru and elsewhere of 
men and animals on metal plaques with their bodies formed of reticulated work, 
of spiral work, and of an " Etruscan " pattern. The curator of our Cambridge 
Museum of General and Local Archaeology has two remarkable specimens. But I 
imagine on the whole that the sole object in that case is to provide receptacles for 
pigments or enamel, and that the presence of these patterns within the outUne of 
the man's or the animal's form is not the survival of wicker or cable work. No 
doubt the other side of the question can be argued. 

It may be worth adding that Checkley lies geographically between Stafford 
and Ham, so that St. Bertram, who, according to the tradition, left Stafford and 
settled at Ham in Mercian times, and whose name is connected specially with the 
Ham district, and with the shrine at Ham, and with these stones, may have halted at 
Checkley, and put up both sets of stones, or may have seen the stones at Checkley 
and put up those at Ham. The font at Ham is very ancient, but there are ages of 
difference in style between it and these stones, and, curiously enough, the same is 
true at Checkley. Whether it is possible that there is any connection between the 
name Battle-Stone and the name Bertram, Bertolin, Bartolin, or whether, as the 
dedications about Ham are to Bartholomew, Bertram, Bartolin, Bartholomew, 
Bartlemy, Battle, have anything to do with one another, I cannot say. 

Digitized by 


XIX. — BeginaJd, Utluyp of Bath (ny^-ngi): his epieeopate, and his shard in Ike 
building of the chwrch of WelU. By the Rev. C. M. Chuboh, M.A., F.8.A., 
Sub-dean and Canon B^iidentiary of Wells, 

BMd Jane 10, 1886. 

I VBNTOBB to think that bishop Reginald Fitzjocelin deserves a place of higher 
honour in the history of the diocese, and of the fabric of the church of "Wells, 
than has hitherto been accorded to him. 

His memoiy has been obscured by the traditionary fame of bishop Robert as 
the " author," and of bishop Jocelin as the " finisher," of the church of "Wells ; 
and the importance of his episcopate as a connecting link in the work of these 
two master-builders has been comparatirely overlooked. The only authorities 
followed for the history of his episcopate have been the work of the Canon of 
Wells, printed by "Wharton, in his Anglia Sacra, 1691, and bishop Godwin, in 
his Catalogue of the Biahope of England, 1601 — 1616. But Wharton, in his notes 
to the text of his author, comments on the scanty notice of bishop Reginald ;' and 
Archer, our local chronicler, complains of the unworthy treatment bishop Reginald 
had received from Godwin, also a canon of his own cathedral church.^ 

■ Begm&ldi gesta historiciiB noeter brevins quam pro Tiri dignitato enorraTit. Wharton, Anglia 
Sacra, i. 871. 

i> Hiatoriciis noster et poet enm Oodwinns nimis breviter gesta Be^naldi perstringani qnae pro 
egregii viri dignitate nairationem magie applicatam de CanoniciB istls Wellensibos merita snnt. 
Archer, Ohronieon WeUense, live annaUt Eccleriae Oathedralis Wellentis, p. 75, 

Dr. Archer, archdeacon of Tannton, 1712, of Wella, 1726, and oanon residentiary, died 1739. He 
was the friend and correspondent of Thomas Heame. His hand can be traced in notes thronghont 
the Wells chapter registers. He has left books of manuscript notes, and a valnable chronicle of 
Wells history from the earliest time to the end of bishop Drokensford's episcopate, based on most 
careful study of the episcopal and chapter registers. 
VOL. L. 2 8 

Digitized by 


296 Reginald biahop of Bath ; 

We start therefore, with some distrust of our guides, to trace the history of 
bishop Reginald's episcopate, and his share in the building of the church. 

We find now, that the authorities quoted both by Wharton and Qxidwin are 
not the only or the original sources for the early history of the church of Wells. 
They are rather the traditions of the fifteenth century, as imderstood and inter- 
preted to us by bishop Grodwin and Wharton in the seventeenth. 

1. The Canon of Wells is the title given in Wharton's Anglia Sacra to a 
composite document — ^two anonymous manuscript tracts of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth - CMituries found in . the Wells chapter register,' which Wharton has 
" woven together " to form one continuous history of the earlier episcopates : — 

(a) "Historia minor" contains a short catalogue of the bishops from 

Daniel, the legendary bishop of Congresbury, to bishop Harewell's 

time, 1367— 1386; 
(6) *' Historia major " is a longer document of the same kind, which begins 

with Edward the Confessor's time and ends with bishop Bubwith, 


2. Francis Godwin, canon of Wells, bishop of LandafE, 1601, and of Hereford, 
1617, was son of Thomas Godwin, bishop of Bath and Wells, 1584 — 90. Though 
he had exceptional opportunities for examining the documents in the Wells 
registers, yet he seems to have been content to follow these same documents which 
Wharton has printed, varying his form of statement in the different editions of his 
book, viz., the English edition, " The Catalogue" ^c, printed in 1601, and the 
Latin, " Be Praesulibus Angliae Gommentarius" printed in 1615 — 16. 

Mr. Hunter has thrown out the conjecture that "the Canon of Wells," author 
of the Historia major of Wharton, may have been Thomas Chandler, chancellor of 
Wells, 1454, warden of Winchester, friend of bishop Beckington,'' and afterwards 
chancellor of Oxford, 1472-79. 

But the discovery by Mr. Hunter, in the register of Bath priory, of the 
manuscript of the time of Henry II,, which he printed in 1840 as the Eistoriola 
de Primordiis Episcojtatus Svmersetensis' has supplied earlier historical evidence 
down to the end of bishop Robert's episcopate. And now contemporary docu- 
ments in the Wells chapter registers, which have lately been made more accessible 

• E. iii. f . 296—302. 

■* ReV. J. Hmiter Introduction to Hiitoria, p. 4, Ecd. Doc. Camd. Soc. Pnbl. 1840. 

' Ecd. Docwnentt in Camden Soc. PTiblications. 1840. A Brief Hitiory of the Biakopri/; of 
Bonuriet, from its foundation to the year 1174. An extract from the Segiitrvm Prioratm Bafhon. — a 
MS. in the Library of the Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn. 

Digitized by 


■ ■ hie episcopate. ' "297 

to the student, give additional and contemporaiy' information with regard to 
bishop Reginald's episcopate. 

I propose to sketch the history of bishop Reginald's episcopate, and to show, 
by the help of these unpublished documents, that there is ground for claiming for 
bishop Reginald a greater share than has been hitherto allowed him in building 
up the constitution and fabric of the church of Wells. 

Bishop Reginald Fitzjocelin de Bohun, and bishop Savaric, his kinsman and 
successor, were the two last in the succession of foreign bishops who held the see 
of Somerset from the time of Edward the Confessor. Reginald was of the family 
of de Bohun, of the C6tentin, the north-west comer of Normandy, where two 
villages — St. George and St. Andr^ de Bohun, near Carentan, in a district of 
plain and canal like Sedgmoor — still mark the cradle of the family. Richard de 
Bohun, bishop of Ooutances, 1151 — 1179, wa3 his uncle ; his father was Jocelin 
de Bohun, bishop of Sarum, 1141 — 1184. 

Another member of the family, Engelger de Bohun, is mentioned as one of 
Henry II.'s eyil counsellors who incited Henry against Becket, when at Argentan 
he uttered the hasty words which led to the murder of the archbishop.* 

Into this family married Savaric Fitzchana, son of Ralph, the lord of Beau- 
mont and St. Suzanne, and of Ghana, his wife, daughter of Geldewin, a Dane, 
lord of Saumur. He himself was made lord of Midhurst, in Susses, by Henry I. 

His SOD, Savaric FitzSavaric, inherited the lands of de Bohun; but, dying 
childless, he was succeeded in his inheritance by his nephew Franco de Bohun, son 
of Greldewin FitzSavaric, and his wife Estrangia. Savaric, bishop of Bath, 1192, 
in succession to his cousin Reginald Fitzjocelin de Bohun, was younger brother of 
Franco de Bohun." 

Reginald Fitzjdcelin was bom about 1140, before his father, the bishop of 
Sarum, had been admitted to the priesthood, yet so shortly before, that the 
question could be raised as an objection to his consecration to the episcopate in 

• W. FitzStephen, in MaieriaU for Hiitory of Becket, vol. iii. p. 129, R.S., " Engelgeras de 
Bohan, qaidam mveterataB diemm maloram," gave the counsel, " Let Iiim be cmcified." 

" BiBhop Stubbs in QerUleman'e Magaane, Not. 1863, and Preface to Epp. Cantuariemee, p. Ixxivi. 
note, baa supplied materials for genealogies of biebops Reginald and Savaric. 

Digitized by 


298 Begmald bisJiop of Bath ; 

after years. Sufficient testimony was at tbat time brought forwM*d to satisfy 
and to remove objections. Either as bom of Italian blood, or from early resi- 
dence in Italy, he bore the name of "the Lombard" or "the Italian." The 
schools of Lombardy, Pavia, Bologna, Padua, whence had come to Normandy 
Lanfranc and Anselm, were famous. The towns of Lombardy were asserting 
their independence of the emperor at iAns time, and Henry's wide-reaching 
continental policy, and the foreign marriages of his sons, were bringing English- 
men into close relations with Italians and Germans, as well as French.* 

Herbert of Bosham, in his life of St. Thomas, names " Reginald the Lum- 
bard " among those attached to the archbishop in his earlier days abroad. 
Though he laments his defection afterwards, in the time of the archbishop's 
quarrel with Henry, he describes him at this time as a'young man high-spirited, 
intelligent, prudent beyond his years in council, active and able.** From the letter 
of Peter of Blois, archdeacon of Bath, to K«ginald, when archdeacon of Sarum, 
we know that he combined a keen love of hawking with attention to business." 
These qualities would have been likely to have brought the young ecclesiastic into 
favour with the chancellor in his earlier days. 

' In 1158 Becket, then chancellor, was gent on an embassy to Paris, with a 
large suite and much pomp, to arrange the betrothal of Henry's eldest son, then 
a boy of seveUjto Margaret, daughter of Louis VII, The marriage compact was 
finally completed, not without a quarrel and a reconciliation between the two 
kings, in 1160.'^ Perhaps Reginald joined Becket about this time, and, as Becket's 
friend, passed into favour at the French court. In 1164 he recieived from 
Louis VII. of France a piece of court preferment, succeeding therein the king's 
brother Philip as abbot of St. Exuperius in Corbeil. The deed of gift, of which 

' On Henry's relations with Italy, France, Germany, v. Stubbs' Pref. to Benedict of Peterborough, 
ii. p. zxxi. On Italian affairs of interest in England at this time, v. Stubbs' Pref. to S. Sowden, u. 
p. Jtcii. 

*■ Herbert ot Bosham names some Lombards among the " eruditi " of Becket's followers, together 
with Beginaldns Lumbardns ; Lombardns of Piacenza, afterwards archbishop of Benerentnm, Becket's 
teacher in canon law ; Humbert CriTelli, of Milan, afterwards archbishop of Milan, and pope Urban 
III. in 1185, and others. Herbert thofi deecribes Beginald : — 

" Beginaldns natione Anglns, sed aicat edncatione et cognomento Lnmbardns, pro aetate pmdens 
et indnstrins, animosns et efficaz in ageudis, qni extra patriam aliquanto tempore nobiscnm fortiter 
stans, cito doloiis nostri fnit principium." Y. Materials for Life of Becket, iii. p. 524i. 

" Peter of Blois, Ep. 61. He reminds him when archdeacon of Samm, "cnram non avium sed 
oviom soscepisti," and warns him of the danger, " si non oves aTibns antefertis." 

" R. de Dioeto, vol. i. p. 302 (R. S.), an. 1168. They were betrothed 1160, p. 304. 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 299 

the original is extant among the chapter documents of Wells, entitles him " arch- 
deacon of S&rum," and recites that the preferment was due both to his own 
merits and also to the solicitations of his friends — " Donavimns pro honestate 
8u4, et pro amicorum suorum prece." (See Appendix A.) 

The year of his appointment to the abbey of St. Ezuperius was the year of 
the archbishop's quarrel with the king. 

On January 25, 1164, the Council of Clarendon was held, and, after the 
meeting at Northampton, Becket withdrew from England to Pontigny. Bishop 
Jocelin of Sarum, father of Reginald, had been the leader and spokesman of the 
bishops in the vain attempt to mediate between the king and the archbishop, and 
to conciliate the archbishop after the scene at Northampton. He and Gilbert 
Ffolliot, bishop of London, became thenceforth the objects of Becket's violent 
hostility, and he excommunicated the two bishops, together with John of Oxford, 
dean of Sarom, and others of his opponents, from Vezelay, on Whitsun Day, 1166. 
In this quarrel Beginald took his father's side, and withdrew from Becket's party. 
Herbert of Bosham laments his defection from the archbishop's cause in his 
struggle and distress; but speaks kindly of him, and acknowledges that in after 
years his industry and high principle had marked him out for the episcopate. 

Peter of Blois about this time intercedes for Reginald with one of Becket's 
court, and defends him for having left the archbishop in duty to his father, whom 
the archbishop had denounced. But Beginald had now taken the king's side. 
His education, ability, foreign experiences, and conciliatory temperament soon 
made him one of the most acceptable of Henry's diplomatists at the court of 
Rome, where the quarrel between two violent and headstrong men was mainly 
fought out. 

In 1167 he was at Rome with John of Oxford, dean of Sarum, and Clarembald, 
^bbotof St. Augustine's, when they obtained from pope Alexander the prohibition 
to the archbishop E^ainst publishing his censures pending the attempt at recon- 
ciliation.' He was there again in 1169, and accompanied to England the legates 
Gratian and Vivian, who were sent to effect the reconciliation;^ and he then 
incurred Becket's violent abuse for his activity and influence at Rome on the 

In 1170, June 14, Roger, archbishop of York, together with the bishops of 

■ W. FitzStephen, in ifaterialtfor Life of BecJcet, iii. 99, R. 8. 

" lb. vi. 565, R. S. 

« lb. Tii. 59, R. S. . . . . , 

Digitized by 


300 Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

LoDdon, Sarum, Durham, and Rochester, crowned the young king Henry in 
Westminster abbey. The anger of the archbishop and primate blazed out afresh 
at this violation of the prerogative of the see of Canterbury. A formal recon- 
ciliation was effected with the king for a time ; but at the close of this year 
the six years' straggle between king and archbishop reached its tragic end when 
the archbishop was struck down by his murderers, the four knights' of the 
court, in the transept of Canterbury cathedral church, December 29th, 1170. 

Reaction in favour of the cause of "the martyr" at once set in. Henry, 
shocked at the outrage and sacrilege, and alarmed at the consequences to his 
kingdom and to himself, sent at once an embassy to Rome, of men selected as 
*' acceptable to the court of Rome, and well able to plead the king's cause," '' of 
whom Reginald, archdeacon of Sarum, was one. The letter to the king reports 
the result of the mission — they had arrived on Palm Sunday ; had been treated 
with little respect by the cardinals and denied audience by the pope, who was at 
Frascati ; the king's name was execrated ; Maundy Thursday, the day of public 
absolution or excommunication by the pope, was approaching ; Henry's excom- 
munication and the interdict of the kingdom of England was threatened. With 
the ^^atest difficulty " they obtained suspension of the interdict, and it had been 
averted by their pledging themselves that the king would stand to judgment 
and submit to sentence from the pope. So the interdict was averted ; but the 
«xcommunication of the murderers and of all concerned was proclaimed. The 
legates were sent to England or Normandy to receive Heme's submission. The 
king's purgation and penance at Avranches followed in the nest year (May 21 
1172); the canonization of St. Thomas, ordered by the pope, was proclaimed on 
Ash Wednesday, 1173, and December 29 set apart as the festival of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury.* 

According to one of the conditions required from Henry by the papal legates^ 

■ Tliree of the fonr knights held Unds in Somerset : Reginald Fitzurse — Richard Breto — 
Williun de Tnici. 

' Qerrase says (i. 233, B. S.) : " misit nantios epectabilee et admodum loqaaces." R. Hoirdeu 
gives the names, vol. ii. p. 26, R.S. : Rotrodns, archbishop of Rouen, who stopped in Normandy ; 
Adding bishop of Evrenx ; Roger bishop of Worcester ; Richard de BlosBeville, abbot of La 
Talasse ; Reginald archdeacon of Samm ; Richard archdeacon of Lisienz ; Richard Barre and 
Henry Pinchnn, clerks. For the letter giving report, t, R. Howden, vol. ii. p. 25, 

■ Oervase adds (ibid.) : " aliam viam snpplicandi, more scilicet Romano sunt a^^ressi — Tix 
tandem qaingentis marcifi interpositis admissi sunt." 

•■ Bnll for the canonization of St. Thomas, dated Manh 13, 1173. R. de Diceto, i. 369. 

Digitized by 


hit epiicopcUe. 301 

Henry now proceeded to fill up the English sees which he had kept vacant during 
his quarrel with Becket. 

Reginald Fitzjocelin was nominated to the see of Bath, which had been vacant 
more than eight years, since bishop Robert's death in 1166. He waa duly elected 
by the two chapters, the prior and convent of Bath and the dean and canons of 
Wells* in conformity with bishop Robert's provision; and his election was 
confirmed at the Council of Westminster, in April, 1173. At the same time the 
sees of Winchester, Ely, Hereford, Chichester, and Lincoln were filled up ; and 
Richard, prior of Dover, the late archbishop's chaplain, was nominated to the 
archbishopric of Canterbury. 

But the young king Henry, under the influence of his father-in-law Louis of 
France, protested against the nomination of bishops in England without his con- 
sent, and lodged an appeal against their consecration at Rome. Reginald was 
selected to accompany the archbishop-elect to Rome to obtain the pope's con- 
firmation. They started in the autimin of 1173. There were tedious delays and 
diplomacy with the Roman chancellery; but at last Richard was consecrated 
archbishop by the pope at Anagni, on Low Sunday, April 7, 1174, and received 
the pall and his appointment as legate. 

The consecration of Reginald and the other bishops-elect was deferred under 
various pretexts \mtil the return to England. ** 

Soon after, they left Rome, on their homeward journey — one which has many 
points of interest for us. The travellers crossed the passes of Mont Cenis, 
and stopped for a time at St. Jean de Maurienne, in the territory of the count of 

It was at this wayside station, on the old road between France and Italy, that 
Reginald, notwithstanding the delays interposed at Rome, was consecrated bishop 
of Bath. 

The chronicles do not tell us the causes which brought about his consecration. 
We are left to infer them from concurring circumstances, by which this distant 
Alpine district was being brought into close connection with England, and with 
our own diocese in particular. 

Henry had been negotiating in 1173 a marriage, for political purposes, between 

■ The act of pope Alexander reciting and confirming the joint action of the two chapters is 
contained in Chapter DocvMenti i. 40. Cf. B. i. £. 94; R. iii. f. 266. 

^ Howden, ii. 59, t. Reginaidi Spiit. ad regem. May 5, 1174. He Bays, "My own consecration 
and that of the others are deferred. Oar lord the pope has determined to settle nothing nntil 
reconciliation between yon and yonr Bon shall be bronght to pass." 

Digitized by 


302 RegiTuild biahhp of Bath ; 

his son John and the eldest daughter of tlmbert, count of Maurienne. Early- 
death in that year saved her from this fate. 

In the terms of the marriage settlement, by which certain places commanding 
the passes of the mountains would have been secured to Henry, Reginald, arch- 
deacon of Sanmi, had been named as one of the u-bitrators on the king's side, in 
case of any change being made in the terms. Some business arising out of thwe 
settlements, and the closing of the arrangements, may have caused Reginald's 
delay at this time at St. Jean de Maurienne.' 

The presence of Reginald in these parts was opportune for another purpose 
which Henry had in view at this moment. 

At this time Henry had undertaken to found three religious houses in England, 
in partial performance of his penance for the violence of his words against Becket. 
He had enlarged and reconstructed the religious foundations at Ambresbury and 
Waltham, and changed the religious orders of the inmates; and he was now 
planting the first house of the Carthusian order in England. The site which he 
had given was at Withain, on the borders of the royal forest of Selwood, in the 
diocese of Bath. Henry was seeking a prior for the new house from the p>arent 
house of the order, the Great Chartreuse in the " desert of St. Bruno," near 

One of the envoys of the count of Savoy had told him of the fame of brother 
Hugh of Avalon. " Such a man as would not only ensure success to his new 
foundation, but would fill the whole church with the beauty of his holiness."*" 

The Great Chartreuse was within easy reach of St. Jean de Maurienne, and 
letters were sent to the archbishop and to Reginald, to use all endeavours to 
induce Hugh to come to England, to take charge of the Carthusian colony at 

The bishop-elect of the diocese in which it was planted was the fit person to 
invite Hugh in Henry's name, and doubtless it was felt that he would speak 
with more effect if he were the consecrated bishop. So, with this end in view, 
as we may conjecture, objections at Rome were overcome, and Reginald's 
conBecration was hastened. 

* R. HoTrden, ii. 41, 45. Cf. Benedict, wbo gires the docament. By the settlements the paases 
of Hont Cenis, and four castles commanding them, vonld have been aecnred to Henry and pnt into 
his hands. In November of the same year Frederick Barbarossa entered Italy through the Mont 
Cenis passes, bnmt Sneo, and besieged Alexandria, lately bnilt by the Lombard Leagae. Tide 
Stnbbs's Pref. to Benedict, p. xvi. on Henry's projects. 

>» Vide Tita 8. Sugonii, p. 54. R. S. Cf. Preface, p. xsi. 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 303 

Reginald was required to purge himself by oath of any complicity in the 
murder of St. Thomas. Testimony sufficient was given to estabHsh the legitimacy 
of his birth. He was consecrated by archbishop Richard and the archbishop 
Peter of Tarentaise, in the church of St. John, at Maurienne, on the vigil of 
St. John the Baptist, Juno 23, 1174." 

Then, as bishop of Bath, in company with the bishop of Grenoble, he journeyed 
to the house of the order in the " Eremo " or desert of St. Bruno, enclosed imder 
the pines and crags of the Grand Som and between the torrents of the Guier 
"Mort," and the Guier " Vif," entering it probably from Grenoble on its south- 
east side by Sappey and St. Pierre de Chartreuse. 

Hugh of Avalon, with much reluctance, and only by order of his bishop, 
undertook as his mission the charge of the new priory in England ; and it was the 
first act of Reginald's episcopate to bring to England, and to plant in his own 
diocese of Somerset, Hugh of "Witham, known afterwards to the whole church as 
St. Hugh of Lincoln. 

Then the archbishop and bishop Reginald continued their journey to meet 
Henry in Normandy.'' 

In the first days of August they were at St. Lo, in the diocese of his uncle the 
bishop of Coutances, and in his own country of the Cdtentin, and on the 5th 
of August, 1174, he consecrated the church of St. Thomas at St. Lo, dedicated 
to the memory of his old master, now the newly-canonized St. Thomas the 

This church, probably the earliest consecrated to the martyr canonized only 
the year before, and consecrated by the bishop, who had been active against 
him, son of a bishop whom he had excommunicated, is a monument of the 
sudden revulsion of feeling which his murder had caused. It is still standing, 
though long since desecrated ; containing architectural signs of the period of its 
consecration — in the flat semi-Norman pilasters on the outside, in the massive 

* "Jn^ qnoqne moutiom trsnsoeadenfi intra valles Moriaoae, in eccleaia S. JoIuumiB, et in 
vigilia S. Joannis Baptistae, Batoniensem electam consecravit, archiepiscopo Tareutasiaa praeaente, 
mannm etiam apponente ; accepta prins pnrgatione Batomensie electi, qnod mortem beat! Thomae 
neqne verbo, neqne facto, neqne Bcripto procuravit scienter. Alii jaraTemnt quod, sicut opinabantnr, 
oonceptuB fait prinaqnam Jocelinns pater suns ad gradnm aacerdotii promoTeretnr. R. de Diceto, 
i. 391. R.S. 

*" ArchiepiscopoB, Batonienei comitatna epiacopo, Bnrgnndiae pramontoria, campeatria Galliae, 
Neustriae littora, com aliqna remoratioue tranacetidit, pertranaiit, attigit. B. de Diceto, i. 391. B.S. 

" The document is preaerred in the arohiTes of St. Lo. r. Somerset Archaeol. Proceedings, xiz. ii. 94. 
VOL. L. 2 T 

Digitized by 


304 Beginald bishop of Bath ; 

round columns of the nave, and the apsidal end with six pointed arches resting on 
the Norman columns.' 

On August 8th they met Henry on the shore at Barfleur (Barbari fluctus), just 
arrived from England after an eventful month. On July 8 he had landed at 
Southampton from Normandy. He had gone through his three days' humiliating 
penance at the tomb of St. Thomas at Canterbury. He had crushed rebellion in 
the midland of England, and, with the king of Scots his prisoner, had now landed 
at Barfleur within the month. 

From thence the archbishop and Reginald crossed to England. The archbishop 
arrived at Canterbury on September 4, to become a witness of the fire which 
broke out on the next day, September 5, 1174, in his cathedral church, and 
burnt the choir to ashes. On October 6th Reginald assisted at the consecra- 
tion at Canterbury of the bishops of Winchester, Ely, Hereford, and Chichester, 
and there made his profession of obedience to the primate. On November 24th 
he was enthroned with much solemnity by the primate in person, who was then 
making a visitation of his province as " legate of the apostolic see," in his 
own church. 

It would be interesting to know whether Bath or Wells — the church of St. 
Peter, or the church of St. Andrew — was the scene. Ralph de Diceto says the 
presence of the legate made the event of the enthronisation especially memorable;'' 

■ The nave of the ohnrah ia aboat 144 ft. long, hy 30 ft. wide, and is divided from aiBlea 15 ft. 
wide by six massive Norman columns on each aide. Two central columns on each side, larger than 
the i«st, Bupport a tower. Pointed arches rest on the colomss. 

It is a painfnl instance of thorough desecration — the nave is boarded over above the arches, and 
is used as an agricultural hall on market days ; the upper part is a theatre approached by a door 
at the east end, and stairs. Under the later tdwer arches is the atage of the theatre— there had been 
a representation there by a travelling company the night before I was there — on Sunday, June 27th, 
1686. There were two traditions told to me at St. Lo about the church ; one, that it was built by 
St. Thomas when in exile — the other, that he was at S. Lo while it was building, and being asked to 
what aaint it should be dedicated, replied, " to the first martyr " — after events led them to take this 
as a prophecy and direction with regard to himself. 

" R. de Diceto, i. 398 (R.S.) : Intronizationem Batoniensis episcopi Dorobemensis archie- 
piscopuB, dum officio fungeretur legationie, visitando provinciam, sua praesentia multo sollempniorem 
efCecit, viii.° kalendas Decembris, et futuris reddidit memorialem. 

Archer, Chron. WeUeTise, f. 46, quoting B. de Diceto in support, but, as it appears, incorrectly, 
assumes Wells to be the scene. 

" Ricardna Gantnariensis legationie poteatatem exercena provinciam auam visitavit cnmque 
Welliam perveuisset viii. Eal. Dec. die Dominica Reginaldnm Batoniensem inthronizaviti" 

Digitized by 


his episcopal. 305 

bat he does not name the place of the enthronisation. Archer assumcB that it 
took place at Wells, but he does not give any evidence in support. 

Bath had been the chief seat of the bishop, sedes praesulea, from whence the title 
was derived since bishop John's time, 'eighty years ago. Bishop Robert had done 
much in reasserting the equality of "Wells with Bath, but Bath was still recognised 
by the pope, Adrian IV., in 1157, as the sedes praesulea.' The bishops now, and for 
some time to come, until 1245, took their title either from Bath alone, or between 
1196 and 1219 from Bath and Glastonbury, and the fair conclusion we are forced 
to draw is, that the legate on this occasion made Bath, aa the chief seat of the 
bishop, the scene of the enthronisation in person, though, no doubt, the bishop 
was enthroned in both his churches, and perhaps by the legate also, in Wells." 

In the earher years of his episcopate, bishop Reginald appears as one of 
Henry's counsellors in the chief national councils of the reign." 

* B. iii. f. 268, 28^—293. Confirmation of possessions of Bath abbey, by Adrian IV. 
Bishop R^inald had been chosen by tho joint action of the two chapters of Bath and Wells. 
R.i.f. 94. R. iii. f. 266. Cf. Doc. 1, 40. 

'' The contemporary docnmentary evidence is clear and consistent, that the title of the see from 
bishop John, 1088, to bishop Roger, 1244, was either "Bath" alone, or, between 1196 — 1219, "Bath 
and Glastonbury." On the other hand, we have the statement of the " Canon of Wells," writing in 
bishop Bnbwith's time, in the 15th centnry, "that bishop Robert obtained from the pope a decree 
that the bishop's seat shonld be in both chnrches, that the bishop shoald be enthroned in both his 
churches, and that the name of Bath should be placed first in the bishop's style." But this state- 
ment is not supported by the Sistoria Minor, nor by early docnments in the Wells registers. 

Archer, Chrcmicon Wellenae, t. 29, had long ago corrected Wharton and Godwin. As to the date 
of the first assumption of the title " Bath and Welle," he says, " Canonicus noster et Godwinus qnin 
et ipse WhartonuB hand satis perspicue rem narrant — Nnllns etenim episcopomm Bathoniensis 
et Wellensis nnncupatus est a prima sedis translatione per Johannem Turonensem facta usque ad 
annum 1244." Roger was consecrated at Reading, Sept, 11, 1244, by the title of Bath and Wells, 
"ad instautiam Domini Papae." Bat he kept the old title of bishop of Bath on his seal. Pope 
Innocent writes to him from Lyons, May 14, 1245, " We hear from the dean and chapter of Wella 
that yon resist onr ordinance. We now enjoin yon to call yourself bishop of Bath and Wells, and 
so to describe yourself on your seal." Vide Vatican Transcripts in the British Museum, Additional 
MS. 15353, vol. V. f. 235. Cf. R. i. f. 93—96. The subject has been elaborated in two articles in 
The QetieaXogiet for Jnly and October, 1885, First Bithop of Bath and Welle. 
- (1) During Henry's reign— from 1174 to 1189. 

Bishop Reginald at Westminstor, May 18, 1175. Howden, ii. 72. 
„ at Woodfltoct, July 1 » ii- 78. 

at London, March 16, 1177. „ ii. 120, 131. 

„ at Toulouse „ 1178. „ ii. 151, 165. 

„ attheLatoranCouncil,March, 1179. „ ii. 171, 189. 


Digitized by 


306 Reginald bwhop of Bath ; 

He was present at the Council of Weatmrnster in 1175, at which acts were 
passed to repress clerical scandals. At the Council of London, in 1177, he was 
one of the signatories to the award in which Henry adjudicated on the rival 
claims of the kings of Navarre and Castille. In 1178, he vas one of a joint 
commission, appointed at the request of the count of Toulouse by Henry and 
Louis VII. of France, to inquire into the heretical teaching of the sect of the 
Cathari, who were established in formidable numbers in the country round 
Toulouse and Albi, and became afterwards known under the name of the Albi- 
genses. Bishop Reginald had for his colleagues on this occasion, Peter, the papal 
legate, the archbishops of Bourges and Narbonne, the bishop of Poitiers, and the 
abbot of Clairvaux. They held their court of inquiry at Toulouse, and reported 
in condemnation of the heretical teaching of the sectaries. In the next year 
Reginald was one of four English bishops ' sent as representatives to the Lateran 
council, summoned by Alexander III., March 1179, at which, among other acts of 
historical importance, the Albigenses sectaries were condemned and excom- 
municated. He returned from the council with a deed of confirmation from the 
pope, his friend Alexander III., dated March 4, 1179, confirming the rights arid 
possessions of the see." 

During the next ten years of Henry's reign he does not appear much in public 
affairs. On the death of his friend archbishop Richard, in 1184, he strongly 
supported the king's nomination of Baldwin bishop of "Worcester to the primacy, 
against the claims of the convent of Christchurch to have the sole appointment, 
and afterwards he was influential in conciliating the monks to accept Baldwin. 

(2) Dnring Richard's reign, 1189—1191. 

Biehop R«^nald was present at Richard's coronation 

at Westminster . . . Sept. 3, 1189. Howden, iii. 8. 

At the Council at Pipewell . Sept. 15, 1189. „ iii. 14. 

At Canterbury . Nov. 26, 1189. E. iii. f. 13. 

At the Council in Normandy . March, 1190. Howden, iii. 32. 

He mediated at "the peace of Winchester," April 

25,1191 R. of Devizes, p. 33, § 42. 

„ „ „ „ „ „ July 28, 1191. Howden, iii. 135. 

HewasattheCbancellorLongchamp'strial,Oct.ll91. „ iii. 145. 

Nominated Primate, at Canterbury, Nov. 26, 1191. „ iii. 168. 

His death toot place, at Dogmersfield, Dec. 27, 1191. Gepvaae,Opero Jtrf. 1.512, R.S. 
' The other bishops at the Lateran Council were Hugh bishop of Durham; John of Oxford, 
bishop of Norwich; Robert FfoUiott, bishop of Hereford. 
' This document is quoted later. See Appendix D. 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 307 

In tlie dispute which followed between the archbishop and his monks he was 
appointed one of the pope's commissioners in 1187. After Baldwin's death these 
events led on to his nomination to the vacant primacy in the last year of his 

(a.) Bishop Reginald in his diocese. 

During these years of his episcopate, 1174 — 1191, bishop Reginald was doing 
good work in his diocese, and they were years of diocesan life and progress. 

Church building was going on around him and under his eye at Bath, at 
Glastonbury, at "Witham, and in other religious houses in the diocese, and gifta and 
endowments were being made to the cathedral church of Saint Andrew in Wells. 
It was his policy to carry on bishop Robert's work and constitution at "Wells, to 
make Wells the headquarters and centre of the diocese, and to give it a fabric and 
a ministrant body worthy of the dignity of the cathedral church of the diocese. 
He resided at Wells — there is no evidence that he ever resided at Bath. Yet 
Bath was not neglected — the hospital of St. John Baptist, by which the sick and 
poor of the city had the benefit of the hot waters, was founded by him in 1 180, and 
endowed with lands "and tenements in Bath and its neighbourhood, and with a 
tithe of hay from bis demesne lands. It was put under the control and manage- 
ment of prior Walter and the convent of Bath, who also gave their endowments. 

Walter the prior, a man of learning and holy life, was a contemporary and 
friend of bishop Reginald.* Elected in 1175, he was with him in his last hours, 
when dying at Dogmersfield. 

The register of the priory of Bath contains a list of gifts made by the bishop to 
the convent, of lands and churches, of ornaments and vestments, of a statue of 
St. Peter, and also, strange to read, of the body of St. Euphemia, virgin and martyr. 
He also enriched their library with many books.** 

At Witham, between 1180 and 1186, prior Hugh was at work laying the 
foundations of bis Charterhouse, with a small band of French monks, meanly 
lodged, and endeavouring to support themselves under severe and ascetic dis- 
cipline, in the desert of Witham. The chapel of the friary, some remains of 
which in the transitional- Norman style are to be seen still in the parish church, 
and the necessary buildings for thirteen monks and about the same number of 
lay brethren, were finished, and the order and discipline of the house Was organised 
before prior Hugh was taken to be bishop of Lincoln in 1186. 

' "Vir mnltae scientiae et religionis," A. S. 585. " See Appendix B. 

Digitized by 


308 Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

The house became the home of those who sought a severer discipline amidst 
the growing laxity of other monastic houses. "Walter, prior of Bath, and Robert, 
prior of St. Swithun's, were two of those who entered the house late in life.' 
Sometimes it was found too severe a life for those who had entered it without 
counting the cost.'' "Walter left it again before his death. It was the home of 
retreat year by year for Saint Hugh when he came from Lincoln to take up again 
the simple life of a monk in his cell at Witham. 

The bishop, who had been the instrument to bring Hugh of Avalon to England, 
continued to support his work in the diocese. The king's charter was granted at 
Marlborough. A chapel had stood in the '* Ererao," the desert of Witham on the 
outskirts of Selwood forest, belonging to the priory of Bruton. The king gave to 
Bruton the rectory of South Petherton in exchange, and exchanges of land were 
made with the Witham owners. 

The house was dedicated in honour of the Blessed- Yir^n and St. John 
Baptist. The king granted lands which afterwards became the parish of Witham, 
and lands on Mendip for a cell of the Charterhouse near Cheddar. The house 
was exempted from all ecclesiastical visitations and imposts ; from all claims of 
sheriffs and officers of the forest. Bishop Reginald on his part, " cum consensu 
capituli Wellensis," granted exemption from tithes and dues to the Charter- 
house in the pariah of Cheddar." 

Other religious houses were growing up at the time in the diocese. 

The abbey of St. Mary at Glastonbury, the great rival ecclesiastical power 
which had hitherto overshadowed the church of Wells, separated from it by six 
miles of moorland, was soon about to go through a period of disaster and 

* Richard of Devizes, the chronicler of the " Gesta Bicardi," 11B9 — 92, a monk of St. Swithnn's, 
paid a visit there to his late prior, to whom he dedicated his Chronicle, " to see how much nearer 
to Heaven was the Charterhonse at Witham than the Priory of St. Swithnn." He bears his witness 
to the greater severity of diacipline there, not without a toach of sceptical sarcasm. " Robertns 
prior S. Swithini Wintoniao, prioratu relicto et professions postposita, apnd Witham, dolore, (an 
dicam devotioneP) dejecit se in sectam Cartnsiae. Waltema prior Bathoniae prins ibidem simili 
fervore vel furore praesnmserat, sed semel extractns nihil minus videtnr adhnc qnam de redita 
oogitare." R. of Devizes, p. 26, § 30. See also the Prologne. 

" Beg. Prior. Bath, ft. 315, 316. 

* Henry's grant is recited in a con6rmation to the prior and convent of Witham by Innocent lY. 
in 1246, in which the bonndaries of the land are set out. Vatican Transcripts in the British MnBenm. 
Add. MS. 15355. vol, v. ff. 374—381. 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 309 

But under bishop Reginald's episcopate there were friendly negotiations and 
territorial exchanges and mutual concessions. 

Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester, who ruled the abbey for more than 
forty years, 1125-1171, had lately died. Robert, prior of Winchester, succeeded. 
By an arrangement with abbot Robert, the church of Pilton was ceded to the 
bishop to form two prebends in the cathedral church, of which the abbot held 
one, without obligation of residence, but bound to pay three marcs to a vicar. 
The canon appointed by the bishop to the second prebend received ten marcs 
from Pilton. The abbot thus became a member of the bishop's chapter, and the 
Glastonbury writers deplore the advantage obtained over the abbey by this 
arrangement, whereby the bishop received the acknowledgment of jurisdiction 
from the abbot, as one of the canons of bis cathedral church." 

At the same time, to put an end to a long-standing controversy between the 
abbey and the church of Wells, the bishop granted the abbot a separate terri- 
torial jurisdiction, to be held by a special officer (the abbot's archdeacon) over 
the churches which were in the twelve hides of Glastonbury .'' The church of 
South Brent, which had belonged to Glastonbury, was ceded to the archdeacon 
of Wells, in lieu of seven churches of the Glastonbury archdeaconry, which 
the archdeacon of Wells had claimed, and it has ever since remained impro- 
priated tO' the archdeaconry of Wells, and in its patronage. The church of 
Huish, near Langport, was also annexed to the archdeaconry of Wells by bishop 

Great building work had been going on at Glastonbury under bishop Henry 
of Blois — the builder of St. Cross near Winchester, founder of Romsey abbey, and 
refounder of Taunton priory. Abbot Robert carried on the work imtil his death 
in 1178. Then the abbey was held by the king, and put into commission to 
Peter de Maroi, a Gluniac monk, as administrator of the revenues during the 
vacancy. While the abbey was in the king's hands, on St. TJrban's day, May 
25, 1184, a fire destroyed the whole of the abbey buildings of Henry de Blois, 
and only a new chamber, which had been built by abbot Robert, with its chapel, 
and the great bell-tower, remained.* 

> R. i. f . 24,, Izix. f . 25, Ixxv. Cf. Adam of Domerham, i. 235 ; ii. 351. 

" The abbey liad claimed exemption for the churches of the twelve hides from all local jnris- 
dictioD secular and spiritual, under a pretended charter of king Ine. 

The exempt jimfidiction was now conceded, and the juriediction of the abbot over the chnrchea 
made equal to a separate and exempt arobdeaconiy, 

" R^ioald's grant v. Adam of Dom. ii. 345, 

' Adam of Dom. ii. 333. 

Digitized by 


310 Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

Henry, grieved at the loss sustained by the Church while the abbey was in his 
hands, undertook to rebuild the church, and committed the work to Ralph Fitz- 
stephen, the chancellor, to spend all the available resources of the convent on the 
fabric. A charter was given by Henry, December 1184, in which he made 
himself and his heirs responsible for the fitting restoration. The work was of 
national interest, the revenues of vacant benefices were applied to the work, and a 
charge was laid upon certain churches in support. Ralph Fitzstephen is described 
as munificent in his gifts, and the royal treasury supplied what was required. A 
great store of relics of saints and worthies buried at Glastonbury was now 
displayed ; and the timely discovery or invention about this time of the bones of 
Arthur and his queen, and the pubKcation of the Arthurian legend, helped to 
draw a large concourse of pilgrims, and brought much gain of money to the - 

Bo rapidly grew the work, that in the second or third year after the fire, 
"on St. Barnabas day, 1186,'" or 1187," bishop Reginald dedicated the new church 
of St. Mary on the spot where the old church, the " vetusta eccUsia" had stood. 
At the same time the foundations were laid, and the building commenced, of " the 
great church," " major ecclesia" 400 feet in length and 80 feet in breadth. But 
with the death of Henry, in 1189, the works were stopped — until 1235. " King 
Richard's mind was more directed to military affairs than to the building which 
was begun, so the work was stopped because there was no one to pay the 
workmen."" Soon after began the great war with Wells, under bishop Savaric, 
continued under bishop Jocelin imtil 1219, in which the revenues of the abbey 
were consumed by litigation at Rome. No building was carried on again until 
1235 ; and a whole century intervened before the next consecration of the church, 
then only partially built, on the day of St. Thomas the Martyr, ISOS."" 

So far we have followed out bishop Reginald's histoiy, as it is connected with 
the general history of the time, and described in the chronicles of Henry the 
Second's reign. 

■ Adam of Dom. li. 335, describes the work, bat does not give the year of consecration, " Ecclesiam 
Sanctae Uariae is loco qno primitaB vetasta steterat ex hipidibns qnadrie opere speciosissimo con- 
Bommavit, nichil omatns in ea praetermittens." John of Glaetonbory (i. 180) names the year thne 
indefinitely, "qoam dedlcavit Beginaldne, tnnc Bathonlae episcopos, anno Domini millesimo cen- 
teeimo octogesimo circiter sexto die S. Bamabae." 

* Mr. Parker says, " more probably 1187." S.A.P. vol, xxvi. 28. 

• Adam of Dom. ii. 341. 
d John of Olast. i. 255. 

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ki$ ^nacopate. 

(6.) Bishop Beginald at WelU. 

But we turn to our own local documents, and to the history lurking in the 
unprinted manuscripts at "Wells, to learn more particiilarly what was going on at 
"Wells during bishop Reginald's episcopate. 

Wells was the bishop's seat all through his time, tmtil his translation to Can- 
terbury in the last days of his life. 

The charters of his time show his care to tread in the footsteps of his prede- 
cessor, and to carry on bishop Robert's policy at "Wells : (a) by confirming and 
increasing the privileges of the town ; (6) by adding to the number of the pre- 
bends, and increasing the permanent endowment of the stalls ; (c) by provision 
for the building of the fabric of the church. 

The municipal history, of "Wells is ancient and interesting. Its early 
charters are of especial value, as showing the relation of the town to the bishop, 
and the growth of the town around the cathedral chiu-ch. 

Two charters to the city by bishop Reginald stand at the head of these con- 
temporary records, and are of general as well as local interest. 

Early in his episcopate, certainly before 1180, as the names of the attesting 
witnesses show, bishop Reginald gave two charters to the town. 

In the first of these he recites the charter of his predecessor, bishop Robert ; 
and, desiring to follow the footsteps of his venerable predecessor, and at the 
request of the burgesses, he confirms with further grants their privileges then 
conferred. (Appendix C.) 

Bishop Robert had forbidden markets to be held in the precincts of the cathe- 
dral church, because the tumult of the buyers and sellers interrupted the devotion 
of the worshippers, and made the house of God a den of hucksterers ; and he 
ordered their removal to the open spaces of the town. At the same time, also, he 
granted to the citizens fairs with freedom from tolls on three festival times in the 
year, viz. on the eves and festivals of (a) the Invention of the Holy Cross ; (6) the 
feast of St. Oalixtus ; (c) the feast of St. Andrew. 

Bishop Reginald, in his confirmation of this charter, granted three additional 
days, viz. the morrow of each of these festivals. He also granted to the burgesses 
one moiety of the profits arising from the hiring of stalls, which belonged to him 
as lord. 

In the second charter, referring again to the example and the charter of his 
predecessor, he grants that the town of Wells shall be a free borough ; that every 
VOL. L. 2 u 

Digitized by 


312 Reginald bishop of Bath; 

one dwelling within its limits and possessing a messuage in the name of a burgage 
should have freedom of dwelling, going, and coming ; also of mortgaging, selling, 
and granting their houses, except to houses of religion. He reserves to the bishop 
the payment of twelve pence a year out of every house in the borough ; forbids 
sale of raw skins, or hides, within the limita of the borough ; grants authority to 
hold a court for settlement of disputes, and for civil and criminal trials, except in 
cases where deadly wounds or injuries for life had been inflicted, without any fee 
to the bishop's justices. He reserves to the bishop right of appeal, and right to 
interfere or revise the sentence of the burgesses if they failed to do justice." 

These charters, two of a series of municipal charters, beginning with bishop 
Robert, conflrmed and amplified by bishop Reginald, and afterwards by bishop 
Savaric, the lords of the manor of Walls, and confirmed by king John, 1202, 
illustrate the peculiar position and character of "Wells as the ecclesiastical city 
growing up around the church, which Mr. Freeman has described so fully in his 
history of the cathedral church and elsewhere : " "Wells stands alone among the 
cities of England proper as a city, which exists only in and through its cathedral 

church, whose whole history is that of its cathedral church Unlike other 

cities, it has its mimicipal history; but its municipal history is simply an appendage 
to its ecclesiMtical history: the franchises of the borough were simply held as 
grants from the bishop." 

They have a further and subsidiary interest as setting out before us the names 
and designations of the representatives of the ecclesiastical corporation, of the 
townspeople and their trades, of the owners of land in the neighbourhood, the 
names of the farms and rillages, at the time contemporary with these bishops of 
Ihe twelfth century. 

Rishop Reginald gathers round him the officers and canons of his cathedral 
church, the landlords and the burgesses and townsfolk, to witness to the charter 
of purchase, which, as lord of the manor, he freely bestows upon them. At the 
same time, as their lord, he reserves to the bishop the right of administering 
justice and reviewing the sentences of the town magistrates. 

In the first of these charters, given before 1166, occur, the names of the first 
officers of the newly constituted chapter, as witnesses to bishop Robert's charter: 
Ivo the dean ; Reginald the precentor, nephew of the late bishop John of Toiirs ; 
and archdeacons Robert and Thomas. 

In bishop Reginald's charter, between 1174-1180, there are the names of the 

* See Appendix C. 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 313 

second generation of officers of the cathedral chapter : there is another dean, 
Richard of Spakeston (Spaxton on the Quantock) 1160-1180; another precentor, 
Hildebert or Albert, 1174-1185; another archdeacon, Richard of Bath, with 
title of local jurisdiction; William the treasurer; Robert the sub-dean: there 
are the canons Ralph of Lechlade, afterwards archdeacon of Bath, and dean, 
1216-1220; William canon of Haselbury; and Peter of Winchester, afterwards 
chancellor, 1185. 

In both charters of bishop Reginald we meet with the first mention of a name 
which was to be more known and honoured than any in the history of Wells, 
Jocelin, the chaplain, the future bishop.* 

A large number of names representing the neighbouring landowners and the 
townsfolk of Wells sign on this memorable occasion in the early life of the 
city, when canons and clerks, burgesses and tenants, were called together by the 
bishop, their lord, to receive this first deed of city incorporation. (See Appendix 0.) 

We gather from other charters in the Wells registers, and the attestations to 
documents belonging to bishop Reginald's time, the names of some more of his con- 
temporaries in the diocese and in the chapter. 

' The family of bishop Jocelin can be traced in the docaments of the time, e. g. 

Certificate by bishop Rainaad, that Walter Fistor of Bath had Bold land at Lanferley, to 
Edward de Wellis and to Hngli hifi heir for five marcs of silver. 

The original grant made to Walter by the late bishop Bobert had been burnt — the fee is 
Borrendered at the Hnndred Conrt. 

Witnesses: Ralph of Lechlade, archdeacon of Bath; Richard, archdeacon of Contances; Bobert 
of Qeldeford; Robert of St. Lo (de Sancto Laado) ; Jocelino, chaplain; John of St. Lo ; Godfrid 
the Frenchman, and others. Bishop Reginald was keepingnp his connection with hie nncle's diocese 
of Coatances. — Chap. Doc. i. 9. 

In Ohap. Doc. i. 10. Inspeximns of grant by Kalph de Wilton of all his land iu Wells to Edward 
de Wellis for 10 shillings annually, and a present of 50 shillings, and to Wimarc his wife a gold 
brooch, and 6 pence each to two of his sons. Witness to the original frrant ; Balph of Lechlade ; 
Alexander, snbdean ; Robert Fitzpane, sheriff of Snmeraet. Witnesses to the Inspeximns : William of 
Welesley ; Alexander, snbdean ; Jocelin, chaplain ; Peter de Winton, Mathias de Winton, <l:c. 

In other docnments we find the names of Samm dignitaries ; e. g.^ i. f. 36. 

Agreement between bishop Reginald and William son of Richard of Melbnry (Hauleberg) 
abont 7 acres near the wood of Wokiole, and a nteadow of 5 acres near Ponlesham is witnessed by 
representatives of the Wells and Salisbury chapters ; bishop Joceline of Saram ; Walter, the 
precentor of Saram ; Thomas, archdeacon of Wells ; Baldwin, chancellor of Samm ; Balph of 
Lechlade ; Bobert of Qeldeford ; Jocelin, chaplain j Stephen of Tor, canon of Wells, and others. 

In another docnmeut. Chap. Doc. i. 13, among the witnesses occur tbe names of £dward of 
Wells, Hugh son of Edward, Jocelin his brother, together with Alexander the dean, Thomas the 
snbdean, William of Dinr (Dinder), William of Weleslia. 

Digitized by 


314 Reginald bisKop of Bath; 

The names appear, nomina tantum for the most part, of the several dignitaries — 
dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, the three archdeacons of "Wells, Bath, and 
Taunton, subdean, succentor. Two deans were living through his episcopate: 
Eichard of Spakeston, from 1160 to 1180; Alexander, from 1180 until the third 
year of bishop Jocelin, 1209. 

Two archdeacons, Thomas of Wells, and Peter of Blois, archdeacon of Bath, 
appear in the history of the time as taking part in pubKc events beyond the 

Thomas Agnellus, archdeacon of Wells, is identified as the preacher of the 
funeral sermon on the death of the young king Henry, in 1183, which bishop 
Stubbs quotes,' as showing that the young king Henry was looked upon as a 
champion of the old regime against the reforming tendencies of the father. 

Peter of Blois, archdeacon of Bath, 1175 — 1190, is the learned rhetorician Mid 
theologian, and letter writer and literary adventurer, who was known to all the 
leading men of the day, an active political agent in Henry's court, and at the 
Roman Curia, of Henry against Becket — of Baldwin against the monks of Canter- 
bury, but changing sides after Baldwin's death. In his letters," he appears as 
archdeacon of Bath before Reginald's appointment to the bishopric; he anti- 
cipates Reginald's preferment, and warns him of the responsibilities ; he defended 
Reginald for taking the side of his father in the quarrel with Becket. In after 
years he complained to Reginald, as bishop, of his severity in enforcing discipline 
upon his deputy in the archdeaconry for nonpayment of a debt. He appears 
to have been put out of the archdeaconry with some disgrace, but in 1192 he was 
archdeacon of London," and died about 1200. 

William of St. Faith, a witness to bishop Robert's charter before 1166, was 
precentor in 1187. In that year the precentor of Wells and the archdeacon of 
Bath were at Rome working on Baldwin's side against the monks of Canterbury, 
while their bishop was the pope's commissary in England, and supporting the 
monks against Baldwin.'^ 

The latter part of the twelfth century, the strong reign of Henry II., following 
the lawlessness and anarchy of Stephen's reign, was marked by an outburst of zeal 
and liberality towards the church and objects of religious veneration. 

It was a time of foundation and endowlnent of monastic houses, and of pre- 
bends for secular canons in cathedral churches. 

■ Pref . to R. of Howden, ii. p. Ivii. 

•• Epittolae Petri BUientis, i. Ep. 62, 58, 149. 

' B. de Diceto, i. Pref. Ixxix. ' Epitt. Gantuar. cixiv., p. 107, Ep. ccciv. 

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his episcopate. 815 

The registers of the chapter of Wells contain many deeds of gifts of laud and 
churches from clergy and laity made to the church of Wells during bishop 
Reginald's time. These gifts were employed by the bishop in council with his 
chapter, in augmenting the common fund of the chapter, or in endowing prebends, 
or in the maintenance of the fabric. 

In this, he was following the action of his predecessor, bishop Robert, and 
the example of other well-governed churches. The estate of the chapter and 
canons had been made by bishop Robert distinct from the personal estate of the 
bishop. The property of the cathedral body was thus secured from the grasp of 
the crown during the vacancy of the see, and from lapsing into private hands, as 
had occurred during bishop John's episcopate. 

The funds given to the cathedral church were divided into a common fund for 
the support of the resident officers of the chapter, and prebends were endowed for 
the support of the several canons of the church. 

These deeds of gift were confirmed by bishop and chapter, by king and pope, 
to secure their permanent validity. Charters of confirmation of the rights and 
possessions of the see occur frequently at this time, and serve as compendious 
summaries of the gradual growth of the possessions of the see during bishop 
Reginald's episcopate. 

They also show incidentally the state of insecurity as to rights of property, 
and the ewe taken by the bishop to obtain the highest legal sanction for the 
rights and possessions of his cathedral church. 

There are six such charters of confirmation in the chapter registers of the 
time — 

1. By pope Alexander III. in 1176, given at the request, (pro postulo' 

tionibus), of dean Richard and the canons of Wells. (R. ii. f- 46.) 

2. By pope Alexander III. in 1179, given to bishop Reginald at the Lateran 

Council. (R. iii. f. 266.) (See Appendix D.) 

3. By king Henry II. in 1185, at Argentan, confirming former royal grants 

to Bath and to the see. (R. i. f. 15, 16. ; cf. iii. f. 333.) 

4. By bishop Reginald, of gifts made to the see in the early part of his 

episcopate before 1180. (R. i. f. 24; cf. iii. f. 10.) 

5. By king Richard I. Nov. 26, 1189, confirming royal grants of his 

predecessors, with special confirmation to bishop Reginald of an 
agreement with regard to his land^at Dynre (Binder), and grant of 
the park at Dogmersfield. (R. i. f . 15, 16 ; cf. iii. 333.) 

Digitized by 


316 EegijMld bishop of Bath ; 

6. By king Richard I. at tbe same date, in the first year of his reign, 

confirming to bishop Reginald the possessions of the see acquired 
during his episcopate. (R. iii. f. 13 in dors.) 

7. By pope Clement III. in 1190. (R. iii. f. 260.) 

The two charters most valuable, as illustrating the history of the diocese at 
this time, are the charters (1) of pope Alexander in 1176, at the beginning of 
bishop Reginald's episcopate, and (2) of king Richard I. in 1189, thirteen years 
after, and two years before bishop Reginald's death : — 

1. The charter of pope Alexander III., brought back by bishop Reginald from 
Rome after hia attendance at the Lateran Council in 1179, is very full in recapi- 
tulation of all the possessions and rights of the see, and also of the bishop's 
jurisdiction and relation to the great religious houses in his diocese. The 
bishop has the power of removing the prior of Bath for sufficient reasons, after 
consultation with the chapter, "or other religious men;" no church or oratory 
may be erected in the diocese without the bishop's sanction; his rights of authority 
and jurisdiction over religious houses and churches within the diocese are 
generally but vaguely defined, with reservation of appeal to the pontifical 
legate or the Roman court ; he has authority to compel attendance at his synod 
of abbots and priors ; none are to officiate in the diocese without his permission ; 
if any monks, or other reUgious men, clerks or laymen, present themselves 
OP are presented to benefices without tbe bishop's consent, he may remove them. 

2. The charter of Richard I. in the first year of his reign, on the eve of 
setting out for the Holy Land, November 26th, 1189, presents a summary of the 
g^ts which had been made to the church during bishop Reginald's episcopate of 
fifteen years, by which sixteen prebends were founded in the cathedral church, 
and other gprants and privileges were bestowed. (See Appendix B.) 

Additional privileges of a special character were also granted by the crown at 
this time : (a) the right of keeping hounds, which his predecessors in the see 
held, but with fuller privileges of hunting through the whole of Somerset, roe 
and fallow deer only excepted. This was a privilege which, in mitigation of the 
extreme rigour of the forest laws, as enforced by Henry I., must have been a 
great boon to his predecessors, and which, from bis earlier sporting tastes, bishop 
Reginald would have been fully able to appreciate. He conferred also, at this 
time, (b) the more important and permanent benefit to the see of rights of 
mining for lead {mineram de plumbo) throughout all the bishop's lands, and pro- 
bably, in connexion with this, (c) the power to create a borough and hold market 
in his land at Radclive, terra sua de Badeclive, described in R. iii. f. 266, as also 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 317 

" tte PortuB of Radeclive," in the manor of Compton Episcopi and Axbridge — 
perhaps a "hithe," or -wharf, at the head of the tideway on the Axe, for the 
exportation of the lead ore of Mendip.' 

But the list in Richard's charter of confirmation does not exhaust the grants 
made to the church at this time. In the border country of the west of Somerset 
were the family lands of three of the knights who had struck down Becket in 
his cathedral church at Canterbury. The Tracy family had given Bovey in 
Devonshire to the church. Simon Brito, or le Bret, of Samford Bret, now gave 
the church of St. Decumans, on the headland overlooking the western channel, for 
a prebend in the church of St. Andrew in 'Wells, and Robert Fitzurse, of Willeton, 
in the same beautiful valley imder the Quantock hills as Samford Bret, endowed 
St. Decumans with twenty acres of land, and gave land to a manse for a chaplain 
to serve a chapel at "Willeton, in the parish of St. Decumans.** 

In the same district, on the borders of Esmoor, "William de Romara, earl of 
Lincoln, founder of Cleeve abbey in 1188, gave the church of Old Cleeve° to 
bishop Reginald ; and the church of Wynesford,* on the Upper Exe, a few miles 
above the Augustinian priory of Barlynch, was given by the lady Alicia de 

These documents show how the constitution and property of the church waa 
built up at this time, under bishop Reginald's rule. I reserve for a second part 
of this paper, notice of those documents which relate to the maintenance of the 
fabric, and for the consideration of the share which bishop Reginald may ha-ve had 
in the building of the church. 

Before closing the general history of his episcopate, it is necessary to notice 
the events of the two last years of his life, in which he passed from Wells to 

Between the year aft«r his return from the Lateran Council in 1179, and 
Henry's death in 1189, bishop Reginald does not appear much in public affairs. 

These quiet years of his episcopate had formed an important period in the 
history of the diocese. Henry II., his old master, who had trusted and employed 
him on important occasions, died at Chinon on the Loire, July 6, 1189. 

■ Batcliffe in Stmckey'B map, on the Axe, which ia navigable so far — Eatley in Greenwood's 
map, in Compton; it is B^hy in Ordnance map. 

* S. Decnman, i. f. 40, Carta Simonis Brito ; i. f . 39, Carta Roberti fil. Urai ; i. f . 38, Confirmatio 
Beginaldi Epiacopi, teste Aloxandro Decano. 

* Cleeve, B. iii. f. 382. 

* Wynesford, R. i. f . 59 ; B. iii. f. 351. 

Digitized by 


318 Begindld biah&p of Bath; 

- A time of restless excitement, of foreign adventure, and political struggles at 
home, followed upon Richard's accession. Reginald, as one of the friends and 
counsellors of Henry, took a leading part in the first events of his son's reign. 

He appears to have been drawn away from his diocese into. the political 
and ecclesiastical intrigues of the court. 

Whether justly or not, he incurs the suspicion of having aimed at the chancel- 
lorship, and of secretly intriguing for the primacy. 

On September 3, 1189, he assisted at the coronatioh of Richard at "West- 
minster. It was a scene of unusual pomp. In the coronation procession to and 
from the church, and to and from the altar, Hugh bishop of Durham on the right, 
and Reginald bishop of Bath on the left hand, walked by the side of Richard.' 
Four barons bore over them a silken canopy supported on four tall lances, and the 
company of earls, barons, knights, clergy and laity followed in long procession. 
After Richard had made the coronation oaths, he was anointed and crowned by 
archbishop Baldwin, the archbishops of Dublin, Rouen, and Trfeves assisting;'' 
and enthroned by tiie two bishops of Durham and Bath. 

After this, Reginald was at the council of PipeweU abbey, on September 15, 
when the appointments to the chief offices and vacant bishoprics were made by 
Richard. The see of Ely and the chancellorship were then given to William 

Richard, intent upon an immediate start for the Holy Land, was selling the 
offices of state, and making conveyances of crown lands, and castles, and towns 
to the "highest bidders. All who could were buying rights and privileges, offices 
and benefices ; " not only to the confirmation of their own, but to the usurpation 
of their neighbours' rights " — " et caeteri, quicwngue volebant, emehant a rege tarn 
sua gua/m alienajwra.'"' 

It is assumed, on a statement of Richard of Devizes, that Reginald made a 
high bid of 4000Z. for the chancellorship, which Richard gave to William Long- 

■ Deiitde Tenit Bicardns dux Jfonnanniae, et Hugo DnneltaenaiB Episcopna a dextris illios ibat 
et Re^iialdua Batoniensia EpiBcopns a BuuBtris illina ibat, et ambracniitin sericam portabatnr inter 
illos. £t onmiB torba comitnm et baronam et militnin et aliomm, tain clericomm qnam laicoram 
eeqnebator Tisqne in atrinni ecolesiae et sio osqne in eocle&iam ad altare. Benedict, ii. 81. 

*> It was a mark of honour to the see, and perhaps also in this case to the man. Brompton, 
writing at the close of the thirteenth centnry (f . 1158-d) says, " Atqne istud privileginm etiam hodie 
praeanles Donelmenses et Bathoniraises sihi rendioant." SaTario, as bishop of Bath, took this same 
place at the coronation of John. 

* TideHowden, Tol. iii. 29, for a list of some of the state offices sold bjthe king at this time. 

Digitized by 


his episc'cfdte. ' 319 

champ, though he paid for it lOOOZ. less— " "Williehnns Eliensis electus, datia 
tribus miUibus lihris argenti, sigillum regis sibi retinuit, licet Reginaldus Italus 
quartum millerium soperobtUlerit." " On the strength of this unsiipported state- 
ment, a charge is brought against Reginald of selfish ambition. Undoubtedly, at 
such a time only such men as St. Hugh of Lincoln, as St. Anselm in earlier times, 
could pass through kings' courts and papal chancelleries without taint, or sus- 
picion at least, of worldliness and corruption. Whether he was tempted to offer 
a high price for the chancellorship or not is doubtful. But it is certain that at this 
time Reginald waa employing his money for the benefit of the diocese in buying 
from the king confirmations of all the possessions and privileges of the see, and 
the grant Of the manor of North Curry ; a costly purchase, which he made over 
to the canons of his cathedral church. 

Reginald was a man who mixed in the world, but he does not seem to have 
been covetous or personally ambitious as compared with his contemporaries, such 
as Hugh of Durham, Hugh Nonant of Coventry, and the chancellor Longchamp. 
He appears to have been pushed forward into prominent positions, and employed by 
others as a counsellor and an arbitrator trusted by both sides, rather than a self- 
seeking intriguer for high places. In 1191 he was twice employed as one of the 
arbitrators in the quarrel between the chancellor Longchamp and earl John at 
the pacification of Winchester, April 25 ; and again, between the chancellor and 
the rebellious sheriff of Lincoln, Gerard de Camville, July 28. He was one of 
those who opposed the chancellor for his high-handed treatment of Geoffrey; but 
he took no prominent part la his trial and humiliation in October, 1191. . 

It was probably his unaggressive, conciliatory line of conduct, which led to his 
election to the vacant primacy, rather than any secret intrigues on his pari;. 

A struggle had been going on since 1187 between archbishop Baldwin and his 
chapter, the prior and monks of the cathedral church at Canterbury. 

Reginald had been forward in supporting Baldwin as the king's nominee, and in 
conciliating the monks to accept him, in 1184. But now, when it may reasonably 
have appeared that the archbishop was using his authority arbitrarily, he did 

■ R. of Devizes. De rebus geatia Bicardt, p. 9, § 10, ed. Stevenson. Biebop Stnbbs and others 
aesome that bishop Reginald is the person here so named ; elsewhere, Richard of Devizes calls him 
by bis ordinary title, Episcopas Bathoniensis. 

At the same time Hugh, bishop of Dnrbam, paid for the office of justiciar 1,000 marcs ; for 
the earldom of Northnmberland, 2,000; and 600 for the manor of Sedbergb. The king, "decern 
millia libras ai^nti de scriniis ejns diligenter eztraxit." R. of Devizes, p. 8, § 9. 
VOL. L. 2 X 

Digitized by 


320 Ueginald bisHop of Bath ; 

not ehrink from opposition to the king, and from taking the unpopular side, of the 
convent. St. Hugh of Lincoln was on the same side afterwards.' 

The immediate subject of dispute was the foundation by the archbishop, out of 
some of the funds of the cathedral chapter, of a college and church of secular 
canons at Hackington, near Canterbury. The project gave much offence to the 
monks, who thought they saw in it, what was probably the intention, a desire to 
supplant them in their position as metropolitan chapter, and to substitute a body 
of secular canons (out of their revenue) who would be more amenable to the 

They naturally resisted what" in their view must have appeared an act of 
usurpation and arbitrary authority on the part of their abbot, the archbishop. 

The king supported the archbishop; the courtiers, for the most part, went 
with him. The convent appealed to the pope. The pope. Urban III. in October, 
1187, took up the cause of the convent, and appointed a commission, consisting 
of Reginald bishop of Bath, Seffred bishop of Chichester, and the abbots of 
Feversham and Reading, ordering them to destroy the building. 

"With the death of Urban III. in 1187, proceedingB were suspended. Henry 
died in July 1189. A new reign began in England. The quarrel was arranged 
for a time ; and archbishop Baldwin went on the Crusade with Richard. 

Baldwin's death at Acre was known in England in March 1191. 

The monks used the opportunity of the vacancy in the see to overthrow the 
scheipe of the late archbishop, and to secure to themselves the election of his 

In May 1191, pope Celestine issued his mandate peremptorily to bishop 
Reginald and the commissioners, to execute the order for the destruction of the 
new buildings at Hackington, and on July 21 they were levelled to the ground. 

The monks had succeeded in one of their objects. 

They were now eager to secure the election of the archbishop. Reginald is 

■ Vide Stnbba, Pref. to the Epittolae CantwirtemBS, p. liii. for the history of this controversy; 
aud letters to aud fi-om Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, in the collection. Also Letters of Peter of Bloia. 
Ep. cxxxv. ooclv. Vide Vita S. SugwU, p. 134-5. At this same time two of the chapter of Wella 
vei-ei Baldwin's agents at Borne, Peter of Blois, archdeacon of Bath, and William of St. Faith, 
precentor of Wells. 

The letters illustrate Peter's character. T. Ep. czxxt., his letter on Urban's death ; ccclv., his 
change of sides, in disgust at not having been paid his expenses. So he writes about May, 1191, 
" perdidi operant et impensas — meisqne peccatis ezigentibns permisit me Dominus occasione illins 
archiepiscopi damnose delndi ..." and he offers his services to the Convent. 

Digitized by 


his episcopate. 321 

charged with secretly intriguing for the primacy ; hut there is no evidence that he 
sought the office, or took any steps to obtain it.' 

It was likely that his support of the convent, his position as pope's commis- 
sioner, and his execution of the pope's orders, should have won him the favour of 
the monks. He certainly had an active but self-interested agent in his cause 
in Savaric, his kinsman, who had some mysterious influence with the emperor 
Henry VI., and the king of Prance, Philip, son of Louis VII, the patron of 
Reginald in early life. If Savaric was intriguing for Reginald, he certainly was 
intriguing also for himself, and for the reversion of Reginald's bishopric of Bath. 

Under his influence, the emperor wrote in November 1191, to recommend the 
convent to take the advice of Savaric "dilectus consanguineus noster," in the 
choice of their archbishop. At the same time, Philip of France recommended 
Reginald as the friend of his father, who had given him the abbey of St. Eiuperius 
in 1164; and as strongly supported by Savaric, "our faithful friend.'"' 

The king's justiciars had appointed December 3 for a meeting of council to 
elect. But before the day, the monks, anticipating the meeting of the council, held 
a chapter on November 27, to assert their claim and to nominate their candidate. 

The prior tried to sound the archbishop of Rouen, the chief justiciar, as to 
the person who would be accepted by the king. The archbishop, as Oervaae hints," 
intended the monks to choose himself ; if so, he must have failed to make himself 
intelligible, or to have convinced the prior of his merits. " Would the bishop of 
Bath be admissible?" The archbishop did not say "yes," but the monks inter- 
preted his looks as favourable. "We elect," cried the prior, "the bishop of 
Bath." The monks re-echoed the nomination, and, laying violent hands on 
Reginald, thrust him, protesting, imploring, struggUng, into the archbishop's chair. 

The archbishop of Rouen protested in the king's name ; the members of the 
council threatened further proceedings ; but the monks supported their right to 
elect. Reginald re-asserted his unwillingness, but acquiesced in the election, and 
announced his intention of awaiting the pope's confirmation, with the words : 
"ansius, invitus consentio vel gratulabundus cedo." 

But all that had been done was made void by Reginald's death within a month 
of the election. 

He was on his way to or from his diocese, when he was seized with paralysis 
at his manor of Dogmersfield on Christmas five. 

" GervaBe ao says, " clam ambiens." Bishop Stnbba, Pref. Ep. Cant. Ixxxi. thinka " he was 
quietly laying his plans for the primacy." See also ibid. Ixxxiit. 

" Epp. Cant. Gcclxxxi. ii. ' Gervase, Opera Sitt. i, 511. B. S. 


Digitized by 


322 Begmald hUhop of Bath ; his ^iacopate. 

The prior of Christchurch was sent for. The archhishop, anticipating his 
death, ordered him to bring the monk's habit, that he might die as a member of 
the brotherhood. Hia hist words were, " God willeth not that I should be yom- 
archbishop. But I desire to be a monk, and one with you. Farewell, and pray 
for me without ceasing, as one of the brotherhood."' 

He died on St. Stephen's day. The body was taken to Bath, and buried 
before the high altar on the day of St. Thomas the Martyr, December 29. 

Peter of Blois, no longer now archdeacon of Bath, speaks of him as " Hagni 
nominis umbra," and marks — perhaps with malicious humour — the curious coin- 
cidence that his days of death and burial were the feasts of the two saints to 
whom the church was dedicated, which he had been instrumental in destroying. 
" It was as if St. Stephen had killed him, and St. Thomas had buried him." But 
Richard of Devizes, to whom bishop Stubbs gives the character of "an ill-natured 
historian, who never misses an opportimity of speaking ill," is witness to his love 
for his church of Bath, and the love of his diocese for him,'' and has condensed 
in two lines of an homely epitaph — in which he plays upon bis name, a high 
testimony to his character, 

Dam ReginatduB erat bene seque Buosque regebat — 
Kemo pluB quaerat — quicquid docuit faciebat.' 

Reginald's life is connected with interesting scenes and important events in 
the great reign of Henry II. As a statesman, he was one of the foremost in the 
second rank of able men whom Henry gathered round himself. 

As a bishop, though he was of another type from the ascetic and unworldly 
Saint Hugh, yet he rose far above the selfish and worldly bishops of his time, 
who were the scorn of Henry.'" 

Reginald had no opportunity of showing whether he was capable of ruling the 
church of England as primate, in those troubled times. We may think it was 
happier for him, and for his reputation, that he had not to undergo the trial. 
But at least Wells has reason to honour him as one of her chief benefactors, not 
only in ecclesiastical, but in civil history ; zealous and liberal, and wise in govern- 
ment ; and a worthy successor of bishop Robert. 

" Ep. ccclzxxviii. " Mihi non videtar quod velit Dens qnod vester Bim archiepiscopns. Vester 
aatem volo et deaidero esse monaclms. Valete, et gratia veatri incessanter, inceaeanter, oretis pro me. 
" " Qaam mnltnm diligebat, magis ab ea dilectna." 
= B. of Devizes, p. 46, § 58. 

' Beginald rightly named, bimself and his flock ruled well ; 
How ? What he taaght he did ; there ia no more to tell. 
* William of Newbnry, III. c. xxvi. 

Digitized by 


Bishop Reginald's share in the fabric of the cathedral chmxh of Wells. 

It has been generally assumed by later writers, who have followed the Canon 
of Wells and Godwin as the original authorities on the history of the fabric, 
that we have no documentary evidence of bishop Reginald's work on the fabric of 
his own cathedral church. 

The Canon of Wells, as quoted in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, and bishop Godwin 
say nothing of any building works between the times of bishop Robert and bishop 

Professor Willis,' in his lectures on the church of Wells, passes from bishop 
Robert to bishop Jocelin, as the next prelate who comes architecturally on the 

Mr. Freeman says, "We may pass more lightly over the time of the two 
bishops who came between the first great founder, Robert, and the second great 
founder, Jocelin. Their time is a most important time in the history of the see 
of Bath and Wells ; it is the most important of all times in the late history of the 
church of Glastonbury ; but it provides but little matter bearing on the history of 
the fabric, or the constitution of the church of Wells. The next bishop, Reginald, 
founded several new prebends, but I do not find any mention of the fabric in 
his time.'"* 

But we have additional evidence, contained in the chapter registers at Wells, 
which are of earlier authority than the Canon of Wells and Godwin. Professor Willis 
had access to these registers for his lectures on Wells ; and he says, that he 
" drew from these records many particulars of dates and facts hitherto unknown 
in relation to the progress of the building in the fourteenth and subsequent 

But, unfortunately, his researches did not extend to the earlier records bearing 
on this first portion of the history of the fabric. 

The first document quoted from his own observation is dated 1286. He 
exhorts members of the chapter, who have the opportunity, to pursue inquiries 
into the cathedral registers. 

■ Someriel Archaeological Proceedingi, vol, xii, part I. p. 17, 
•• Cathedral Church of WelU, p. 70. . , 

Digitized by 


324 MeginaU Ushop of Bath ; 

Mr. Freeman looks forward to the time when these and all such dociuuents 
" locked up in manuscript" shall be put into print. "We may be sore he will be 
the first to give weight to any evidence there may be " lurking in these manu- 
scripts " to illustrate the history of the cathedral church, which he has taught 
others to study. For, if we can discover charters contemporary with the episco- 
pates of Reginald and Savaric, they will give a continuity to the history of the 
fabric, which has hitherto been wanting, for the time between Robert and Jocelin ; 
and we cui test the claim of the Canon and Godwin to represent the earliest 
history of the fabric. 

These documents in the registers of the chapter of Wells have lately been 
calendared, and their contents printed in a volume published by the Historical 
MSS. Commission. This is the first step to the publication of separate documents 
which may have historical value. 

I propose to compare some of these earlier documents with the history of the 
fabric contained in the Canon and Qt>dwin. 

The contemporary document in the register of the priory of Bath, the 
Eixtoriola de primordiie episcopatus Somersetensis, gives the history of the church in 
Robert's time, 1135-1166. 

Porro non est oblivioni tradendum quod ecclesia Welliae sao consilio fkbricata est et auxilio. 
Et factam est cum perfeota esset eccleaia Welliao ab eodem domino, Welliae aBcitis sibi et 
adjanctis grandig et praeclarae memoriae tribus pontificibus G". Sar*. et 8. domino Wjgom. 
Roberto domino Here&rdiae, consecravit et dedicavit ipsam ecctesiam. 

The date of this consecration of the church after restoration is determined, by 
the dates of consecration and death of the three assisting bishops, as not later than 
the year 1148.' The three bishops were Jocelin de Bohuu, bishop of Salisbury, 
1142-1184; Simon, bishop of Worcester, 1125-1150; and Robert de Bethune, 
bishop of Hereford, who was consecrated in 1131, and died in 1148.'' 

The writer of the Mistoriola, as if in fresh recollection of the event, goes on to 
tell how the anniversary of the consecration was marked by the grant from the 
bishops assembled of one hundred days of remission of penance to all who should 
come on the anniversary of that day to the church. 

The writer ascribes to bishop Robert in general terms the rebuilding of the 
church; and the consecration of the work is marked as a great event in the 
history of the church. No details are given of the condition of the church, or of 
the parts rebuilt. 

*• Angl. Sacra, i. 561. *" Stnbbs, Epitc. Succetsion. 

Digitized by 


his share in thefahric of the cathedral church of WeUs. 325 

The next writer is the Canon of "WeUs of the fifteenth century. He goes more 
into detail about bishop Robert's work than the contemporary writer : 

" Dedicavit Ecclesiam WeUensem, praesentibus Qocelino Sarum, Simone Wigom, 
et Roberto Herefordensi Episcopis. Multas ruinas ejusdem Ecclesiae destmctionem 
ejus in locis pluribus comminantes egregie reparavit."* 

Godwin comes after, and varies the words of the canon : 

" Ecclesiam annosa vetustate labantem et properante ruina collspsuram partim 
refecit, partim de novo condidit."" 

"Whereas oar churche of Wells at this time was exceeding ruinous, and 
likely every day to fall to the ground, he pulled down a great part of it and 
repaired it,'" 

Br. Archer, who could find nothing in the registers to bear out these state- 
ments of the later writers, adds this significant comment, "unde vero isti 
hauserunt non constat.'** 

Here and elsewhere he puts us on our guard against accepting with implicit 
confidence the authority^of the Canon and Godwin. 

Bishop Robert died August 31, 1166. 

No mention of the fabric of the church is made by the Canon of Wells or by 
Godwin in their history of the time between Robert and Jocelin, who succeeded 
May 28, 1206> and consecrated the church in 1239. 

We are left to infer — ■ 

1. That no building was carried on in Reginald's time; 

2, That Jocelin found both the Saxon church and Robert's new work in 

ruins, and pulled down the whole church and rebuilt it. 

But we have evidence in contemporary charters which in some measure 
suppHes the blank in the history of the fabric, and leads to different inferences. 

While bishop Reginald was receiving and applying benefactions to the church 
from the clergy and laity of the diocese, he on his own part was making liberal 
provision by his own acts, both for the augmentation of the common fund of 'the 
canons, and also for the maintenance and progress of the fabric of the church. 

Early in his episcopate he had made over to the canons the " Barton " or home 
farm, which was the property of the bishop, free of the annual rent of twelve 
marks, which they had hitherto paid for it. 

" We have given to God, and to St. Andrew, and to the canons there, devotedly 

• Anglia Sacra, p. 561. '' Qodtein, Lat. ed. 1614. 

« Godwin, Eng. ed. 1601. "' Archer's C'hrotikon WelUiue, f. 42. 

Digitized by 


326 • Beginald bishop of Bath ; 

seiring God, their Barton, free from all service, and expressly (nominatim) from 
the rent of twelve marks, which they were wont to pay to us yearly."* 

He had also given to the common fund of the chapter the tenths of all mill- 
dues on his manor of "Wells, ad eommunami canonicorum ibidem deo servientium.^ 

These benefactions to the income of the canons, given in perpetuity for him- 
self and his successors, were accompanied with another gift during his own life- 
time to the fabric fund of the church. 

In a deed done in chapter very early in his episcopate, in the presence of the 
dean Richard of Spakeston, William of St. Faith the precentor, Thomas, arch- 
deacon of Wells, and " almost all the canons of the church," he made over to 
the chapter, specially for the uses of the fabric, all the fruits accruing from 
vacant benefices throughout the diocese, until the work shall be finished. 

This grant is conveyed in a charter which recites in the preamble the duty 
incumbent on the rulers of the church, and his own continual solicitude that God 
shall not be dishonoured by the squalor and neglect of the beauty of His house. 
So, with the assent of his archdeacon, and in full council with his chapter, he had 
Bet himself to discharge this duty incumbent upon him of providing a fund out 
of the episcopal revenue, from the fruits of benefices " during the time they were 

' B. i. f . 25, i. f . 59. " Bertona eat villa vel praedam fmrnentariam." The " canon's bam " is 
now (1885) converted into the cathedral grammar school, by the liberality of canon Thomas 
Bernard, chancellor, 1868. 

■■ R. i, t. 40, czliz. " Carta de decimis molendinomm de Well." ; R. i. f. cxlviii. recited and 
confirmed hj Savaric afterwards. 

' " The vacant benefice reverted to the diocesan both in spiritnals and temporals. He was the 
gnardiaa of both, bound to provide for the epiritn&l care of the flock, and also for the revennes 
chai^eable with that care. 

" This cnstom or rather common law was one of the Borvivals of the earlier condition of the 
Chnrch, when the endowments of a diocese were a dioeetan fond, administered by the bishop and 
synod, and applied to the support of a diocesan corps of clergy. 

" These fmita formed a regular part of episcopal revenue administered by a sequestrator-general, 
until the Act of Heniy VIII. which, in order to secure payment of his first-fruits from the incoming 
incumbent, gave to the incumbent the fruits during vacancy — leaving to the bishop only the duty 
of husbanding those fruits by a sequestrator, and providing therefrom for the spiritual duties." — 
Note by bishop Hobhonse. 

Bishop Jocelin in 1216, after consultation with dean Leonios and the chapter, granted to the 
commune two-thirds of the revennes of vacant benefices, R. i. f . 59. 

Bishop Roger in 1246 claimed all the vacant benefices ; but the chapter appealed to the grant 
made to them by bishop Reginald, and the bishop withdrew his claim npon examination of the 
charters. The chapter then made a free gift to him of the two-thirds (saving to the archdeacon the 
third part) in consideration of the debts of the bishop and bishopric. But they gave this only for 
the bishop's life, and their act was not to bind future times. B. i. f. 64. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral chv/rch of Wells. 327 

vacant, which should be entirely applied during his lifetime towards the building 
of the cathedral church, until, by the help of GK)d, the whole work shall be 
brought to an end.' 

Other grants follow, which have a special interest as unpublished evidence 
bearing upon the history of the fabric. 

A group of contemporary documents bear witness that some building was 
going on in the church at the time, and that grants were being made for the 
completion of the work. The dates of these early documents are not expressly 
given; they can only be Mcertained by internal evidence and the names of 
attesting witnesses. 

There are three grants of churches neighbouring to one another in the district 
of Castle Gary, made probably by members of the same family, the Levels of 
Gary, either attested by witnesses who were contemporaries with bishop Reginald, 
or confirmed by Reginald himself. 

(a.) Robert de Kari, lord of Lovinton, gives to God and St. Andrew the 
advowson of the church of Lovinton, with one hide of 160 acres of land, and a 
messuage near the church." 

This deed is confirmed by bishop Reginald." 

(b.) Nicolas de Barewe,'* in ruri-decanal chapter at Gary (in capitulo apud 
Karl), " considerata canonicorum Wellensium honesta conversatione et surgentis 
ecclesie sue landabilis structura," gives up his life interest in the temporalities of 
this same church of Lovinton for an annual pension of two shillings.' 

Among the witnesses is Adam, the sub-chanter, who also witnessed the grant 
of Lovington. 

* " Universis Chrisli fideliboa ad qnos praesens carta perrenerit, Reginaldns Dei gratia Bathon. 
Episcopna salntem in Domino et Dei beaedictionem. lis qnibos est divina dispositione pastoralis 
officii cnra commissa et ecclesiamm solioitndo injnncta eammo opere providendnm est ut domnm 
Dei ea excolaat diligentia qnod dignitaa Domini in domas sqaalore non possit deveuastari. Hoc 
igitnr zelo dacti de assensn et consilio an^hidiaconoram nostrae amctoritatis ad hoc duximns, 
mnnimen impendendnm nt ad fabricam Wellensis Ecclesiae ad cajns regimen Bunns domino 
disponente admissi, fractiu et obventiones vacantinm ecclesiaram in noatra dioceei ezistentinm 
qoamdin vacaverint oonvertantor, et in nsos operationis ex toto cedant donee per Dei miserantis 
aimliiim conBometor. 

Factum est hoc in capitulo Wellensi, praeaente Ricardo de Spakeston, ejnsdem ecclesiae 
Decano, Willebno precentore, T. arohidiacono et ommbns tei-e illias ecclesiae canonicia." — L^er 
Buher ii. f. U. 

■• B. i. f. 38, cm. Ib.i. 61, coxHi. 

'' North Barrow, the next pariah to Loyiaton. R. i. t. 38, cxxii.— Cf. R. i. (. 61, ccxli. 

• B. i. f. 38, cxixi. 

VOL. L. 2 T 

Digitized by 


328 Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

(c.) Alured de Punson grants the neighbouring church of South Barrow, " in 
fundo meo eitam," to God and St. Andrew, to the commune of Wells, and to 
Reginald bishop of Bath." 

Among the witnesses are Thomas archdeacon of "Wells, Robert de Geldeford 
archdeacon, Alexander subdean of Wells, etc. 

These deeds follow one another in the register, as if, in the mind of the 
chapter clerk who copied them, they had connection of time and place. 

The attestations to these charters fix their dates to the time of Reginald. 

A special interest attaches to the charter of Nicolas of Barrow for the insight 
which it gives, though but a glimpse, into the state of the cathedral chapter at this 

The motives which prompted the grant of the church of Barrow, perhaps of 
others, was a desire to support in their work the canons who bore a good 
reputation in the diocese, and to promote the building of the church, which was 
now rising in beauty. He makes his grant " in consideration of the right conver- 
sation of the canons of "Wells and the admirable structure of the rising church." 

These terms in the preamble of a formal document have some force of 
meaning. They give an interest to the bare names of canons which occur as 
signatories to these documents of the time, they imply that there was attention 
to duty, piety, and devotion in dean Alexander and the archdeacons and canons, 
Robert of Guildford, Ralph of Lechlade, William of Martock, and doubtless Jocelin 
the chaplain, which commanded the respect of their brethren of the mridecanal 
chapter of Gary. 

And also at this time the church of St. Andrew was rising and becoming an 
object of interest and admiration to the clergy and laity of the diocese, so that 
when Nicolas of Barrow and Michael of Aldeford, and Ralph of Tarlington came 
up to Wells they would contrast their own little village churches with the 
proportions and architectural beauty of the buildings rising at Wells, and report 
that their cathedral church was becoming " exceeding magnifical," and a praise 
in the diocese, " laudabilis structura." 

Again there is another charter which tells more definitely of new buildings at 
Wells, and of the restoration of older work at this time. 

Martin of Carscumbe, presumably Croscombe, near Wells, makes a grant of 
three silver marcs towards the construction of the new work, " ad oonstructionem 
novi operis," of the church of St. Andrew in Wells, and another two marcs to the 

• B. i. f. 61, ccxliii. 

Digitized by 


his share in (he fabric of the cathedral chwrch of WelU. 329 

repairs of the chapel of St, Mary there, ^ ad emeudationem capellse beatsa Marite 
ejiisdem loci."' 

The deed is attested by an unknown witness, Baldwin the chaplain. But it is 
dated with a precision which fii^ it to certain years — " in the second year after 
the coronation of the lord the king at Winchester." 

Two years are possible. Winchester was the scene of royal coronation twice 
during the last part of the twelfth century. 

At Whitsuntide 1170, the young Henry, eldest son of Henry II. (sometimes 
called rex junior, sometimes " Henricus III.")'' had been crowned at Westminster 
without his wife Margaret of France, by Roger archbishop of York. That 
disastrous event had brought down upon Henry the wrath of Thomas of Canter- 
bury for the violation of the privilege of his see, and of the king of France for 
the slight offered to his daughter. He was crowned a second time with his queen 
in St. Swithun's, Winchester, on August 27, 1172. 

If we might take our date as the second year from this coronation, and assign 
1174 to thifl charter, it would fall in the first year of Reginald's episcopate, and 
it would be the earliest evidence of any architectural work succeeding Robert's 
consecration of the church in 1148. But it is improbable that the young Henry, 
though crowned and called rex junior and Benricus tertius in contemporary 
documents, would have been called dwninus rex during the lifetime of his father. 

There was another coronation at Winchester in twenty-four years. Richard I. 
who had been crowned in state at Westminster on his accession on September 3, 
1189, was crowned a second time after his return to England, as it were " to wipe 
out the stain of his captivity and his foreign homage," on April 17, 1194, at 

• Carta Martini de Kartcumhe. Noverit nniveraitaa vestra qood ego Martimia dedi deo et 
eccleniae beat! Andreae in Wellia pro salate animae meae et animamm onmiam aotecessonun 
meonuD, tres marcas ai^nti ad constrnctionem novi operia — et dnas marcas ad emendationeia 
capellae beatae Mariae ejnsdem loci accipiendas de redditu de Maperton quern dominnB meiia H. de 
Novo Mercato mibi in solntionem debiti mei asaignaTit et in carta nostra confinnaTit 

nt haec donatio firma permaneat et inconcnsaa earn sigilli mei appositione roboravi. His 
testibns : Baldwino capellano, &o. Anno aecnndo poet coronationem domini Regis apttd Wintoniae. 
R. i; f. 41. 

Henry Newmarch (de Novo Mercato) was lord of the barony of Cadbnry in Somerset, 6 Richard I. 
Dngdale, Baron, p. 435. 

" Richard of Devizes, De rebut gestit Ricardi I. p. 5, § 3. " Bicardaa filins regis Henrici aecnndi, 
fratei- regis Henrici tertii," " Henry, son of King Henry the Second, is frequently styled Henry 
the Third in the early chronicles and contemporaneous State Papers, He died in 1183," Note by 

2y 2 

Digitized by 


330 BegmaM bishop of Bath ; 

Winchester. The year 1196 would then be the second year after the coronation, 
the fourth year of Savaric's episcopate. 

In either case the document is evidence that — 1. New building was going on 
in the church at Wells in the latter part of the twelfth century, either by Reginald 
in succession to Robert, or by Savaric in succession to Reginald. 2. That there 
was then a chapel of St. Mary which required and was undergoing repair. 

We cannot trace any other documentary reference to the " new work " in 
Savaric's time. But we have some clue to an earlier chapel, which may be the 
chapel of St. Mary now under repair. 

In a charter of bishop Robert of the date of 1136, there is mention of the 
chapel of the Blessed Mary, which bishop Giso endowed with land in Wotton. 

" Dimidiam etiam hidam in Wotton cum virgata terrae quam jocundae recorda- 
tionis Gyso episcopus dedit Oapellae Beatae Mariae." ' 

It may be that Giso built this chapel at the time when he was building the 
cloister and refectory for his canons, on the ground south of the church, where 
we know a "chapel of St. Mary near the cloister" was standing in Jocelin's time, 
and afterwards, and is mentioned repeatedly in later documents. 

This chapel may have been spared when bishop John puUed down the 
canonical buildings of his predecessor. 

These documents, relating to the years between 1174-1196, bear witness that 
building was going on at Wells in the latter part of the twelfth century, and in 
Reginald's episcopate. 

There are no fabric rolls of that date, but the charters of gifts and endow- 
ments for. the sustentation of the fabric and for the completion of work going on, 
and the acts of confirmation by bishop and chapter contradict the inferences 
drawn from the language of the Canon of Wells and Gt)dwin, that nothing was 
done between Robert's and Jocelin's time. 

It seems antecedently improbable that Reginald should have left the fabric 
of his own cathedral church to fall into ruins, or to remain neglected during 
seventeen years of an active episcopate. It was, as we see, a time of activity and 
progress in the diocese. The bishop was carrying on Robert's work, " following 
the footsteps of his predecessors, and led by their example." 

He was a vigorous man, a Norman, and might be supposed to have had that 
love of building which distinguished the race. He was high in favour with the 

■ R. i. f, 31, " De ordinatione prebendarnm." 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the catked/rcU church of WeUa. 331 

kings Henry and Richard and Jolin his brother. He had travelled muchi and 
must have seen or known of new buildings rising abroad and at home — in his 
uncle's diocese of Coutances, and at Canterbury, where the rebuilding after 
the fire of 1174 was going on throughout his episcopate; in his own diocese — at 
Bath, where he was the restorer of two churches, the founder and builder of the 
hospital; at Witham, where St. Hugh was building his first church, and preparing 
for his greater architectural work at Lincoln ; at Grlaatonbury, where buildings of 
national interest were going on between 1184 and 1193, under Norman workmen ; 
and he was the consecrator of the first completed part, the chapel of St. Mary. 

There would have been sufficient to kindle the ambition of an active ruler to 
keep up and to beautify the church of one of the seats of his diocese, which his 
predecessor had begun to rebuild. 

But we know now from these documents, and from his own words, that the 
building of the church was the subject of his care and solicitude. We know that 
he was promoting the building by a large gift to the fabric fund for his lifetime ; 
that the work was being carried on, and the chiirch was rising and becoming a 
goodly structure in the land ; and that new work and repair of old building were 
being planned or carried out, to which offerings were made, in the first years of 
his successor's episcopate. 

It is alike against antecedent probability, and against positive evidence, that 
the church was neglected and falling into ruins between 1174 and 1196. 

"We turn now to the description of the church in Jocelin's time, as told by the 
Canon of Wells and GTodwin, and compare their statements with contemporary 

The Canon of Wells, writing of Jocelin, says : " Ipsamque Ecclesiam vetustatis 
minis enormiter deformatam prostravit, et a pavimentis erexit dedicavitque." 

This is the description of a building allowed to fall into shapeless ruin, enormiter 
deformatam, by a century of neglect and decay. 

The rebuilding of the whole church is attributed to Jocelin, from pavement 
to vault, " prostravit et a pavimentis erexit." 

We are accustomed to vague descriptions in the accounts of restorations of 
dilapidated buildings, but it is important to weigh the words used in this case, as 
they affect the general credibihty of the traditions of the church and the date of 
parts of the present architecture. 

When we examine this description more critically, we observe that the same 
kind of language had been used by the Canon in describing the state of the church at 
Robert's restoration : " Multas ruinas ejusdem Ecclesiae (Wellensis) destructionem 

Digitized by 


332 Iteginald bishop of Bath ; 

ejus in loois pluribus comminantes egregie reparavit." Again the peculiar expres- 
sion, "enormiter deformatam," is found in the chapter register of the year 1338, 
as descriptive of the damage done by the settlement of the central tower. The 
church is there described as"totaliter confracta et enormiter deformata." So 
that it is to be remarked that the same words are used to describe the church in 
ruins in Jocelin's time which had been applied with still stronger emphasis to 
describe the partial damage caused to part of the nave by the settlement of the 

Bishop Godwin enlarges upon the text of the Canon, and describes, with more 
pretention to exactness, Jocelin's work. 

In the English edition he says : 

" Moreover, in building he bestowed inestimable summes of money. He built 
a stately chappell in his pallace at Welles and another at Owky, as also 
many other edifices in the same houses ; and lastly, the church of Welles 
itselfe being now ready to fall to the ground, notwithstanding the great cost 
bestowed upon it by bishop Robert, he pulled downe the greatest part of it, to 
witte all the west ende, built it anew from the very foundation, and hallowed 
or dedicated it October 23, 1239. Having continued in his bishopricke 37 yeeres, 
he died at last November 19, 1242, and was buried in the middle of the quier 
that he had built under a marble tombe, of late yeeres monsterously defaced." 

He varies and amplifies his statement in the Latin editions of 1614-1616 : 

" Ecclesiam ipsam Wellensem jamjam coUapsuram (quamvis in ejus reparatione 
ingentes non ita pridem sumptus fecerat Bobertus Episcopus) egregie refecit ac 
restituit, vel potius novam condidit. Nam partem multo maximam, quicquid 
nimirum presbyterio est ab occidente, demolitus est, ut cum ampliorem tum 
pulchriorem redderet, structura excitata ex polito lapide affabre insculpto, augus- 
tissima et spectatu dignissima. Triennio antequam excederet Ecclesiam jam abso- 
lutam dedicavit Octobris vicesimo tertio, 1239." 

" Humatus jacet in medio chori a se constructi." 

This account of Godwin is somewhat confused. In the English edition he 
seems to say that the west end was the greatest part which Jocelin pulled down. 
At another time he says " he pulled down from the west to the presbytery." But 
under certain variations in detail the language of these two authorities is decisive, 
that in their view — 

(a.) There was no building going on at Wells in the time between Robert 

and Jocelin ; 
(b.) That Jocelin pulled down and rebuilt the west end and the greatest 
part of the church. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral church of Wells. 338 

We may say, as Archer said of statements by the same authorities on the 
state of the church in Robert's time : "Unde vero ista hausenmt non constat." 

Let us ascend to the earher authorities. 

(a.) In the traditions of fifty or sixty years earlier than the Canon (as given in 
the Historia Minor of bishop Harewell's time, 1367-1386), we have another and a 
simpler description of Jocelin's work : 

Cni Buocessit Jocelinas - . . qui ecdesiatn Batboniensem dedicavit — hie in primo anno 
oonsecrationis suae serviUum B. M. in ecoleeia Wellenei fecit quotidie decantari ipaamque ecde- 
siam a parte occidental! pro major! parte erexit et earn cum manerio de Wynescombe el 
advoeatione ipsius dotavit — capellas etiam cum cameria de Weill's et Wokj uobiliter constiuxit. 

In this description of the building the writer of the fourteenth century at least 
says nothing about ruins, but fixes upon the western part of the church, and the 
chapels at "Wells and Woky in the bishop's houses, the remains of which are of the 
same style as the west front, as the new building works by which Jocelin's 
episcopate was distinguished. 

Let us ascend still higher to contemporary documents. 

(b.) Jocelin notices the consecration of his work at Wells in two documents. 
We have no consecration deed — no contemporary historical account of the act of 
reconsecration by Jocelin, such as the Historiola gave of Robert's work in 1148. 
But the bishop mentions the consecration of the church twice in the introduction 
and preamble to two charters given to the church about this time. 

1. In a charter confirming to the chapter the manor and church of Wynescumb, 
given " on the morrow of St. Romanus," he says : 

Omnibue Ohrieti fidelibuB ad quos praeeens carta pervenerit Jocelinus De! gratia Bathon. 
epiecopuB, salutem in Domino. 

Koveritis nos in dedicatione eccleaiae nostrae Wellensis quam die Sancti Romani mense Ko- 
vembris anno Incarnationis Dominicae 1239, in honorem Sancti Andreac Apostolorum mitissimi 
dedicavimos, dedisse et concessisse et hac present! carta coufirmasse pro nobis et Buccessoribua 
noetria in dotem ejusdem ecclesiae nostrae, et decano et oapitulo nostro Wellensi manerium de 

In cujua rei robur et testimonium datum Welliae in crastino Sancti Bomani anno Incama- 
tionis Dominicae 1339, et pontificatus nostri annozxxiv.' 

No more than the fact of the consecration is here mentioned. 

2, Jocelin speaks with more particularity in the preamble to another charter,'' 

' R. i. f. 50., iii. f. 53 tn don. Dngdale, Mm. u. 291. 
" R. i. f. &1, U. f. U, 45, iii. f. 8. 

■ Digitized by 


334 . Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

by which, in the last year of his life (1242) he increased the " quotidians," the 
daily apportionment of the common fund of the canons, and made ampler pro- 
vision for the maintenance of every member of the cathedral stafE : 

Omnibns Christi fidelibns praesene scriptum visuris vel auditaris Jocelinus Dei gratia 
Bathonienis epiecopus salutem in Domino. 

Poatquam ad episcopatns ofBcium no3 promoveri. permisit altissimus, omne stadium adhifaoi- 
tutis et adfano adhibemus, ut cultus divini nominis et decus ecclesiae nobis commissad temporibus 
nostris cumoletur et amplietur — qiiicquid ad dispoBitioneni, utilitateoi, et omatum ipsiae ecclesiae 
respiciat semper cogitantes, et ad effectnm pro viribos nostris deducere festlnantes, ecclenam 
Saneti Andreae Welleniis, quae periculum ruinae paliebatur prae sua vetutlate, cui, Jesu Cbristo 
Salvatore nostro permittente, presidemus ipsius auxilium invocantes, aedificare caepimm et 
ampliare; in gud de sola gua gratia adeo profecmua quod ipsam divinis preeibui et sacm vnctio- 
ntbus, cum altaribuM, vasHnu, veetimentia et reliquiU ad dtvinum cultum explendum in eadem 
devoU tolempniterque ameeeravimua. Et quia ecclesias aedificantibus, non solum de aedificio 
ipsiusque conaecratione oogitandum est verum etiam de minietrantinm alimentis 

Acta in capitulo Wellensi seictodecimo Kal. Kov. anno Incamationis domiui nostri Jesu 
Christi Mill" 00°. xlii. (1242) et pontiflcatus nostri tricesimo septimo. 

This charter is sealed by the bishop and the dean, John Sarracenus. 

We have traced to its source in Jocelin's own words the tradition passed on to 
us by the Canon of "Wells and Godwin, and adopted from them, that Jocelio was 
the sole builder of the fabric. 

Professor "Willis has assumed that ** Jocelin himself asserts in one of his 
statutes that he pulled down the church and rebuilt it." 

Do his words justify this assumption ? He himself makes no such claim ; he 
recites his share in the completed work of the fabric in a preamble to an ordinance 
for the better endowment of the church, which was yet to be done, and to which 
he looks forward as his more special act of grace and benefaction. He does not 
dwell so much on what had been done as on what remained to be done. He only 
alludes in the preamble to this past stage of his episcopate work, and passes on to 
be precise and emphatic on what is the special subject of his charters. He is not 
even careful to date precisely the day of his consecration of the church ;' he only 

» Tbere is a curioTia variation in the date of the day of consecration. The bishop himself fiioB 
the date as " the day of St. Romanus," and " in the month of November.' 

Mathew Paris, iii. 638, B. S. names the day of St. Romanns as the day of consecration, bnt fixes 
the date as Ang. 9, — " qointo idns Aognsti die scilicet S. Romani " — i.e. the day of St. Romanns, 
martyr. The day of St. Romanua, confessor and bishop, archbishop of the Samm Calendar, 
is October 23. In the Calendar of the Leofric Miaaal of the latter part of the tenth centnry, 
November 18 is marked as the day of St. Romanns, " Passio Saneti Romani." 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral ehweh of Wells. 335 

says it was " mense Novembrifl," though strictly " the 10 Cal. November," was 
in the month of October. The words themselves do not demand a fuller or more 
precise meaning than that he thoroughly repaired^ enlarged, and completed the 
church which he found unfinished, ruinous in parts, and in danger from the effects 
of a time of neglect. Such an interpretation is in agreement with the evidence 
already given of continuous work upon the fabric up to the year 1196. 

Such partial dilapidation and danger from cessation of work and neglect is 
probable from the circumstances of the time which had intervened between such a 
date as 1196 and Jhe recommencement of work under Jocelin. 

Let us compare briefly the history of the fabric aa far as it is mentioned in 
contemporary documents, and the chief events of the diocesan history between the 
last date cited, 1196, and the date of Jocelin's consecration of his church, 1239. 

It was about this time that bishop Savaric obtained papal sanction for his 
ambitious policy of annexing the abbey of Glastonbiiry to the see of Bath.' The 
abbey appealed. The war with Glastonbury followed ; costly missions to Borne, 
and ruinous Htigations drained to Bome the resources of convent and see, and 
stopped all building, as we know, at Glastonbury, and we may conjectiire at 

Savaric himself was an absentee from his diocese. Consecrated in 1192 at 
Rome, he was abroad, and chancellor of Burgundy to the emperor Henry VI. 
until late in 1197. Then he came to England, and for the first time after conse- 
cration he entered his diocese, but little of his time was spent among his flock. 
He died August 8, 1205. His erratic career was summed up tersely in lines 
written after his death — 

Hospes ent mnndo per mandum semper eundo 
Sic snprema dies eit tibi prima quies. 

Though Alexander the dean, Bobert of Guildford, and Balph of Lechlade, 

The BOmedajr, Not. 18, is marked in the calendar of the cliarch of Milau aathedayof St. Bomanoa, 
martyr, of Antioch. There is no mention of St. BomanoB in the later Roman Calendar. Did Jocelin 
GooBecrate the chnrch on Oct. 23, or Nov. 18 P It is an interesting question whether the day of onr 
dedication feast should be October 23, according to the Samm nae, or November 18, following the 
earlier Ambrosian and Lotharingian Calendars. Godwin asBames that Oct. 23, the day of St. 
Bomanus, bishop and confessor, was the day of consecration — if so, Jocelin, when he wrote " mense 
Norembris " must have meant the 10th of the kalends of Xuveinber, an inexact and aunsnal method 
of compntation. 

■ Adam of Domerbam, ii, p. 364, gives the date " VI. Eal. Julii, m^-cxcvi." Fontifi- 

catns vero Domini Caeleetini papae tercii anno sexto. 
VOL. L. 2 Z 

Digitized by 


^36 Reginald Bishop of Bath; 

Jocelin himself as canon, and others of the chapter may have been resident during 
Savaric's episcopate, it is not likely that the building would have advanced much, 
if at all, during that time. 

Jocelin was consecrated bishop of Bath May 28, 1206. The instnmientB of 
his separate election by the two chapters of Bath and "Wells are among the chapter 
manuscripts. They bear witness to his connection with the church of Wells 
from his earliest years, and his irreproachable character. " Cum in sinu ecclesiae 
Wellensis a primo lacte coaluerit et sine querela inter eos conversatuB asset." We 
are familiar with his attestation to documents in Reginald's time, and as a con- 
temporary with Alexander the dean between 1180 and 1209. 

He appears to have been also archdeacon of Chichester in 1182 and up to 1205. 

There could have been little building going on at Wells at the beginning of 
Jocelin's episcopate. The political troubles, the interdict upon the kingdom, and 
Jocelin's exile from 1206 to 1213, when the revenues of the see were seized by the 
crown, the struggle with Glastonbury until 1219, were causes sufficient to check 
any building upon the church. Not until after Jocelin's return from exile in 
1213,' not until after the final concord had been made with Glastonbury, August 
11, 1219, could Jocelyn have begun the completion of works left unfinished more 
than twenty years before, and the repair of older parts which were suffering from 
longer periods of dilapidation. 

The notices of the fabric in contemporary documents for these years are few 
and scanty, corresponding with such a disastrous condition of things at Wells. 

One charter only there is which contains grants to the fabric between the years 
1196 and the time of dean Ralph of Lechlade. 

A charter of one of the canons, Alexander of Henstridge, contains a grant 
made to the dean and chapter of St. Andrew of land and money for the purpose 
of hastening the completion of the fabric." The only internal indications of date 
are the names of the prebendary of Henstridge, Alexander, and the initial letter 
R. of the name of the dean at the time. 

A series of documents record the grant of Henstridge by the Oamville family to 
form a prebend in the church in Reginald's time, and the initial of the dean's 
name in this particular charter might have been taken to correspond with Richard 
Spakeston, dean 1160-80 under Reginald. But a later charter, in which the name 
of Alexander the canon again occurs, agrees more directly with the date of Ralph 

* 15 John. May 24, 1213, Jocelin admitted to peace. Rymer, Foedera, i. Ill, 112. 
" B. iii. f. 383. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric Qf the cathedral chwrch of WelJa. ZZ'f- 

of Lechlade, dean iinder Jocelin in 1217-20.' Alexander the canon gives by this 
deed for his life the produce of the arable land of the rectorial glebe at Henstridge, 
half his meadow in Ridgehill and pasture adjacent, and one silver mark from the 
altarage of Henstridge, to dean Ralph and the chapter of St. Andrew in "Wells, for 
the fabric of the church, " ut fabrics celerius ad optatam consommationem mea 
sedulitate consm^t." He gives this in lieu of the sum assessed upon his prebend 
by the chapter ; it is to be paid quarterly into the hands of the canons who had 
charge of the fabric." 

We gather from this charter that an assessment bad been levied upon the 
canons for the fabric at this time, that Jocelin had begun to rebuild, and that 
voluntary offerings over and above the assessment were being made in this instance 
at least to promote and hasten the work. 

The date of building is so far fixed to the years 1217-1220,duringwhich Ralph 
of Lechlade, long time canon and contemporary with Reginald, was now dean 
under Jocelin. 

Beyond this charter we have very little documentary evidence about the fabric 
in Jocelin's time, before the year 1239. Fines levied upon any tenant or subject 
of the bishop under the dean's jurisdiction are to be paid to the fabric under a 
Statute of 1237." 

A clause in an early draft of the will of bishop Hugh of Lincoln, brother 
of Jocelin, dated 1212, when the brothers were in exile, provides for a legacy of 
300 marcs to the church of "Wells* ; but the legacy would not have taken effect 
until after the bishop's death in 1237. 

The Close Rolls of Henry III. under the date October 3, 1225, mention a 
grant from the crown to bishop Jocelin, for the fabric of the church, of five 
marks annually for twelve years. No mention is made of this grant in the 
chapter documents. 

These are all the notices that have been found making any mention of the 
fabric in Jocelin's time previously to his own statement of the completion and 
consecration of the work in 1239. 

" B. i. i. 21. Eaetaohia de GamTille, who gives the charter, was wife of Oerai-d de CamTille, 
7 John — 17 John, and survived him. Vide Dngdale, Baronage, i. p. 627. 

'' Cf. instances of assesBment for the fabric in later history, in Prof. Willis'a Imctore, Sora. 
Arch. Proc. vol. xii. part i. p. 23. 

The case of bishop Jocelin's levy of one-fifth is referred to as a precedent, in 1248. B. i. f. 69. 

' B..r.i.4S,indoTt. 

a Draft of bishop Hugh's will, E. iii. f. 248, in dorg. 


Digitized by 


838 Reginald hish^ of Bath : 

We can understand how the work taken up after 1219 would go on and 
increase under favourmg circumstances. After the composition with G-laston- 
bury in 1219 the see was enriched by the ceded manors of the abbey. Bishop 
Hugh of Lincoln, brother of bishop Jocelin, was making gifts of manors and 
adrowsons to the see. Other gifts, such as that of Alexander of Henstridge, the 
crown grant of 1226, the rich legacy of bishop Hugh, falling in in 1237, all were 
making the see, which had been poor and impoverished between 1196 and 1219, 
now rich and increased in goods ; and Jocelin was enabled to bring his work of 
twenty years to completion by consecration in 1239, and then to go on to augment 
the endowments of the church. 

One more document completes the contemporary history of the fabric at the 
death of Jocelin. 

Jocelin died Nov. 19, 1242. 

He had ordered that his body should be buried at Wells. 

The canons of Wells by a stratagem, which the monks of Bath resented, secured 
the burial of their bishop in their own church of Wells before they had made 
known his death to the convent of Bath. Reginald and Robert, and every bishop 
since John of Tours, had been buried at Bath. But it was Btting that the bishop who 
had done so great things for Wells should be buried among his own people. The 
canons gave him burial in the place of honour, as the other bishops had been buried 
at Bath, before the high altar of the church of St. Andrew. 

No arrangements had hitherto been made for the burial ground outside the 
church ; but now, when the building on the west and south sides was completed, 
the ground was laid out around the newly-consecrated building, by a statute of 
chapter passed on July 9, 1243, during the vacancy of the see :' 

1243. Jul. 9. Die Jovis proxime post translationem beati S. [Thomae] " detiberatum est de 
sepultura Willelmi de Chine canonioi ; statntntu est inde nt de caetero canonioi residentes sepeli- 
antur in claiiBtro per ordinem secundum dignitatem ordinis et conditionis — ita qnod majores 
minoribuB proponantnr [nisi forte sepulturds alibi vel in ecclesia vel extra designaverant in vita 
sua1° et ut incipiat sepultura eorum ad ostium ecclesiae versus austraro, adeo prope sicut fieri 
poterit, et ut extendet se usque ad angulum claustri direote — et sic deinoeps— cautum est etiani 
nt Qullus laicus vel vicarius sepeliatur inter eos — sed vicarii sepeliautoi- in caemeterio versus 
orientem retro capellam beatae Mariae [et alibi in caemeterio] laici vero in caemeterio versus 
occidentem et inoipiat sepultura eomm juxta bnlmos ibi plantatos juxta locum ilium ubi consnevit 
esse Hastillaria et sic extendet se versus occidentem— ita qnod de caetero uullus laicus sepeliatur 

■ B. iii. f. 363, tn liora. >■ Partialljr erased. 

° In a later band. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral church of Wells. 339 

ante ostia ecdesiae versus oecidentem— majores antem persooae de ecdeeia sepeliantiir in navo 
eoclesiae si Toluerint ipsi, vel amici eoruin. Predicta statuta soat de canonicis nisi in vita sua do 
oorporibus snis aliter urdinaTerunt' 

By this the ground plan of the church of Jooelin's time is apparent. The g^at 
door of Jooelin's newly-constructed west front opened out on the burial ground, 
kept inviolate from markets since bishop Robert's order a century before,** and 
now become the lay cemetery. The south-west portal led out to the cloisters, 
the burial-ground of the canons on the south side of the church. Further east, 
beyond the east cloister walk, was " the chapel of the Blessed Virgin, near the 
cloister," round which was the burial-ground of the vicars. 

We have now traced in these contemporary documents notices of the fabric, 
which, though few and scanty, are important, for the purpose of showing the 
progress of a building with a continuous life growing to completion, though with 
breaks and stoppages, from the time of Eobert's consecration in 1148 to Jooelin's 
completion and consecration in 1239. 

Three periods of building are distinct :— 
Robert's work, 1148-1166. 
Reginald's work, 1174-1196. 

Then, after an interval of about twenty-five years, 
Jooelin's work, from 1219 to 1239. 

These contemporary documents supply links in the chwn of the history of the 
fabric which have hitherto been wanting. They place in due relation the several 
workers in the great fabric. They enable us to correct the traditions of later 
writers, who ascribed all the work to one great benefactor. In the silent attesta- 
tions to these documents we see the names of Joceliu and his contemporaries, 
Robert of Guildford, Ralph of Lechlade, Thomas and Peter of Chichester, who had 
taken part in council with Reginald, living on to be the last workers and 
finishers of the building under Jocelin which they had seen rising in their earlier 

Skilled architects may differ as to the parts of the building which belong to 
Reginald's time, or to his successors, but these documents present a claim that 
Reginald's share in the work should not be ignored. 

High architectural authorities have differed as to the interpretation of the 
architectural evidence. Judgments have been swayed by deference to the sup- 
posed authority of the printed statements of the Canon of Wells and Godwin. It 

Digitized by 


340 Reginald bishop of Baths 

is time tbat we were set free from subjection to tliat authority as decisive in 
considering the architectural history. 

It is evident that the church bears unmistakeable signs of two very different 
styles of building in the west ■ front and nave. The west front " is built in the 
fully-developed Early-English style in which Salisbury, Ely, and Lincoln are 

Professor Willis expresses the general judgment that the date of the conse- 
cration of the church by Jocelin, in 1239, agrees with "that phase of Early-English 
work which the architecture of the west front presents, though the sculptures 
may have been completed long after the tabernacles which received them.'" 

There is a general consent that Jocelin was the builder of the west front. 
Mr. Irvine, after long and conscientious study of the architecture, has raised a 
standard of revolt against this general consent, and has boldly asserted that 
Reginald was the builder of the west front and Jocelin of the nave.'' But the 
view that Reginald has anticipated the style of fifty years later in the west front, 
has been too startling for acceptance. Meanwhile, Mr. Irvine's architectural 
criticisms deserve the greatest respect, and the contemporary documents support 
his view that more building was done in Reginald's time than has been supposed 
or taken into account in the architectural history. 

There is more division of opinion as to the date of the building east of the 
west front. 

The church which Jocelin consecrated is 'generally understood " to take in the 
nave, the north porch, the transepts, and what is now the choir proper, that is, 
the three western arches of the eastern limb. It takes in the three towers up to 
the point where they rise above the roof. of the church."" 

Mr. Freeman says, " The west front, within and without, differs widely in its 
architectural detail from the arcades of the nave and transepts. The rest of the 
exrly work is built in a style which in England is almost peculiar to Somer- 
setshire, South Wales, and the neighbouring counties, and which is much more 
like Prench work. It has a good deal of the earlier Romanesque leaven hanging 
about it ; its mouldings and the clusterings of its pillars are much less free ; the 
abaci or tops of the capitals are square or octagonal, instead of round ; it makes 
no use of those detached shafts, often of marble, which are so abundantly foimd 

' Lecture reported in Bomerget Archaeohgical 8oc. Proceedings, vol. xii. part i. p. 18. 
>• Somerset Arehaeological 8oc. Proe. vol. xii. part ii. pp. 13, 14, 23, 
' CathedTol Ghurck of WelU, pp. 75, 76. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral church of Wells. 341 

in the west front. Now, which of these two, the style of the west front or of the 
nave is the earher ? The latter is, no doubt, earlier in idea, though this does not 
absolutely prove that the parts of the church which are built in it are necessarily 
older in date."' 

The style of the nave is called a "local and a Somerset style" by Professor 
Willis ; he says : " The character of its architecture is unlike that of any ordinary 
Barly-Bnglish building, and deserved to be called the pure Somerset style ; it is 
very beautiful, and did credit to the county, and was manifestly the work of local 

Professor Willis tells us that the west front is of later date than the nave, 
and the western part of the nave is later than the eastern part, the choir, and 
the north porch ; and he enters into detail in his description of differences and 
breaks in the building. In his lecture at Wells, conducting his audience from eaat 
to west in the order of the building, he drew their attention to breaks and 
stoppages in the work, and signs of differences of construction, which must occur 
in a building which, in the vicissitudes of centuries, haa experienced repairs by 
different hands. But a general imiformity, broken by regular diversity, is observ- 
able in the nave. 

He is thus reported in the Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological Society — 

" If they examined the spandrils, or open wall-spaces between the sides of the 
arches down the nave, they would see that three remarkable changes had taken 
place in the work. The work was commenced, continued, and carried on from east 
to west in order of time, inasmuch as the stonework in the spandrils improved as 
it went on, the stones in the spandrils nearest the tower being small and indif- 
ferently set as compared with those nearest to the east end When they got 

to the west end, they found a change, as if an architect had been then called in 
who would have his own way and his own style, and that was the common Early- 
English, and not the (local) Somerset style (of the nave). The two styles were 
mixed together at their junction in the most comphcated way 

The west front was of somewhat later date. He fortified this opinion by ex- 
plaining how the Somersetshire work abutted against the Early English, and was 
joined and interlaced with it, and the example of this was the most curious he 

■ Calh. Ch. of Weill, pp. 75, 76. 

** Sont. Arch. Proc. xii. part i. p. 16. Why it should be called the local or Somerset style, when 
" it is common to the neighbouring counties and S. Wales, and is like French work," does not appear. 
The workmen may have come from Normandy and France, and have spread themselves over the 
opposite counties. 

Digitized by 


842 - Beginald bishop of Bath ; 

had ever beheld. In some cases the Early English overlapped the Somerset, and 
was actually superimposed upon previously-erected plinth walls of that style.'" 

If, then, the west front is (according to high authorities) of later date than the 
nave, and it is the work of Jocelin, finished in 1239, to whom shall we ascribe the 
rest of the church, which is " unlike any Early-English building, and belongs to a 
style, on the whole, fifty years earlier ; " a style characterised as " a transitional 
pointed Norman, an improved Norman worked with considerable hghtness and 
richness, but distinguished from the Early-English by greater massiveness and 
severity, the style formed in the second half of the twelfth century, which became 
the fashion in the days of Henry II.'* 

The direct statements of the Canon of Wells and Gt)dwin attribute all to Jocelin. 
But these statements of writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries have not 
been received without weighty protest, even by those who have accepted them as 
original authorities. It is well to reproduce architectural opinions formed from 
the structural evidences of the date of the building in opposition to the general 
tradition. Britton, writing in 1847, express^ his opinion of the date of the 
nave — 

" Although the whole of the church of Wells is designed and built in the 
Pointfld style of architecture, yet it will readily be seen that from the west end 
to the third column on each side of the choir there is a regular and nearly symme- 
trical correspondency in the thickness of the walls and the form of the buttresses ; 
and that in both respects they partake far more of the massive solidity and heavi- 
ness of the Norman character than we are accustomed to meet with in churches 
constructed in the Pointed system.. There is, in fact, such simplicity in all the 
more ancient parts which include the nave and transept, and the walls of the west 
part of the choir there, that had not the Canon of Wells so particularly mentioned 
the restoration of the cathedral by Jocelin of Wells, and bishop Godwin so strongly 
corroborated his testimony, there could be little hesitation in ascribing it to bishop 
Robert, and assigning them to the reign of Henry II. (1154 — 1189)." 

That testimony we now can weigh as later tradition : he continues — 

" The north porch might still more decidedly be referred to the same period, 
for it possesses so many characteristics of Norman architecture, that there can be 
no doubt of its having been erected before the Pointed style had obtained its full 
ascendancy. The buttresses are flat and plain, and their pinnacles are almost 
devoid of ornament. The outward arch, though acutely pointed, exhibits amidst 
its deeply recessed mouldings a twofold series of zigzag or diagonal sculpture, 

' Somerset Arckaeol. Soc. Proc. vol. lii. part i, 17. 

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his share in thefahric of the cathedral chwch of Wells. 343 

intermized with Norman foliage, and the capitals of its banded shafts partake, in 
their grotesque figures and flowing leaves, of the same character. The panelled 
front of the surmounting gable also, which consists of six lancet-headed arcades of 
different heights rising to the weatherings, bespeaks an early age, and even the 
piercing (to admit light into the roof) of the lower part of the middle panels into 
three lancet-shaped apertures corresponds with other specimens of the date 
assumed." . 

" During whichever episcopacy the earUer parts of the edifice were raised, it is 
evident that the design was formed at that very point of time when the Pointed 
style of architecture was first attaining its supremacy over the massive composi- 
tions of the Norman builders." 

Another writer comments on the difficulty of reconciling " the only known 
authority for the history of the cathedral," the statement of the Canon of 
Wells, with the architectural evidence, " which, assigning nothing of the existing 
church to Robert or Reginald, attributes everything to Jocelin. If internal 
evidence were with the history or tradition I would not complain, but it is dead 
against it."' 

These opinions are borne out by architectural features in the nave and north 
porch which belong to the transitional style of the latter part of the twelfth 
century, and by the similarity of architecture in those parts with contemporary 
buildings of the transitional style. For instance, at Glastonbury the chapel of 
St. Mary, consecrated by Reginald in 1187, is a dated specimen of the semi- 
Norman style. Professor "Willis ** remarks on the similarity of details between 
that building and the north porch of "Wells " in the zigzag ornamentation of the 
later Norman and intricate kind in which straight lines alternate with angles;" 
the ■ sculptured monsters, and wild imagery on the walls and in panels of the 
north porch, in the capitals and tympana of the clerestory arches of the easter- 
most parts of the nave contrast with the more human representations and natu- 
ralistic foliage of the capitals in the western arcades of the nave. 

"With all these evidences of later-twelfth-century work in the eastern parts of 
the nave and north porch, why has no mention of Reginald as a builder-bishop in 
the later twelfth century ever been made in the traditions of the church ? 

Because all the later traditions expressed in the Canon of "Wells and Godwin 
have been followed generally by those who have written on the architecture of the 

■ V. Note, part iii. WeOs Cathedral. Murray, 1861, attributed to Mr. Sharpe. 
* ArcMtectuTol EittoTy of Qla»ttmb\try A}Aey, p. 44, 
VOL, L. 3 A 

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344 Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

Bat now that we have contemporary dociunentary evidence which enables us to 
discriminate, it may be pardonable to break away from the ordinary tradition 
which assigns aU the buildings to one great man, and to indulge in some con- 
jecture at least as to the several builders and their work. 

Mr. Sharpe may be quoted again : — " Not a word is said about Reginald 
FitzJoceline's part in the cathedral, but enough is told of his character as a 
munificent prelate to make it extremely unlikely that he did nothing. My own 
belief is that he finished the nave, up to the then Norman west front, which he left 
standing. The history and existing remains of Q-lastonbury afford collateral 
evidence of this," which must have been in vigorous progress (though not com- 
pleted as he says) up to 1193. 

With this transitional architecture before us in the north porch and nave, and 
these documents which speak of buildings going on in the twelfth century, may 
we not claim that in the nave of Wells we have a remarkable example of transi- 
tional architecture intervening between the Norman and the Early- English styles. 
We may conjecture with Mr. Sharpe that the general design of the parts east 
of the west front belonged to Reginald, though the actual work was stopped some- 
where in the nave, and the whole has been greatly remodelled in details by 
successive builders in after years. If, as we are told, all Robert's work has 
perished, we may see in the three western arches of the choir Robert's work 
recast by Reginald. If there is one point in the nave where it is allowable to 
conjecture the great break between Reginald's and Jocelin's work may have taken 
place, it will be in the part westward of the north porch, the arches of the nave 
which run on to the west front. 

Here, Professor Willis remarks, the masonry improves, here the forms of 
sculptured folii^e and human heads are more free aud natural, more characteristic 
of the later workmen, here he considers that we have the work of a later date. 
Here it is we may conjecture that Reginald's work stopped; here was the new 
work to be carried on in 1196; here the work was suspended in 1196, when 
tj-oubles threatened the church under Savaric, when the war with Glastonbury 
began. Here may have been for the next three and twenty years, between 1196- 
1219, the gaping chasm between the unfinished nave and the old Norman front, 
which, from its age, was showing sign of decay, and was ready to faU, " pro sua 
vetustate patiebatur periculum ruin»." 

What if Jocelin, after 1219, began to build at the west end, pulling down the 
old Norman work to the groimd, raising up on its ruins the new work in the rich 
Early-English style of the period, rivalling his brother's work at Lincoln ? What 

Digitized by 


his share in the/abric of the cathedral church of Welh. 345 

if he then joined it on to the unfinished nave of Reginald, building up the three 
western arcades of the nave in the earlier style of his predecessor, and uniting 
here in one glorious whole his own new work with the work of Reginald and of 
Robert. " Enough glory would still remain to JocelJn in the erection of the west 
front, and all that naturally accompanies it." 

It would have been a noble architectural achievement for the last twenty years 
of a troubled episcopate. 

If he did this and no more than this, it would not be difficult to imagine how 
the tradition would have grown that he was the builder of the whole church. We 
can understand how after generations who immediately inherited the benefits of 
Jocelin's wise legislation and generous benefactions should have cherished the 
memory of their last builder, as if he was the one and only builder, of the new 

He was of Wells,' his father had lands at Lancherley and round about Wells ; 
his brother was archdeacon of Wells, and afterwards bishop Hugh of Lincoln, and 
he himself, as chaplain and canon and bishop, had grown up, and lived, and died, 
and was buried among his own people ; his grave and memorial tomb was with 
them in their church, honoured the more as it was the tomb of the firat bishop 
buried at Wells since the seat of the bishop had been transferred to Bath one 
hundred and fifty years before. Bach generation had before their eyes that part 
of the church which was Jocelin's undoubted work, gradually rising imder the 
hands of successive builders to the height of its western towera, looking over the 
burial-place of the dead and the homes of the living. Generation after generation 
saw the deeply recessed niches, the 600 tabernacles gradually filled with sculp- 
tured imagery, telling the whole tale of earth and heaven, of man's fall and 
resurrection, of the Lord's advent in mercy and in judgment, and of the long 
roll of saints and worthies of the race, and of their own land. 

It was this western face of their church which ever caught their gaze at morn- 
ing and at noon, and glowing in the evening sunset in the rich materials of 
Doulting stone and blue lias shafts and coloured statuary ; and by the time of 
bishop Bubwith, under whom the north-western tower rose to its full height, the 
tradition might well have taken root, that Jocelin of Wells, who alone had raised 
this western front, had rebuilt the whole church, and that as builder, legislator, 
and benefactor, "there had been none like him before him, neither after him 
hath any arisen like unto him" '' — "Qui sibi similem anteriorem non habuit, nee 
hujusque visus est habere sequentem." 

> Note OD page 20. ■> 1 Kings iii. 12. 

3 a2 

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346 , Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

If the fame of bishop Jocelin was gathered up in such a record aa this in the 
century and a-half after his death, it is not surprising that the name and memory 
of bishop Reginald FitzJoeelin and his work should have gradually been confused 
and obscured before the light of the greater luminary, the last and greatest builder 
of the fabric and constitution of the church of Wells. 

But now with these documents before us we put in a plea that justice shaU be 
done to Reginald among those who have gone before ae builders of the church. 
As Jocelin of Wells, the Englishman, bore the name of his Norman predecessor, 
Reginald FitzJoeelin de Bohun, and carried it on to greater honour, so the chiirch 
of Jocelin of Wells represents the earlier work of Reginald PitzJocelin, ennobled, 
finished, and consecrated; and Reginald deserves to hold the second place of 
honour between Robert the "author," and Jocelin the " finisher," as one of " the 
first three " master builders of our holy and beautiful house of St. Andrew in 

Digitized by 



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Digitized by 


348 BeginaM bishop of Bath ; 

APPENDIX A. (p. 5). 

In Chaftbe Dcwumbnts, 1-7 

Appointment by Louis VII. king of the French, of Reginald, archdeacon of Salis- 
bury, to he abbot of St. Exuperius, Corbeil. Dated Melun, 1164. 

In nomine Sancte et individne Trinitatis, Amen. 

Ego Ludovieus Dei gratia Francomin rex. Nobis honor est, et ecclesiis nostriB eommoduin, 
quotiens earom ouram discretis et honestis committimus viris. Notum itaque feoimus universis 
tarn presentibus quam tutnris quod abbatiam Saucti Exuperli " de C^rbolio, Beginaldo arcbi- 
diacono Salesberiensi, pro honestate sua, et pro amicorum suorum prece donavimus, habendam et 
tenendam, sicut frater mous Philippus et cetori ante eum abbatiam tenuerunt et hoc fecimus 
Kulvo jura nostro et caiionioomm salva etiam eccleeie dignitate ; quod ut ratum sit in posterum 
Bcribi [nostra aactorit)ate communire precepimus. Actum Miledu[num incam]ati M°. C" Lxiiij. 
antantibus in palatio [quorum infra scrijpta sunt nomina et signa. 
S' comitis Theobald! dapiferi nostri. 
S' mattei camerarii. 
S' Guidonis buticlarii." 
S' Constabulario nullo ; 

Datum per manum Hugonis cancellarii. 

■ St. ExnperiuB, " a military saint, one of the companions of S. Maurice." 
" V. Dnoange — 

Bntidarius. idem qnod pincema — 

bnta = lagena, cnpa. 
batta = dolinm, ras Tinariam. 
bnticnla, dimssbonteille — 

bnticnlarins Franciae — ^nnns e qnataor majoribns palatii officialibns qui 
literaa et diplomata regia snbscribebant. 
The docnment is on a small piece of parchment much worn and tora. The letters within 
brackets are wanting, and are supplied conjectnrally. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral church of Wells. 

APPENDIX B, p. 13. 

Gifts of bishop Rtginald to the church of Bath. 
Vide Regietrum Priorattu Bathon., p. 315. 

[Rjeginaldus Episcopas hujua loci omnes terras nostras a predeoessoribus suis ad opus 
fabriee Ecolesie nostre diucius detentas devote restituit et que a predeoessoribos suis nobis 
restitute erant affeotnosius ab ipso nobis, confinnate sunt. Ecclesiam de Ajstona, Ffnlconis de 
Alneto, in usua proprios nobis confinnavit Eeclesias de Brugges et de Kary et de Badestoke, 
nichilominuB in usus proprios nobis confirmavit. Ecclesiam etiam de Manerio nostro de Fforda in 
usus proprios nobis confirmtivit et proventus ad fabricam Ecclesie nostre assignaviL Oblacionem 
vero pentecostalem a predeceasoribus suis nobis concessam, Ecctcsie nostre veluti Matrici 
Ecclesie somersetie devotissime confinnavit. Hospitale sancti Johannis in Bathonia, Ecclesie 
nostre contulit, et de ipso siouti de propria, elemoainaria nostra nobis disponere concessit. Corpus 
Beate Eofemie virginis et Martiris* ecclesie nostre contulit, et plurea i-eliquias sanctorum cum 
capsnlis ebnmeis. Albam quoque preoiosam auro tcxtam amictum quoque, et Mitram sancti 
Petri cliasec&sicnsis Ecclesie nostre adquisivit. Cereum vero ardere, ante corpus dominicum, et 
sanctorum reliquias constituit, et quadraginta solidos ad ca^ perpetaitetem de Ecclosia de 
Banewelle, per manus Canonicorum de Briwtone assignaviL Bibliotecam eciitm Ecclesie nostre, 
plnribiu libris ditavit Plura etiam omamenta Ecclesie nostre contulit scilicet duas Capas 
preciosas et v meliora et mtyora pallia. Ecclesiam vero nostram cartis regum de libertatibus, et 
pnvilegiis summomm pontifioum de dignitatibus sufBcienter ditavit Cqjus Anniversarius dies 
in albis oelebretnr, et c pauperes refioiantnr, et Mensa fratrum copiosiua proouretur. 

The register of Bath Priory is a manuscript in the library of the Society of Liooolo's Inn, 
who have kindly allowed this transcript te be made. 

■ Cf. Stenley, ^fevu>r{aU of Canterbury. App. F. p. 280. 

Digitized by 


350 Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

APPENDIX 0. (p. 17) 


Bishop Reginald's charter to the town of Wells, confirming bishop Robert's charter 
forbiddvng ma/rkets in the church court, and giving free markets to Wells 

Carta Domini Reginaldi Epitcopi £athonie»tis. 

Utiiversis Chriati fidelibus ad quoB preeeiiB carta pervenerit. Bainaldus Divina mistiratione 
Bathon. EpiscopuB salatem ab aactore salutis. 

Ad nniverBitatis veBtre notitiam volumus devenire noB cartam Boberti bone memorie Batlion. 
Episcopi decesBOrm nostri inspexisse et earn in presenti pagina de verbo ad verbum aunotasse 

* Robertus Dei ji;ratia Episoopus Balihoniensis universis fidelibus tain cterioiB tarn laicie tarn 
Francis quam AngHs Balutem et Dei benedictionem. 

. FoBtqnam divina vocante dementia pontificatua apjcem dignitatis ccinsc«ndimu8 summa ad 
hoc animi intentione desudaviinus ut Eccleeife beati Andree in Wellis regimini nostro commissse 
venerationem debitam impenderemoB et ab aliiB impendi faceremus ; et si que in ea prave assent 
consaetudinea eas a UminibuB ejus polsaremuB et hoaorem ejus et ntilitatem quantum in nobis 
erat amplificaremus. 

NonnuUorum aut«m constat experientJe quod tumuItuB nundinamtn que in eadem ecdesia et 
in atrio ejus hnctonOB ease consueverunt ad dedecns et incommodum ejusdem eccleaie accedit, 
cum in ea miniatrantibua quam maxime ait importunus quia et eomm devotionem impedit et 
orationum qnietem pertnrbat. Terum ne contra vocem divinam domum orationia speluncam 
patiamur esse negotiationis, statuimus et firmiter precipimus ut quicunque illio in tribos 
festivitatibus videlicet in luventione S. Grucis et in festiyitate S. Calixti, et in celebritate beat! 
Andree, negotiaturi oonvenerint in platois villa illius negotiationes anas securi et ab omni prava 
consuatudine et in quiatudine Hbere exerceant, et nuUatenus ecclesiam vel atrinm eccleaie violare 

Ooncedimus etiam consilio clericorum nostrorum at constituimus ut omnibus in predictis 
festivitatibus et aanun vigiliis quieti de teloneo in perpetunm permaneant. Quod quidem in 
posterum ratam esse volentes presenti scripto commendamus et Bigilli noBtri impressione 
roboramas. Testes : Ivo Decanus Wellensis : Baginaldus precentor : Bobertua et Thomas 
Archidiaconi : Edwardua : Magister Eustachius : Willelmus de sancta fide : Badulfus Martra : 
Willelmus de Atebera : Petrua de Chiu : Walter Piator : et alii multi clerici et laici. 

Noa igitnr Tanarabilis predicti decassoria noatri vesUgiis inberentes, ob reverentiam beati 
Andree Apostoli et ad petitionem Borgenaium noatrorum Wellensiiun omnes consuatndinea et 
libertatas negotiatoribos illic in tribns festivitatibus at aarum vigiliia venientibus ab eo conceasas 
ratas habentes et in posterum illibataa volumus pennanera. Adjtciantes ut eisdem libertatibns et 

» Cf. R. iii. ff. 245, 246. 

Digitized by 


hia share in the fabric of the cathedral chwrch of Wells, 8B1 

consDetudinibus in crastino etiam omniam prediotarum gaudeant feBttvitatam ; Kobia qaidem et 
suocflBSoribua nostris de consensa predictorum Burgensitun oondnctas omniam feldarnm 
medietas in prescriptia nandiuie debet in perpetuam remanere. 

Que omnia at rata et intacta in postenun perseverentur presentis Bcripti testimomo et sigilli 
nostri appositione duximns confirmandum. 

Hiis testibus : Magistro Willelmo Thesaurario Well' : Roberto Snbdecano Well' : Magistro 
Bad. de Lichel: Jocelino Capellano: Willelmo do Meleburn : Johanne de Cumb.: Thoma de 
Dinant.: GranJrido olerico : Magistro Bogero medico : Miehaeleclericoi Hngonederico : Henrico 
deArmentiis: Willelmo de Erleg : Philippe de Wika : Ricardo de Ken : Walerando de Wellesley : 
Willelmo de Manlerb' : Beginaldo deWodeford: Eadward deWellis; Godefr. de Cnoll; Jocelino 
deWeUes: Willelmo de Sept: Henrico BedeUo. Hugone fabro. Willelmo forestar. Bad. Cade. 
Hnbertn filio Coci. Aliredo mercatore. Baino Ruffe. Gaufr. Bnffo. Bad. Cuflin. Willelmo 
Colo et aliis multis. 

Endorsed : Caria diii Begin Ep' Bathofi 

de tribos nundinia concessis . . . 

The ailk cord and a fragment of green wax on which is the outline of a bishop's robe and a 
few letters are attached to the earlier o£ the two charters. 

The seal of the other is in iair preservation (1886) ; on it is the figure of a bishop in the act 
of blessing with right hand — a pastoral staff in the tefl. The legend on it 


Bishop Beginald's charter to the town. Among the charters in the Townhall, Wells. 
Carta domini Beginaldi Episcopi Bathon. [a.d. 1174-1180]. 

UniverBie Christ! fidelihus ad quos presena carta pervenerit Beginaldus Dei gratia Batho- 
niensis Episeopus salutcra in domino. 

Patrum et predeoessorum nostrorum inherentes vestigiis et eomm anctenticis dacti et docti 
ezempUs qnod ipsi sua statuerunt industria noa roborandum doximus auctoritate nobis a deo 

Concedimna ergo juxta tenorem carte predecesaoris nostri pie memorie Boberti epiacopi 
villam Wellie Burgnm esse in perpetnnm et eiadem finibns quibua in eadem carta difiBnitum est 
et presoriptum. 

Yolumns etiam et conccdimns ut qnilibet intra easdem metas messagium aliqnid in presen- 
tiam possidens vel in poaterum posaesaurus nomine bnrgagii liberam habeat commorandi^ 
reoedendi, et rerei'tendi, simulque domos soas impignerandi, vendendi, necnon et donandi nise 
domibus religiosis hcentiam, secundum propriam sue dispositionis voluutatem, redituum 
nostrorum integro jure retento, id est de singulis massagiis duodecim denarJie annuls. 

Volomus preterea si Us aliqna forte dampnosa intra ambitum massagii alicai eorum [emiserit] 
liberam habeant poteatatem nt administrationee Concordes fiant, justicia nostra nullam exigents 
inde consuetudinem vel emendationem donee Burgenses in justitia defeeerint, nisi mortale vulnns 
vel dampnum cnrpori perpetuum inflictum fuerit vel etiam niai aliqnis litigantium jnsticie nostre 
qaeriraoniam faciat, salva in omnibus justicia regni et dignitate. 
VOL. L. 3 B 

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)2 . Reginald bishop of Bath; 

InliibemuB edam ne aJiquis in eadem villa pelles crudas vel ooria crnda emere preeumat 
si fuerit in lona et lagha Burgensium Wellarum, 
Halo nostra concessionis et oonfirmationis testes sont : 

KicarduB Well, decanus. 

Ubert precentor Well. 

Henricus Exon et RioardoB Bath aicbidiaooni. 

Robertas Subdecanus. 

Johannes de Cumba. 

Magister Eustachins. 

Godfridus de Hereredeb. 

Willelmus et Jocelinus Capellani. 

Ernisius clericue filiaa Tbeobaldi. 

PetruB de Winton. 

Thomas de Dinan Wellenais Canonicus. 

Willelmufl Canonicus de Haselburg. 

Adam de Suttone. 

Willelmus de Spinenall. 

Magist«r Badulphus de Lechelade. 

Gaufridus de Sancto Georgio. 

Bobertus filius Bamo. 

Galfridus Giffard. 

GodiriduB de Diore. 


Walcelen de Well. 

'GanfriduB francuB. 
The seal and counterseal of the bishop is appended. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the cathedral church of Wells. 

APPENDIX D. (pp. 12 and 21). 

Confirmaiion of the possessions of the chwrch of Bath to bishop UeginaH, by pope 
Alexander UL {Sept. 3, 1169-1181) March 4, 1179. 

R. iii. f. 266, in doreo. 

Confinnatio Alexandri venerabili fratri Bainardo Bathoniensis episcopo ^usque snceesBoribus in hue priyi- 
canonice substituendis in perpetnam; ai omnibus fratribus et coepiBoopis nostris cogamur ex h^onewuiur"" 
nunisterio suBceptte anuninistrationis adesse et apostolicum ipais patrocinium exhibere, tibi tanto '"''^°' ^} . 
fortius tenemur sofi&agium apostolicse defensionis impendere et consideratione tue commissam porci qnte pre- 
tibi ecclesiam in sna jnstitia confovere quanto circa iios et Romanam ecolesiam puriorem devo- cnst[no 
tionera genere comprobaria, eamque nobis certioribus indlciis visua es reddere maiiifestam. ^I^ton 

Qua propter venerabilis in Cbristo frater episcope tuis justia postalationibns clementdr annuimus 
et Batlioniensem ecdeBJam cui Deo auctore preesse dinosceris aub beati Petri et nostra pro- 
teotione succepimus et presentia acripti privilegio commonimus. 

Statuentea ut quaaounque pOBsesBiones quecunque bona eadem ecclesia in preseniiarum juste 
et canonice possidet aut in fhtunim concesBione poiitificum, largitione regum, vol principum 
oblatione fidelium sou aliis justis modis prestante domino poterit adipiaci firma tibi tulaque suc- 
ccssoribus et illibata permaneant. 

In quibus bseo propriia duximua exprimenda vocabulis. 

Totam civitatem Bathonie cum omnibus oouauetudinibus extra et infra nt liberiuB habet rex 
et civitatem aliquant in tota Anglia, com moneta, cum teloneo, tam in campb qnam in silvia, 
tam in foro qnam in pratia et aliia teiris inuuper nundinas in festivitatibus S*'. Petri et hida^um 
quod esigebatur de viginti bidis ad eandem civitatem pertinentibua et omnia placita et leges et 
justitias et omnes consuetudines omnino et adjutoria et ai qua sunt alia qu^e Rex Willelmus vel 
frater ejus Rex Henricus in eadem civitate pleuius et liberiua habuerunt, quae ipai Johanni 
Episcopo predecesBori tuo et successoribua ejus in perpetuum concesserunt et cartis suia confir- 
mHverunt prseterea eonSrmamus, quod manerium de CalvoBton [Kelston] sit in hondredo Bathonie 
et in justicia tua siout prefatus Rex Henricus concessit et confirmavit, parcum etiam et warennam 
bertonam Hantonam Fordam Clavertonam Lincumban cum molendinia et aliis appendiciis earum 
in terris aqnis pratis paacuia in bosco et piano cum omnibus consuetudinibus et libertatibus earum 
eidem civitati adjacentibua et omnia alia ad eandem civitatem pertinentia. 

Ecclesiam de Wellia cum nnirersis prebendis suis et ipsum manerium cum Wochi et AVest- 
bcri^e cum parco auo cum feodis militum et Ifranchelanorum et terria rusticorum ad idem 
manerium pertinentia cum boacis et planis pratis et pascuis molendinis et vineis aquis et omnibus 
aliia appendiciis BUis. 

Ecclesiam de Chyu et ipsnm manerium cum omnibus pcrtinentiis et libertatiboB Buis. 

Villam de Yattou cum omnibus pertinentiis et libertatibus suis. 

Digitized by 


854 ■ Reginald bishop of Bath ; 

Yillam de Banewel et Villam de Camton cum portu de Badediye et parte vilUe quam habes in 
Axebrugg ad Banewell pertinente cum omnibus pertineiitiiB et libertatibus suis. 

Ecolesiam de Ceddre et duas hides in eadem rilbe. 

Ecclesiam de Evercrez et ipaum manerium cum omnibuB pertinentiis et libertatibus snis. 

Terram de Merk que est in Wedmor, quam prefatus Houricua rex predecessor! tao concessit et 

Ecclesiam de Kingsbereet ipsum manerium cum hundredo et omnibna pertinentiis et liberta- 
tibus suis- 

Et Ecclesiam de Cerde et ipsum manerium. 

Et Ecclesiam de Hiwis et ipsum manerium cum onmibus pertinentiis et libertatibus suis in 
terris pratis paeouis bosco et pasturis. 

Ecclesiam de Walenton et ipsum manerium cum Boketande et cetfiris pertinentiis et libertatibus 

Ecclesiam et villam de Lidiard cum bnndredo et ceteris pertinentiis et libertatibus. 

Ecclesiam et villam de Wivelescumb cum hundredo cum omnibus pertinentiis et Ubertaljbas 
suis et Fifidam similiter. 

Ecclesiam de Dorkemefeld et ipsum manerium cum socba sacha et tol et theam et infan- 
genethrop cam omnibus aliis pertinentiis et hbertatibus suis in bosco piano prati's et pascuis que 
memoratus Bex Henrious predecessor tuo et ecolesie Bathoniensi reddidit concessit et carta sua 
confirmavit ejus successor Henricus rex secundus similiter eandem tibi concessit et reddidit cum 
domibus Wintiiome et carta propria confirmavit sicut jus tuum et ecclesia ta% tenendum in 
libera et perpetua etemosyna ; feodum etiam de Dinra qnod idem rex tibi reddidit et eodesise tufe 
et carta sua confirmavit, quod Henricus de Tille cum ecclesia de Dochemefeld et ipso manerio 
in curia memorati regis tibi et ecclesie tue quiete damavit 

Apud Gatinton terram de salinis et ipaas salinas et omnes pertinentes in nova foresta et duas 
bidas in Cherleton. Fneterea duos panes certee quantitatis et duos barilos medonis oertte 
mensure et duos capreolos vel duos porcos que anuuatim in secunda feria pasche tibi redduntor 
et ecdesiie Wellenai a monasterio Glastouiensi a tempore beati Dnnstani ex ipsius institntione. 

Freterea de beniguitate apostolica tibi duximus indulgendam ut lioeat tibi priorem eedesise tun 
pro manifesta causa depositione digna cum consilio capituli vel alionim religiosorum virorum a 
prioratu sine contradictione qoalibet amovere. 

Ad bee apostolica anctoritate statuimus ut a monasteriis monachorum vel monialium et in 
ecclesia regularibus que in tuo Episoopatu conaistuut, earn decreti de oetero habeas potestatem 
quam predeoeasores tni et tn ipse usque ad hoc tempora in eis noscimini rationabiliter habuisse. 
Probibemus insuper ut infra (intra) Episcopatum tuum sine assensn et auctoritate tua vel 
successornm tnomm salvis aut«nticis soriptis apostolica sedis nallus de novo ecolesiam vel 
oratorium oonstruendi habeat &caltat«m. 

Si quando vero abbates vel priores aut alii ad tuam jurisdictionem spectantes qui religiosia 
locis tui Episcopatus precesse noscuntur tibi in his rebelles et inobedientes exti'terunt in quibus 
obedientiam et reverentiam exhibere tenentor, las tibi sit in eos canonice sententiam promnlgare 
advocatis antem conventualibus seu parochialibus eccleaiis tue jurisdietionis qiu non habent in 

Digitized by 


his share in ihefahric of the cathedral church of Wells. 355 

ipsis ecolesiia qnicqnid sliud pmter jus patronatus easdem eoolesias ordinandi ve) in eis quidqnam 
temeritate propria Btatuendi sine auctoritate et oonourrentia tna omnem interdudimos facultatem 
metropolitano quoqae tuo, sine speciali mandato Bomani pontificis in eisdem ecclesiia te incon- 
salto nisi caosam saper his ad earn per appellationem deferri contingeret ant apostolicse legationis 
obtentu quicquam statuere liceat, vel rito sive manifesta et rationabili causa sententiam pro- 
oiulgare — pnesenti etiam scripto tibi duxitnus induigendum nt si quando abbates priores vel 
aim persons que ad tna synoda venire tenentur et precipue que tibi professionem fecerunt ad 
synoda vocati uon venernnt, in eas de auctoritate nostra nisi canonicam exousationem probaverint, 
animadversionem tibi liceat canonicam exercere. 

Bias autem qui super justitiis tuis quas aliquando tibi nolunt exsolvere vel pro alia causa 
a te duxerunt appellandum appellatione remota liceat tibi oompellere, et infra certum et eon- 
venientem terminom quem eis praefixeris appellationem interpositam exequantnr vet ad mandatum 
tuum juxta rigorem juris super his pro qnibns appeUatnro est, tibi satisfactionem exhibeant 

Beligiosos vero vel alios ecdesiasticos viros ad tuam ordinatJonem spectantes si qui te 
presente sive tua vel te absente sive archidiaconi tui licencia, ordines ab episcopis receperunt 
alienis infra episcopatum tuum in ordinibns taliter receptis sive tuo vel suocessorum tnorum 
asseneu ministrare penitus prohibemus. Si qui autem monachi canonici aut alii religiosi vin 
derici vel laici in ecclesias tui episcopatus ad presentationem eorum spectantes earum personis 
decedentibus intrudere seipsos vel alios sine tua auctoritate prosumpserint taliter intrusos 
dummodo excessus eorum sit publious et notorius ab eisdem ecolesiis fas tibi sit removere. Et 
in ipsas si ad mandatum tuum oedere forte noluerint ecclesiasticam sententiam promulgare, 
pneterea benedictiones et prcfessiones abbatum tui episcopatus neo non etiam iustitutiones et 
ordinationes ecclesiarum omnes quae in tuo episcopatu consistunt. 

Another page follows with the usual warning and saving clauses. 
Then follow the signatures of pope Alexander and the cardinals. 
Eighteen cardinals sign. 

Datum Laterano, per manum Alberti Sancte Homane Ecdesie Presbit«ri Gardinalis et 

lY. Cat. Martis IndicUone XL Incamationis Dominicae Anno Millesimo Centesimo Ixxviiij" 
pontificatus vero domini Alexandri Pape tertii anno vicesimo. (1159-1179.) 

Digitized by 


356 BegmaM bishop of Bath ; 

APPENDIX B (p. 22). 

Carta Regis B/iccvrdi de prebendis et terris de novo adquisitis. 

R. iii. f. 13. 

EJohard by the Grace of Gwl king of England, etc. 

Know that wo have granted and by this present charter have confirmed to God and the 
(Jiurch of Saint Andrew in Wells, and to Reinaud Bishop of Bath and his successors for ever, all 
donations of churches and other benefices made to him and the aforeswd church as the charters 
of the givers do testify, viz. : 

1. Sy the ffiji of Robert abbot of Glaetonburi/ and the convent there, the church of Pylton 
and the church of South Brent. 

By a composition between the two eGclesiastical magnates, the bishop and the abbot, vfhose 
territories and jarisdictions marched together, two prebends were made by the gift of Pilton, of 
which the abbot held one, and became a member of the bishop's chapter. By the cession of 
South Brent, archidiaconal jmrisdiotion was given to the abbot over seven of the churches of 
the Twelve Hides of Glastonbury, and was exercised by a special officer, the abbot's archdeacon, 
exempt from the bishop's jorisdiction. 

No longer a prebend. The abbot afterwards gave up the prebend. Pilton became a peculiar 
in the jurisdiction of the precentor of Wells. 

i. By gift of Richard de Cajmilla, the church of Sengestrigg, in perpetuam praebendam. 

Henstridge, near Wincauton, on the Dorset border, was the gift of Bichard de Camvilla, 
Henry's envoy to Sicily to conduct Joanna, his daughter, to be the wife of William king of 
Sicily, in 1176. He was present at Bichard's coronation, 1189, commanded the English fleet 
wluch took Richard on the Crusade, was justiciar of Cyprus, and died at Anre 1191. Gerard, 
son of Richard, was sheriff of Lincolnshire, and one of the chief opponents of Longchamp the 
chancellor during the regency in Richard's absence. He confirms the grant of his fether, and 
archbishop Richard (1174-1184) atteste it. Charlton Camvill, now Charlton Horethome, in 
Somerset, granted to bishop Robert by Richard de Camvilla ( Domerham, i. 298), and Clifton 
Camville, in Staffordshire, bear witness to the family estates in both counties. Henstridge is a 
prebend at the present tame. 

3. Bt/ gift of Oliver de Dynham^ the church of Bokelande, in perpetaam pra^endam. 

Buckknd Dinham, near Frome, and Gorton Dinham, near Sherborne, probably received 
names from Dinan, in Brittany, the original seat of a family which had lands also in Devon 
and ComwalL Hugh de Dinan held under William de Tracy ; also under William de Braosa 
of the honour of Barnstaple (Berdestaple) in Devon. Buokland Dinham is a prebend at the 
present time. 

Digitized by 


his share m the fabric of the cathedral church of Wells. 357 

4. By 171/J of William FUzjohn ofHarpetre, the tAureh of Estharpttre. 

William of Harpetre, one of the iamily of Lovel of Gary, bad before duB made restitution to 
the bishop of his fee of Dynre (Binder), which his father had taken from bishop Bobert. He 
now added this gift of the oboroh of £ast Harptre, ui perpetuam praebendam. East Harptre is a 
prebend at the present time. 

5. By gift of WiUiam Fitzwilliamf Hit chnreh of Hatelbergk, in perpetuam pra^endam. 
Haselbuxy, near Crewkeme, waa the scene of the hermit Wulfno's life and miracles ; his 

cell there nas visited hy bishop Bobert in 1154/ Haselbere is a prcbeud at the present time. 

6. By gift of Hamon of Blakeford, the church of Scanderford, in perpetuam' praebendam. 
Blackford in Wedmore or near Winc&nton ; Scanderford in Essex, now 8haIford, is a 

prebend at the present time. 

All these gifts are confirmed by an earlier deed of bishop Reginald/ and were given during 
dean Spakeston's time, between 1174-1180, 

7. By gift of Gerberte de Perei and Matilda Arundel, the church of Compton and the church 

Gerbert or Gilbert de Ferci gave the church of Childcompton, on the Mendip, " quantum ad 
dominum fundi pertinet," in perpetuam praebendam. Matilda de Arundel, his wife, gave the church 
of Bromfield, on the Quantock range, " in perpetuam eteemorinam," Childcompton waa alienated 
to Bradenstoke. No longer a prebend. 

6. By gift of Alan de FomeUia, the church of Cudeworth with CnoU chapd, in perpetuam 

Alan de Fomellis (Fnmeanx), one of Henry's justiciars in 1179, lord of Kilveton, 
Somerset, held lands in Devon at the time, under the bishop, and under Bobert, the king's son. 
One of the same name was sheriff of Cornwall in Bichard's reign. Cndworth is a prebend at 
the present time. 

9. By gift of James of Monteorel, the church of Wytelakyngton, in praAendam. 

The castle of Montsereau, in Anjou, besieged by Henry of Normandy, afterwards 
Henry II. in 1151, or the great fortress in the earldom of Leicester, Mount Sorel, we may 
suppose to be the seat of the femity, who now owned Whitelackington, which was Boger 
Arundel's demesne in 1084 {vide Eyton, D. S.). Whitelackingtou is a prebend at the present 

Three giffe from Devonshire landowners follow. 

10. By gift of Jocelin de Tremitut, Vie church of Auleseomb, in pra^endam, 

Aolescomb, on the south side of the Blackdown hills, near Honiton, " t'n Agro Devonienti et 
Dioeceii Bxon.''* No longer a prebend. 

» Matt. Paris, ii. 203. 80m. Arch. Proc. vol. lii. part i. 28. 
** Bishop Reginald's Confirmation R. i. folio 24; B. lii. folio 10. 

Digitized by 


358 ■ SegtTiald Bishop of Bath ; 

11. By gift of Oliver de Traei, the cJturch ofBooet/, in praehendam. 

Oliver de Tracy — Traci, near Bayeux, in Normandy — a large landliolder in Devon, represented 
the family of William de Tracy, one of the murderers of St. Thomas. William de Tracy held the 
honour of Tracy, in Devon, consisting of twenty knight's fees, at the same time. 

12. Sy ffifl of Radulfton of Bernard, the church of Holcombe and Lameia, in praebendam. 
Holcombe Begis, in Devon, probably. Lameia does not appear elsewhere. There is a 

Holcombe in Somerset. Holcome gives name to a prebend at the present time. 

13 fthe church of Ceddre. 

The name of the giver of the church of Cheddar is omitted here (B. i. foUo 27). About this 
time the prior and convent of Bradenstoke, in Wiltshire, gave all their rights in the choroh of 
Cheddar to Alexander, dean and canon of Wells — witnessed by Walter, prior of Bath ; and 
bishop Beginald gave to the convent of Bradenstoke, with the assent of Alexander, the dean, and 
the canons, the church of Childcompton, the dean reserving tl>e jurisdiction over it as once a 
prebendal church (Dugdale, Monasiicon, ii. folio 209). H. i. f 27. In 1240 bishop Jocelin con- 
firmed Cheddar to the chapter. B. i. f. 30. 

14. By gift of the aisters Alicia, Chrietinaf and Sara, the church of Tyniberacombe, in prae- 

Another sister, Cecilia, is mentioned in the bishop's confirmation act: the husbands are 
named as consenting parties. One, John de Columpstock (Collumpton), was a Devonshire land- 
owner. Timbersoombe is a prebend at the present time. 

15. By gift of Robert de Bolevill, Ute church of lAdefwd, in prad>eadam. 

One Richard de Bonneville (Bonneville on the Toncques, in Normandy) was holding land at 
this time in Devon. Bobert de Boleville, or Bonneville, made the grant in bishop Robert's 
time. A suit arose vrith his brother John, which was arranged in ll}j7 and impropriation made. 
West Lydford is no longer a prebend. 

16. By gift ofRadulf Wac, the dmrch of Doveliz. 

Dowlishwake, in South Petherton hundred, is not mentioned elsewhere in the roister. 

One Baldwin Wac (Wake) was present at Richard's coronation, and afl^rwards one of 
Eiohard's hostages in Gfermany. Dowlishwake, near Ilminster, is the church which preserves 
the name of the family. Howden, iii. 14, and 233. 

17. By gift of Simon Bozun, the church ofKarenton. 

In the register of the priory of Bath, f. 4, the prior and convent grant the vicarage of 
Carentan to Walter the clerk. Simon Buzun is witness. 

Simon Bozun, knight, one of a family of landholders also in Devon, granted Kai-entou 
(Oarthampton); he retained the appointment for his life to the prebend. It then reverted to the 
bishop. Carthampton, near Dunster, in West Somerset, or perhaps Carentan, in Cotentin, 
Normandy, was the original seat of the family. The Bohun family came from near Carentan^ 
where is S. Andr^ de Bohon and S. George de Bohun. 

Digitized by 


his share in the fabric of the catTiedraX church of Wells. .359 

18. By gift of Stephen ton of David, a moietj/ of fht eAitrei of Walelon. 

1 9. Si/ gift of Sfatitda de Chandog, the church of Stoweia, in perpetaam eleemorinam. 
Mande de ChftndoB was heiress of Robert de Cbandos, wbu died 1120, the founder of GoldcUve, 

with Isabella, his wife, daught«r of Alured de Hiapania, Domesday lord of Nether Stowey. 
Maade married Philip de Colombiers in 1166, who held eleven knights' fees in Devon and 

2U, By gift of A Ivred de Punnfoiiy the ehureh of Berewe. 

Alured da Ponsot, or PooBard, or Punston, lord of Sonth Barrow. One of a group of grants 
made by Robert of Gary, lord of liovington, and Nicholas of North Barrow — members of the 
family of Ijovel of Castle Gary. 

21. By gift of Radulf Fitz-William, the church of Werminatere, in praebendam. 

Grant of Warminster, in Wilts, the church of St. DionysiuSj by Ralph, son of William 

22. Byg^ ofGalfred Talboty half a virgaU of land at Norham, xoiik all the meadow ahieft lie 
had there, in perpetuam eleemosinam. 

Norham, in North Curry hundred. 

23. By our gift, tfie manor of North Cory wUH the church and alt its appurtenances. 

Tlie church or manor of North Curry, Wrentioh, and West Hache, were grants of crown 
lands after purchase by the bishop fi-om king Richard, when he was raising money for the needs 
of the Crusade by sale of lands and offices (R. ii. folio 90) . They were bought by the bishop ftom 
the crown, and made over by him as a bene&otion to augment the common funds of the canons, 
and formed the largest manorial possession of the chapter. Hie manor of North Carry included 
the hundred, and was a great lordship. 

At the same dme, on the same occasion, and doubtless on tlie same conditions of heavy 
payments, bishop Reginald obtained from king Ridtard charters confirmatory of all the grants 
and privileges made to the see by bis predecessors from WUHam II. 's time. i 

Digitized by 



Reginald Bishop of Bath^ 

APPENDIX F (p. 14). 

Monaaticon of Somerset in the time of bithop Begmdld. 
(I am indebted to the Bight Rev. Bishop Hobhouse for this table). 

Name and Order. 






King Osric. 



King Atbel&tan. 



King Alfred. 


Donstep. (CeU to BMi.) 

William Mobnn L 


^vffuatiman Canotu. 


William Mobim II. 



Oiffard and H. de Bloia, 

temp. Stephen and 




Earl of OloQcester. 



Tbe Barons Level of Cary. 

12th cent. 


Tbe Say family. 






De Romard, earl of Lincoln. 




King Henry IL 



Ela Longeep^e, oonntess of Saliabnry. 







Stoke Courcy 

De Com^ family. 

temp. Hen. II. 

A cell to the Benedictine abbey of Looley, Kormandy. 


Goumay femily. 

before 1312. 

Myncbtn BuckUnd. 

W. de Erlegh. 

1166 and 1199. 


De Courey family. 

c. 1140. 

Wkite Hall, Ilobester. 

William Denys. 

c. 1216. 

Digitized by 


XX. — Notes on am, Ancient Boat found at Brigg. By Alfred Atkinson, A.M. 
Inst. O.E. 

Bead 26 NoTember, ] 

In the month of April, 1886, during the excavation of a pit at the Brigg gag"- 
■works, a most interesting boat, of a very primitive type, was found. The upper- 
edges of the sides were first bared ; and, as these differed from the " car wood '* 
or buried trees which are bo often found in the neighbourhood, the workmen 
fortunately made a further examination, instead of chopping up the timber to- 
remove it piecemeal. It was then seen to be a boat, in a very fair state of pre- 

The vessel lay almost at right angles to the old channel of the river Ancholme^ 
the stem being next the stream, and about twenty-five yards away from the water. 
The place is on the right bank of the river, and some 250 yards below the County 
Bridge at Brigg. The upper edge of the boat was 2 feet below the surface of the 
ground at the bow, and 3 feet 7 inches at the stem ; the outside of the bottom 
being at the same places 4 feet 9 inches and 6 feet 11 inches deep. 

Fig, 1. Sketch bbowdiq the imjsition of the boat. 

Digitized by 


362 Notes on an ancient Boat found at Bngg. 

The vesBel rested in and upon the alluvial clay of the Ancholme valley, which 
had evidently growu around and inside the boat by slow degrees, creeping into 
and filling every chink and cranny and rift in the wood. This clay in its natural 
state is moist and soft, and it acts as a wonderful preserver of timber. The wood 
buried in it is, when first found, so saturated with water that it is almost in a pulpy 
state ; but as it dries it hardens rapidly. tTnfortunately, it has, at the same time, 
a strong tendency to split as the moisture leaves it. 

The boat is made out of one huge log of oak, which has been " dug out " or 
hollowed; the butt or root end of the tree being used for the stem. The length 
over all is 48 feet 6 inches, and the width originally varied from 4 feet 3 inches at 
the bows to 4 ft. 6 inches at the stem. The depth outside is 2 feet 8 inches at 
the bows, and 3 feet 1 inch to 3 feet 4 inches at the stem. 

The log appears to have been hewn to an approximately square section, the 
sides and bottom being flattened. The bows when seen from above are almost 
semi-circular, and are gradually rounded off into the bottom and sides. 

At the stem, where the wood is "end-on of the grain," it is left much thicker 
than at the sides and bottom; being at the former place aboiit 16 inches through. 
'In each bow there is a hole about 12 inches in diameter. The grain of the wood 
shows that these are the places where the first great branches of the tree grew. 
The holes are fitted with plugs, whose ends are rounded off, so as to form a kind 
of boss. The after-end of the boat has not been made by leaving the solid 
"timber, as in the bows, but by having a separate stem-board or transom fitted. 
In hollowing the vessel a kind of ridge was left (see fig. 3) at the stem, extending 
•across the bottom and up the sides. This is about 8 inches deep, and 15 inches 
■wide across the floor, diminishing in depth as it approached the top of the boat. 
In this ridge a square-shaped groove is cut, about 3i inches in width and depth. 
This groove received the stem-board (fig. 2), which was found a little way from 
the boat. It is not made of oak, but of some softer wood, and measures 4 feet 
wide at the top, and 2 feet 5|- inches deep. The bottom half is rounded off in 
the manner shown in the drawing. This stern-board is made of two planks, IJ or 
2 inches thick. It was made water-tight by a caulking of moss, which was driven 
into the groove. The sides of the boat are continued for about 2 feet beyond the 
stem-board, and are cut obliquely with a slight curve so as to form an over- 
hanging counter ; the board itself being perpendicular. 

In each gunwale (to use a convenient but not strictly correct term), and abaft 
the stem-board, two holes are pierced. The first is quite close to the board, the 

Digitized by 


_Notes on an ancient Boat found at Brigg. 

SCALE •fs"'- 
Fig. 2. SkxICH or BTBBH'BO^BD. 

other at the extreme end of the counter. These have eTidentlj been made to 
receive a lashing or twitch, passing from gunwale to gunwale, to hold the sides of 


the boat tightly against the edges of the stem-board. There is no evidence of 
any other mode of fastening. All the length of the boat, and just below the gun- 
wale, holes seem to have been pierced through the sides. These holes are about 

Digitized by 


364 'Notes on an (vaci&nt Boat found at Brigg. 

2 feet apart, and 1-J to 2 inches in diameter. They have possibly been for lashings 

to hold the sides of the boat together, beams or stretchers being fixed here and 

there to keep them the proper distance apart. When 

«.._.....?....- J. tiie boat was first found, such a stretcher extended 

between the gunwales. It was made of silver birch^ 

with the bark left on. 

In hollowing the boat, three ridges of timber 
have been left, crossing the boat athwartships. 
if), They are about 6 inches wide, and almost half- 
Fig.*. SKrnosopFLooR-MDoE. ^""^ in Bection (fig. 4). These ridges correspond 
with the floor timbers of a modem craft. In the stem 
there are shelves or brackets, projecting inboards from each side, about 5 inches- 
below the gunwale. These extend forwards from the stem-board for 6 feet, 
and appear to have been made to carry a kind of after 
deck. At 4 feet and 7 feet 3 inches from the bow, small 
brackets have'been left on each side. These are about 
9 inches long ; the first pair are 9 inches below the 
gunwale, and the second 11 inches. These appear to- 
have carried thwarts or seats. At a distance of 7 feet 
3 inches from the bow, there is a hole 1^ inches in 
^ diameter through the middle of the floor ; this was- 

scALE-i-*- s*i0PP®d with a plug. A similar hole, 2 inches in 
Kg. B. diameter, was found near the stem. These may possi- 

bly have been used for letting water out when the boat 
was hauled up from the water. There is no indication of any provision having 
been made for a mast or rigging. In the bows there is a sort of hollow, which 
was supposed to have been made for a bowsprit. It is however more probable 
that it is the result of natural decay, as a bowsprit would not be required in a 
vessel without sails or rigging. There is a kind of notch in each gunwale near 
the bows, which may have served the purpose of rowlocks, or they may be places 
that have been broken out since the boat was disused. 

The upper edges of the boat have suffered more from exposure to weather 
and from accident than the sides and bottom; and the forward part has been 
more injured than the after end. The bottom of the boat is split quite through 
in the centre, near the stem ; but this may have taken place since the boat was 
abandoned. In the starboard bilge there is also an extensive rift, which either 
existed when the vessel was originally made, or took place during the time it 

Digitized by 


Notes on an emdent Boaifownd at Brigg, 865 

was in use. This orack had been partly repaired by caulking with moss, and 
partly by patches of oak. The largest of these patches is 5 feet 8 inches long, 
and 6^ inches wide in the middle, tapering almost to a point at each end. It was 
*• let in " from the outside of the boat, so as to leave the surface flush. On the 
inside of the patch, three cleats or projections have been left, carved out of the 
solid wood. These cleats are lengthwise of the patch, and are about 12 inches 
long, and 4 inches deep. In the middle of each cleat a hole has been made. The 
cleats passed through the split in the side of the boat, projecting on the inside, 
and wooden pins were then driven through the holes, so as to bear on the firm 
wood on each side of the rift. The patch was further fewtened by being sewed 
on with a twisted cord, through holes about f of an inch in diameter, and 2^ 
inches apart. These holes are made round the edge of the patch, and correspond* 
ing holes were bored through the side of the boat. The smaller patches were 
secured entirely by similar lacing, or by small pegs. The cord, when examined 
under the microscope, shows a structure resembling fibrous tissue, and probably 
it has been formed of twisted sinews. The mosses used for caulking have been 
identified as species which grow in woods on sandy soils.' 

The dimensions of the boat are more particularly stated in the following 
table : — 

* The Rev. H. W. Lett, M.A., of Aghadei^ Olebe, co. Down, has examined the moss, and he 
contributes the following note to the SoietUific Enquirer for Jnly 1886: — 

" The moea which formed the caulking in the pre-historic ship recently brought to light at 
Brigg consists of portions of two species. 

That which is most abundant in the specimen is Thuidium lamariidnum. It has a dull 
appearance, arising from the leaves being covered all over with minnte papill», or soft snper£cial 
glands, and the stem is densely clotted with paraphyllse, or downy rootlets ; both these features ave 
quite distinct and well preserved in the portions examined, which, instead of being green, are 
brownish. This is one of the most common and beantifnl of our Hypnunu, or cushion-mosses, and a 
bank covered with its green branches, which grow out in the manner of a miniature fern, is a lovely 
sight. It is still much used by the makers of artificial flowers for some purposes of their trade. 

The other is Hypnwa triqvetrum, a stout, erect plant, of a bright shining green, that ia 
permanent even when dry. The specimen retains its shining appearance, but the green has beoD 
changed to olive by the conditions under which it lay buried in the old craft. This is the mosa 
commonly nsed for making moss baskets, for which purpose it is sold in the London markets. 

The habitats of these mosses are banks in woods, where they may often be found growing 
together, as doubtless they did when the inhabitants of Lincolnshire plucked their handfuls in days 
of old to serve the purpose for which oakum is now used." 

Digitized by 


Notes on an ancient Boat found at Brigg. 

Hole in port bow about 12 inches 

Hole in starboard ditto. 

Brackets for thwart 9 inches below 

Hole through floor, atnidshipa, IJ 
inches diameter, with plug. 

Brackets for thwart, 9 inches long, 
H Inches below gnnwale. 


Beginning of split in starboard bilge. 


End of split in starboard bilf^e. 

Shelves or brackets 5 inches below 
gnnwale begins. 

Hole tbrongb floor amidships, abont 
2^ inches diameter. 

Centre of groove for stern-board. 
Hole throngh port gunwale close 

Extreme length of bottom. 
Hole in port gnnwale. 

End of connter ^ extreme length of 

Average thickness of sides 2 inches. 
Ditto bottom 4 inches. 

Feet Inches. 

4 8 

5 1 

6 7 

S 5 

has been 

These dimensions were taken after the boat waa removed from the excavation. 
The widths at the top are probably greater than the original size of the boat, 
owing to the sides falling outwards. This is clearly the case at the stem, the 
original size of which can be ascertained from the stem-board. The outside width 
as shown by the board was 4 feet 6 inches, bdt it now measures 5 feet 5 inches. 

Digitized by 


Notes on an ancient Boatfawnd at Brigg. 367 

In the bottom of the boat, outside and near the bows, there is a hole appa- 
rently left by a dead knot in the wood. This was filled, with bladder-wrack, a 
common Beaweed. 

By drawing sections of the boat to scale it is found that the smallest circum- 
ficribing circle at the stem is 5 feet 4 inches in diameter. Those figures give the 
minimum dimensions of the oak log; and to them at least 6 inches must be added 
for sap-wood and bark to find the size of the tree. 

Mr. W. Stephenson, of Scarborough (who was one of the first to draw public 
attention to the discovery of the boat), is mi authority on matters relating to trees 
and timber. He is familiar with all the large trees now growing in England, and 
says there are none in existence that can compare in size with the enormous tree 
out of which this boat was constructed. There are trees of larger diameter, but 
the length of the trunk is much less. Mr. Stephenson believes that the tree was 
hollow at the heart, and that the hollow extended into the first great lateral 
branches, which grew about 60 feet above the ground. This accounts for the 
plugs in the holes in the bows, and for the necessity of having a separate stem- 
board. Also, probably, for the place in the head of the boat which has been sup- 
posed to receive a bowsprit. The natural habit of oak trees is to throw out 
branches within a few feet of the ground ; and it is only when growing in a dense 
forest, closely surrounded by other trees, that a straight stem shoots up devoid of 

It is inconceivable that the constructors of this vessel had the means of felling 
an oak tree 6 feet in diameter. We must therefore conclude that the tree had 
completed the term of its natural existence, and had at last fallen through sheer 
old age. The workmen would find the tree hollowed to their hands, and the work 
would be finished, perhaps, partly by burning. 

The groove in the stem, and the edges of the patches are cut in so clean a 
manner that metallic rather than stone tools have probably been used. But no 
vestige of metal was found in or about the boat. 

The ground in which the ship was found corresponds exactly with that where 
the old timber roadway was discovered two years ago, except that the dark bluish 
alluvial clay is much thicker. The site of the road is 500 yards north-west from 
the boat. A description of this road, and a section of the ground, are given in the 
Proceedings of this Society for May 8th., 1884;' and also a short sketch of the 

* 2nd Series, x. 110. 
VOL. L. 3d 

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Notes on an ancient Boatfotmd at Brigg. 

> "With remainB of sedges. 

post-glacial geology of the Ancholme valley. The beds passed through in digging 
are in the following order, beginning at the top : — 

a. Surface soil. 

b. Feat and forest bed. 

c. Brown alluvial clay 

d. Dark blueisb grey alluvial clay 
6. Feat and forest bed. 

/. Drift. 

The upper edges of the boat were slightly above the jimction of the two clay- 
beds. Since the discovery of the boat, a further light has been thrown on the 
formation of these beds. Mr. Edmund Grove, AM. Inst. C.E., of Saltbum, has 
kindly made a very careful microscopic investigation of the clays, for the purpose 
of detecting any diatomaceous remains. After preparing some of the brown clay 
for examination, he says, he " found the following species of Diatomacese very 
sparingly present. I give the "W. Smith nomenclature " — 

Navicula formosa. Greg. 

„ Jennerii. W. S. 

„ intemipta Kutz. • 
Trybhonella marginata. 
Nitzchia bilobata. W. S. 
Campylodiscus cribrosus. W. S. 
Coscinodiscus radiatus. 
Actinoptyohus undulatus. 
AuliscuH (Bupodiscus, Sm.) sculptus. 
Podosira maculata. W. S. - 
Melosira (Orthosira, Sm.) marina. 

No. of apecimens obserred. 






several short filaments 

The above was the total result of many examinations, so that the diatoms are 
very scarce. Mr. Grove fiirther says, " They are all marine forms, and occurred, 
with only one or two exceptions, in complete frustules ; and, in some cases, two 
or more complete frustules together. From this, and the fact that I found no 
fresh-water forms, I conclude that the place was a lagoon or hollow, out of the 
way of the stream, but accessible to the tide, which washed the diatoms in in a 
living state. Auliscus eculptiis, the two specimens of which were perfect frustules. 

Digitized by 


Kotes on an ancient Boat found at Brigg. 369 

not water-worn, flouriBhea in Smyrna Bponges, but is found also abundantly in the 
allaviura of the Thames at Sheemess, and of the Elbe at Cuxhaven." In a sample 
of the grey clay, Mr. Grove found acicular sponge spicules, but no trace of 

This investigation shows that the lagoon which the ancient vessel navigated 
was in open communication with the sea and the Humber, The presence of the 
sedges indicates however that the water was not very salt. Too much so, pro- 
bably, for the existence of fresh-water diatoms, and not salt enough for those of 
marine type to flourish. It would only be high spring tides that could drive salt 
water so far up the valley, forcing back the fresh water drainage that flowed from 
the surrounding hills. Mr. Grove's result also indicates that the blue-grey and 
the brown clay were deposited under very different circumstances, the latter is 
altogether subsequent to the period when the boat found its long rating-place. 
The present alluvium or "warp" with which the Humber is now so highly 
charged is of quite a distinct character from the two clays below the upper peat. 
Indeed, the bed of the Humber is cut in these clays, and for some distance from 
that river up the Ancholme valley, the clay is covered with a bed of recent 
alluvium or warp. 

The physical conditions of the Humber itselX must, therefore, have been very 
different in the days of the boat from what they are at present. Long after the 
old ship was wrecked or abandoned, an elevation of the ground converted the 
lagoon into dry land, on which an extensive forest grew, decayed and perished. 
The trunks of enormous oak trees, mixed with the remains of yew, birch, and 
hazel are frequently found in the upper peat. Another subsidence turned the 
Level of Ancholme again into a morass, which has been artificially drained within 
a comparatively recent period. 

It has been suggested that this ship may have been made since the Roman 
occupation. Bat, on the other hand, the Roman remains are only found in the 
upper peat, which is of later date than the boat ; probably, even the forest which 
grew over the boat had perished before the Roman period. The existence, a few 
miles away, of what is doubtless a Roman way across the marsh, tends to prove 

The Roman roads were essentially military roads; they ran direct from point to 
point, regardless of villages or local requirements, being made solely for rapid com- 
munication. One of the most important ways — the Ermine Street — runs on the 
west side of the Ancholme valley, and scarcely swerves from a straight line in 
the thirty miles between Lincoln and the Humber. On the east side of the valley 

Digitized by 


370 Notes on cm cmcient Boaifownd at Brigg. 

there was au important Roman station at Caistor. Of course it would be found 
desirable to provide a means of communication between Caistor and tlie Ermine 
Street, but there was the valley and swamp to cross. This difficulty was sur- 
mounted, and the remains we find to-day show how it was done. The road was 
made from Redboume, on the Ermine Street, towards Caistor, crossing the 
Ancholme Level in North Kelsey. From the remains it appears that the road or 
viaduct was formed of rows of oak piles, which carried a platform. Now the im- 
portant evidence given by this road is the fact that the heads of the piles are 
found in the upper peat, where they show many signs of decay. The lower 
portions, which were driven into the clay, are well preserved. The deduction is 
that the road was made after the forest period, and when the Iievel was again a 
bog; because oak-trees cannot grow in a swamp, and a forest can be crossed 
without a timber viaduct. If that be the case, the brown clay was deposited 
and the forest grew and fell between the time of the boat and the making of the 
Roman road. 

Dug-out boats of more or less rude construction have been found in several 
places in Oreat Britain before. The Clyde has been especially rich, Mr. J. 
Dalrymple Duncan, F.S.A. Scot., informs us,' that up to 1866 eighteen canoes 
had been found in op near Glasgow. In 1847, during the widening of the Clyde, 
twelve more canoes were discovered; and five were found in 1852, one in 1863, 
and one in 1854, five during 1856 to 1859, and two subsequently. The last was 
found in 1882 in an imperfect condition, the stem being wanting. The remaining 
portion measured about 24 feet long, and 3 feet 6 inches at the widest part. Mr. 
Duncan assumes that it was originally 30 feet long and 5 feet wide at the stem. 
The next boat in point of size was 14 feet long and 4 feet 1 inch wide ; and the 
smallest was 11 feet 10 inches long and 2 feet wide. 

In the historical department of the National Museum at Stockholm there is 
a similar boat, which was found in the Mosjo (moss-lake) in Nerike. It is 
22 feet long, and is stated to be of the stone age. 

The ship-building of such skilled workmen as the Romans must have been of 
a very superior kind to these rude dug-outs. And in Scandinavia naval architec- 
ture had made a wonderful advance before the building of the beautiful ship found 
a year or two ago at Gokstad, in the Sandefjord. 

This vessel is very fully and minutely described and illustrated in a book 
entitled "The Viking-Ship, discovered at Gokstad in Norway; described by 
N. Nicholaysen," Christiania, Oammermeyer, 1882. 

' Trans. Qlaggmo Archaeol. Boc. Part II. vol. xi. p. 121 

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XXI. — Notes from the Records of the Mavm- of Bottesford, Lvncolnshire. 
By Bdwaed Peacock, F.8.A. 

Bead December 2, 188fl. 

B0TTE8POED is a small village in the parts of Lindeey and wapentake of 
Maoley, in the county of Lincoln. The parish before recent alterations consisted 
of the townships of Bottesford, Ashby, Burringham, Holme, and Yaddlethorpe, 
and of about half of Bast Butterwick. The manor of Bottesford extends over 
the greater part of Bottesford and Yaddlethorpe, and over the whole of that part 
of East Butterwick that is in Bottesford parish. Except in the case of East 
Butterwick the boundaries of the townships and the manor are not quite the 
same. There is a farm in Bottesford and another in Yaddlethorpe that are 
members of the great manor of Kirton in Lindsey, and on the other hand there 
were outlying portions of the manor of Bottesford in Brumby, Ashby, Messing- 
ham, and other places. 

Before the fall of the religious houses the manor of Bottesford had been for 
a long period in the possession of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem. Its 
medieval history, though interesting on many accounts, must not be dwelt upon 
now. In the thirty-seventh year of Henry the Eighth the king sold it, with other 
property, to Charles Sutton, Esq., who is described as " de villa Cales." It is 
called the Lordship and Manor of Bottisforth, parcel of the late preceptory or 
commendatory of "Willoughton, in the county of Lincoln, late a priory or hospital 
of Saint John of Jerusalem. The conveyance runs in the usual form, but it is 
worth mentioning that among other things conveyed were " viginti duos denarios 
vocatos "Wamott rent."" What this word signifies has not, I believe, been as yet 
ascertained. Lands called Warenot lands existed in the townships of Northorpe, 
Spital, Morton and elsewhere in Lindsey, and under the form of Wamutte it is 

- Palmt Boll, 37 Hen. VIII. m. 17. 

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872 Notes from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 

said to occur in the East Biding of Yorkshire.' The manor changed handa several 
times, almost immediately after it fell into the king's hands. In 1547 the lord 
was Thomas Yorke, Esq. This is the first year of the existing court-roUs. That 
earlier documents of the same character must have been compiled cannot admit of 
doubt. That they have been lost or destroyed seems almost certain. The Public 
Kecord office, and several other places where it was thought possible that they might 
have strayed, have been searched for them in vain. The jury of the 29th September, 
1547, consists of but eleven persons, all but three of whom bear names which now 
or very recently have been familiar in the neighbourhood. The ordinary course 
of business, such as is familiar to students of documents of this kind, was followed; 
two women were fined for selling beer contrary to assize, and William Yates and 
Richard Haram were presented because their bams were in want of repair. These 
people it should be noted were almost certainly freehold tenants. It was ordered 
that no inhabitant of the manor should dig beates in the common moors or pastures, 
except by the consent of all the inhabitants of " Bottysford & Yadylthorpe," 
under a penalty of three shillings and four pence. Beat in our dialect means a 
bundle of flax or hemp,** it appears here to signify what, before the commons were 
enclosed, used to be called bags, that is the upper portion of the peat, consisting 
of true peat intermixed with roots of grass. 

At the court held on the .... day of May in the same year the business 
was of a simile character, William Morley was fined for assaulting and wounding 
Grace Howden three shillings and four pence, and it was reported that one hen 
value ij * had come as a stray into the manor. It was ordered that Thomas 
Robynson should not keep sheep or cattle within the common pasture under pain 
of xiij' iiij*. 

The meaning of this entry is by no means obvious. Thomas Robynson must 
have been a tenant of the manor, or he would not have been in a position to incur 
a fine. If he were a tenant, unless his sheep and cattle were suffering from some 
noxious disease, it is not clear to me by what right or custom his stock could be 
excluded from the common pasture. The next entry induces me to believe that 
there was either murrain in the manor or great dread thereof, for it was ordered 
under a lite penalty that no one should make ingress and egress with their 
animals into the common pasture. It was further ordered that the sewers and 

• Norden's Survey of the Mattot of Eirton in Lindtey, MS. Pub. Lib. Camb. Ff. 4, 30, foil. 48b^ 
25 b, 49 b, 64 b, 66 b. VaUrr Eccl. iv. 133 i. 137 ii. The AntiqwiTy, vol. xii. 207 ii. 
" Arthur Tonng, Line. Agriculture, 1799, p. 159. 

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Notes from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 373 

banks were to be well scoured " bene escurata " before the feast of Pentecost, and 
that all persons were to make sufficient pig-sties, and keep their pigs therein from 
sunset until eight o'clock in the morning, and that no one should turn his pigs 
into the sown field until the end of autumn; no one to put mares having foals in the 
sown field; no one to cut for purposes of sale " trifodia vocato vppergraftes " in 
the moor. 

1548. The next court was held on the thirteenth of October, 1548, and Richard 
Stocks was presented because he permitted his geese to go in the sown field. 
Orders were made that every one within the manor should fill up '* le ffyrre 
holes" before the feast of SS. Simon and Jude next following, and that all 
persons should well and sufficiently scour " le watterlotte " before the feast of All 
Saints. The " fEyrre holes" were the pits which were dug in the peat-moss for 
the purpose of procuring the buried fir timber and roots which were and are still 
to be foimd there. The timber, much of which was soimd and strong, was used 
for gate-posts and the roofs of buildings, the roots for fuel. A waterlot is such 
portion of a drain as one person is bound by custom to keep in order. These 
waterlots were abolished here by the enclosure at the end of the last century, but 
many drains in the immediate meighbourhood are still cleansed in this most 
inconvenient manner. 

1549. the third of May, it was presented that William Rederwas a receiver of 
stolen goods, and that William Robinson had committed a petty theft, and that 
William Raunald had demised certain lands by indenture which were held of the 
lord by copy, therefore the lands are forfeited to the lord. 

1550. At the court held on the seventeenth of April, 1550, Robert Cooke waa 
fined three shillings and four pence because he had permitted his pigs to root up 
the common pasture, and two men smaller sums for fighting. It was ordered 
that no one should turn pigs into the common pasture unless they were suffi- 
ciently ringed, nor his sheep into another pasture called the Marsh unless they 
had a mark * to distinguish them. The marsh here spoken of was not boggy land, 
but, on the the contrary, the highest part of the common. It is the Anglo-Saxon 
mearc, a sign, boundary or limit, and signifies the strip of land, on the extreme 

■ When the commons were unenclosed, it was neceBsary for every one who had a right of pastnre 
to have a sheep-mark that could be easily distinguished from those of his neighbours. A letter 
'written by archbishop Cranmer, probably in 1534, shews that these marks were sometimes used for 
other pnrposes. He says, " Toaching my commission to take oaths of the king's subjects for his 
highness' Bocceasion, I am by yonr laBt letters well instrncted, saving that I know not how I shall 
order them that cannot subscribe in writing : hitherto I have caused one of mj secretaries to 

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374 Noteefrom the Records of the Manor of Botiesford, Lmcotnshvre. 

Boutli of tlie common, wliicli separated the manor of Bottesford from Messingham. 
It was also enjoined that no one should keep geese in the sown field after the feast 
of the Ascension, or put nets or " le lepes " ' into the common eewer called the 
" inaowlynge " " in the day-time. 

1551. 3rd April. Orders were made, that no one should glean ears of barley 
or peas in the autumn until such time as the crop was removed, nor out grass 
in the meadow called the " maune medowe." The grass on this meadow was 
evidently held in common, and when made into hay must have been divided 
among the several tenants of the manor. If green grass for cattle-food were 
required during the summer, it had to be obtained from the "head lands" and 
"banks," or other lands held in severalty. It was further enjoined, that no one 
was to permit a foal to follow his plough in the sown field ; and that all persons 
were to make good their "burcelleB"" and fences between themselves and the 
common field before the feast of the Ascension. 

1552. 25 April. Among the orders this year occur, that no one shall permit 
his oxen (boves) to go untethered in the sown field : " Quod nullus le stopup le 
headlandes sed ecinebant vicinos suos habere viam quod necesse fuerit." This 
entry is interesting from the curious mixture of languages which it presents ; it is 
also important, because it shows that the freehold and copyhold rights of the 
tenants were of a limited character. The land in the manor of Bottesford was 
cultivated in very narrow strips ; some of these, but by no means the whole of 
them, abutted on a highway. Those that did not could never be reached by their 
owners, except by going on their neighbours' head-lands. 

1554. 25 October. Richard Cave was fined sixpence because he put hemp 
into the common sewer. Almost every landowner in this and the adjoining 

8nbacr[ib]e for such persons, and made them to write tlieir ehepe mark, or some other mark as they 

can scribble. Now I would know, whether I shall, instead of subscription, take their 

seals." — Cranmer, Miscellaneous WritiTtgs (Parker 8oc.) 291. 

* A leap or lepe is a long wicker basket employed for catching eels ; the word is still in use. At 
the sessions held at Northallerton, Jnly 12, 1610, Charles Adamson, of Normanby, was presented 
" for fishing* contynnally with leape and ell neites." N<frth Biding Quarter Sessions Secords, vol. i. 
p. 197, where there is a learned note on the word by the editor. Rev. J. C. Atkinson. 

^ The oatfall of a ditch or drain, sometimes the drain itself. See the author's Manley and 
Corringham Qhitary, sub voce. 

" The meaning of this word is by no means clear. I have never met with it eicept here, 
in the conrt-rolls of the manor of Little Carlton in this county, wherein it occurs three or fonr times, 
«. g. in 1603, an order was made that " we do lay in payne that Thomas Overton shall make his 
bursell sufficient betwixt Edward Barker and himself, betwixt this and the feast of Saint Acdrewo 
next enKning in poane of x>," 

Digitized by 


•Notes from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, Lincolnehvre. 375 

manors had a " hemp dyke " of his own, in which to steep the hemp and flax 
which he grew, for the purpose of making Bheets, sacks, and cordage. To steep 
hemp in the common Bewer was no light offence ; for it killed the fish, and made 
the water unfit for cattle to drink. 

1562. 27 May. At this com>t the jury consisted of fourteen persons. A 
series of orders were made which, for the most part, only reproduce those already 
quoted; one is worth mentioning. It prohibits any of the inhabitants of the 
manor digging " le bassokes," for the purpose of taking them out of the manor. 
The offence was a grave one ; so the fine was three shiUings and four pence. 
A hassock was a thick peat-sod used for fuel. The word is now obsolete here ; 
but I have conversed with persons to whom it was familiar. 

1563. 12 April. The jury at this court consisted of eight persons only. John 
Seabank and eight others were fined four pence each for cutting and carrying 
away trees from the lord's wood. The tenants had, probably, the right of gather- 
ing sticks in the wood; and it may safely be presumed that they could take, 
under the supervision of the lord's forester, what they needed for houseboot, 
ploughboot, gateboot, and fenceboot. These nine persons, we should gather, had 
taken timber for some unlawful purpose, or felled the trees at an improper time of 
the year. Some portion of this wood was remaining until about a century ago. 
In title-deeds and surveys it is commonly called " Temple-wood." The site of 
the eastermost portion is still called " the wood-close." Further orders are made 
as to digging turves : none are to be dug beyond " le southe gate." No one is to 
go " cum auriga vocata a shod wayne or cart sub le hebbels.'" 

At the court held on the 7th of October this yeare, Thomas Whyttyngham of 
Eastbutterwyke was fined iij' iiij' because " posuit canes super pecora in moris de 
Bottysford." It was also ordered, that every one who had sufficient fuel should 
prepare for himself three cart-loads before the feast of Saint Martin on pain of a 
fine of vi' viij*. 

1565. 26 June. An order was issued, under a penalty of ten shillings, that 
" le kuckstowle " should be made for this manor for " le scolders " before the 
feast of Saint Michael the Archangel. 

1566. 2nd October. Richard Buggyns and John Blacken were fined iij' iiij* 
each, for an assault on Richard Tyrwhit, from whom they drew blood. Thomas 
Yates was fined v shillings because he took in other persons' sheep. This was a 
grave offence, with which the manor courts had to deal severely. The taking 
" to gist," as it was called, " foreign " cattle, was a great wrong to all the per- 

• Probably a irooden bridge. See Atkinson, Cleveland Qlote. Bnb voce Hebble. 
VOL. L. 3 E 

Digitized by 


376 Jfotesfrom the Becor^s of tJte Manor of Bottesford, Lmcobufhire. 

SODS who had rights upon the common, as these "foreign " animals consumed the 
food which was the joint property of all the tenants of the manor. Eichard 
Dawber was fined iiij* because he did not shut op his pigs in their sty at night. 

1567. 21 April. No farmer to keep more than three geese beside the gander 
after Sesagesima, on pain of a fine of iij* iiij''. No labourer to keep more than 
two geese and a gander, fine iij* iiij^. Bichard fFreman and Henry Hill to 
remove the dung belonging to them which lies in the highway on pain of a like 
fine. Richard fireman to remove his hedge at the south part of his house *' ad le 
old Bootes " before the feast of Saint Martin, on pain of a like fine. 

1568. 4 May. William Emonson fined xij^ because "dedit illeoita verba 
Johanni Whelewryht." Thomas Biugham find iij* because he made "inchase and 
ontchase infra dominicum istud." 

1569. 25 January. Robert Chapman fined xii*" "quia vxor eius dyd drye 
hempe in a fyer Chymney." Nearly every Lincolnshire manor the records of 
which I have been permitted to examine contains entries of this kind.' Hemp 
and its refuse, the bark, or husk, are very inflammable substances, and fires must 
often have originated from the careless practice of "breaking" and drying hemp 
in the large open chimneys. 

John Healy was fined the large sum of xl' because be kept two hundred sheep 
within the lordship, and was not an inhabitant thereof. 

22 April. Bichard Browne fined xij' because " hospitauit vagabundo." 

4 October. Robert "Williamson fined sij* "quia puplicauit consilium Juratorum." 

1570. 24 September. A common way and a common hyrsell'' ordered to be 
made on the north and east sides of Bottesford wood for the convenience of the 
lord and his tenants. 

1571. 7 October. Robert Rowbotham and John Cooke fined ij' iiij* and viij*" 
respectively, because they permitted the servants of other persons to be in their 
houses contrary to the form of the statute. In the margin is written " Ludebant 
apud cartas pictas." William Smythe fined iiij" because "custodiuit canem 
malum, vocatum Anglice a vnlawfull dogge." George Harryson, Agnes his wife, 
and Hamo his son fined v' for being " pety bryberes de anseris et aliis bonis." 
The meaning of this entry is not clear. The most probable interpretation seems 
to be, that these persons had committed a trespass with the geese, or broken a 
by-law concerning them, and that, when discovered, they had endeavoured to 
bribe some one, probably an official person, to keep the matter secret. 

1572. 23 May. Robert Leake fined x' because he keeps in his house an 
artificer, called a " cordwayner." John Farray fined vj'^ because he had made a 

■ Cf. Archaeologia, vol. xlvi. p. 382. " Probably a fooi^path. 

Digitized by 


•Notes from the Records of the Marurr of Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 377' 

dunghill in the highway, and ij' because he had infected the water by putting 
skins into it. 

At this court we have for the first time a series of orders made in English. 
I give them without abridgment : 

Ordinatus est quod no cartes nor waynes of Messingham load turves vppon the highe 

mowre yate except they by them eytber of the towne of Bottisford or Yaddletborpe 

vppon psyne of euery cart or wayne oSfendynge contraiy to this payne shall be in 

miserioordiam iij' iiij^ 
Item that enery person that will carie ther swyne to the commonB shall rynge them 

vppon payne of enery swine vnrynged after Trenitie Sonday sub pena qnilibet porcis 

defect in misericordia xg' 
Item that no man offend in gravinge of torrefi vppon or within the Bottes* but that they 

Bhalbe in misericordia xl' 
Item that none grave tnmes not abone ffortie thowBand in one yere vppon payne of 

euery defaut xz' 
And also that none shall signe'' any of ther turuegrades afore they be graven but after 

they have graven them they may sell them. 
Item that no ootiger that kepes a dranight' in eomer and not aible to kepe the said 

drawight in wynter do can any tnruee forth to any other townes in Bomer shatbe in 

misericordia xx* 
Provided all wayes that yf the towne of Yaddelthorpe bracke any of the paynee aforsaid 

that then the Inhabitaontes of Bottbfbrd to be at libertie. 

1673. 7 April. Richard Harrison fined iij* ii*" "quia cepit stickes from 
hedges at divers tymes." Robert "Williamson, " for plowinge away of dike 
daille meare, iij iiij**. The dale here spoken of was one of many divisions of 
land so called in this and the adjoining manors; they were not vallies, but 
divisions of land in the open fields.** Catherine Chapman, vj* for not having a 
" swinstye," that is a pig-sty. Richard Henrison and William Aliston, alias 
ffoxe ij' "quia cepit certayne horsse shoeae oute of [the] shope of henry Page." 
It was ordered at this court that " noman shall fell no common braycons vnto 
suche tyme as the cargraves appoint a tyme, in payne of every default xij*." 
Brackens were required for bedding for cattle, and, as there was not much land 
on the wastes of the manor where they grew, it was necessary to be careful of 

1574. 17 June. The jurora say upon their oaths " that Oliver Bowton 
carried thre stray sheppe from Yaddlethorge to Kyrton this laste yere." Also 

■ Bntts for archery. "* Aeeif^. ' Draught of oien. 

' Cf . the writer's ManUy and Corringham Olottary, snb voce. 


Digitized by 


378 Notes from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, LincolmUre. 

the said jory eayeth " that at mayday laste paste Richard Browen cairyed thre 
stray gesse from Yaddlethorpe to Kyrton, [and] that Robert Atkynson caried 
thre stray horeses from Yadlethorppe to Kyrton." These entries are cnriouB as 
shewing the confusion that was caused by small detached pieces of one manor 
lying within the conSnes of another. Nearly the whole of Yaddlethorpe is in 
the manor of Bottesford, but one small farm was a member of the royal manor of 
Kirton in Lindsey. Constant disputes between the rival authorities seem to have 
resulted from this unfortunate arrangement, which however is of immemorial 
antiquity, as certain lands in Yaddlethorpe are mentioned in Domesday as a part 
of the manor of Kirton. 

At this court it was ordained " that euery person that gethers peason' 
withoute the lycens of ye husbandman shall be amerced for every time lij''." 

18 October. It was ordered that every cottager should have four loads of 
turves called " eldynge " " before the feast of Saint Andrew under the pain of 
vj' viij^. This entry is curious, but the object of the order and the heavy fine 
that was threatened is clear. If a cottager was not provided with materials for 
his winter fires he and his family would have perished with cold, unless they were 
reUeved by or stole from their more provident neighbours. The authorities had 
no doubt discovered that some of the people after whom it was their duty to look 
never called to mind that winter would come again when the days were bright 
and the sun warm. 

1576. 3 May. Widow "Walker fined iij' iiij" for " breakinge hemp & lyne in 
her firehouse." "Widow fEowler a similar fine for " brakinge de hemp et lynne in 
her oven." 

Wheraa tbe wyflFe of Xpofer Crayne fliatmdered the wyffe of Eichard Dawber for a 
roylle of lynne cloth, we say that Dawbers wyffe is a verie ODest woman and 
withowte blame in that matter and we amerce Xpofer Crayne for the yll veage of 
his said wj-ffe iij' iiij* 

Item we lye in payne that enery woman that is a scould shall eyther be sett vpon the 
cuekstoll & and be tbrise docked in the water or else ther hnebandes to be 
amercied vj' viij* aB well the one partie as the others 

» Peas. 

'' The word elding, tbottgh nearly obsolete, is etdll in nse to indicate small sticks nsed for 
lighting fires. The proverbial saying when something quite worthless is spoken of, that " it is 
neither good for hedge-stake nor elding," will perhaps hinder it from falling into complete disnse. 
The word occurs in Scotland. Sir Walter Scott makes Willie of Westbnmflat say, " Mony thanks 

to ye for collecting sae muckle winter eildingfor ns." Black Dwarf, chap. ix. Cf. Not&i 

and Queries, 4th Series, toI. xi. p. 454. Atkinson's Cleveland Qlostary, sub voce. 

Digitized by 


^otesfrom the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 379 

1677. 29 AprU. Ordered that no one keep cattle or " bestes " in the pasturo 
unless he lives -within the lordehip, penalty zx*. 

30 September. A woman named Hill fined xiij* because she had not suffi- 
ciently repaired her house " cum thacke and morter." 

1578. 28 March. Further orders were made at this court. 

Item that euery man that bathe begune a pjtte shall graye it vp in order in payne of 
vj' viij* 

This relates to digging turves. The upper peat was the beat for fiiel, because 
it was less clogged with water, and therefore sooner became dry. It was no un- 
common custom for selfish persons to engross several turf pits, only taking the 
upper " draws " from each. 

Item that no manner of person nor persons shall grave neare any cawsye by xx^ fott of 
eyther syde in payne of vj* viij^ 

The object of this order was to preserve the "caueies" from being disturbed 
by the peat on which they were made settling into the holes made by the turf 
diggers. There was also another good reason. These " causies " did not run 
straight like a modern road, but twisted about so as always to be on the highest 
land. The holes where turves had been dug were full of water in winter, and 
would have been highly dangerous for travellers by night, had they been close 
upon what was in fact, though perhaps not in law, a highway. 

Item that euery man have a sufficient swyne ootte before mayday next in payne of iij* iiij' 
Item that euery man shall mak hifi hedges sufficient betwixt this and mayday next in 

payne of xij" 
Item that none shall gleane in henieste but fewer landes of from any stowckes* in payne 

of xij* 
Item that none shall kepe any diseased horses or mares goinge of the common pastures 

in payne of vj' viij^ 
Item that none shall grave any sodes or tnrvea nor bassockos* of the Sowthe Easte syde 

the grene gaitte and abnttinge of the Soiithe West of grene howe* in pena vj' viij* 

■ A Btook or Htowk is ton sheaves of com set with their heads together in a slanting position, 
for the purpose of drying, preparatory to their being stacked. The word is still in common nse. 

t> A thick grassy sod. 

' Greenhoe is a sandhill near the middle of the moors. A fannhonee is now built thereon, which 
is commonly known as Taddlethorpe Orange. 

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■Notes from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, Linc(Amhire, 

It iB laid in pa^e that Robert Waplay, vxor Walker, Peter Bmythe, Xpofer Craven, 
John fiarra, & Stephayne IVipman shall euery of them repaire their lionses before 
candlemas next in payne of euery one foand fiiltie to ibrfeit to the Lord iiij* 

It is almost, if not quite, certain that most of these persons were freehold 
tenants, not copyholders. 
1579. 1 April. 

It is lajd in payne yt no cottager in the towne nor in ye thorpc' ahal kepe no oatel vpon 
the lordes commtmeB after ye lords officer hane gyne him waining bat eueiy [one] 
BO doing to forfet ^ vig* 

Item that no ootiger kepe at any tyme within this Lordsliippe above tenne sheppe vpon 

payne of vj' viij** 
Item that everie hnsbandman within this Lordshippe to sett eneiy year vj willowee & 

eaery cotiger iij and to preeeme them from cattell, in doinge the contrary eoery 

husbandman to forfayte lij'' and eveiy ootiger ^' 

1580. 8 April. Several persons were fined small sums for appropriating 
" bottelles " of furze. 

Imprimis wo lye it in payne y* no man lode anye ooantrie wflyne after aonne set, or afore 
Sonne rysse in ye mominge, in enery on bo taken ij* vj'* 

A "country wayne," probably, means a waggon belonging to someone who 
was not a tenant of the manor. 

Item we lye in payne y* vidoa Rowbotham r^nire y" Nether bowse before Lammas day 
nest comeing in payne of xx* 

1581. 5 October. John Bramley fined zz' for not sufficiently making and 
repairing his hedges and " burcelles." Nicholas Nedam fined vj* viij^ because he 
" graved vpp the cawsie." 

1585. 18 May. Antiony Cartwright fined xij^ "quia non pitt le carion ad 
nocumentum vicinorum." 

6 October. Orders were made — 

That eueiy man scower hie watercourses or dreans before St. Lukes day next in payne 
of euerye defalt iij' iiij* 

■ i. e. Taddlethorpo. 

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2ifote8 from the Records of the Manor of Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 381 

Item that eneiye chimney be enfScientty made and repayred before St Andrewes day 

8ub pena .... iij" iUj" 
Item that William Balderston make a sufficient covering for his well before Saturday 

next aub poena i^' iiijd 
Item that no man kepe any vndertenant in Bottesford and Taddethorpe that be nowe 
dwelling there afW Candlemas next in payne of euery deialt xx* 
1586. 12 April. Several persons were fined twenty shillings each for keeping 
undertenants in newly-built bouses. It was ordered tbat — 

eueiye man make hie lotte in the lane after the woode syde before thorsday next sub 

pena zij' 

That is, everyone wtw to do his share in the repair of this road ; which, from a 
former entry already quoted, aeems to have been a new one. 

Item that Hawkoliffe dike be made before thnrsday next sab pena xij' 

Item yt is ordeyned that Thomas dawber shall make sufficient againe the ont sbotto which 
he hathe taken downe before the next court sub pena xx» 
1687. 9 October. James Stephen was fined xij* for taking fish '• in le beoke," 
without the lord's licence. 

1589. 6 October. Robert Kirke fined vj' viij*" " for wayning over the Beck 
banke contra ordinationem to the great decay of the water walls." 

1690. 5th October, James Burkill fined x' for keeping three scabbed horses 
on the common. Richard Manewell fined lij'' because his wife and boy carried 
away "le elding" belonging to other people. William Burley was fined iij' iiij'' 
" quia non habuit le elding pro hieme." This entry is remarkably interesting, as 
showing that the authorities exerted themselves for the good of the various house- 
holds when the head thereof was idle or careless. 

1591. 10 May. Margaret Bowyer, widow, lady of the manor. William 
Elvylsh fined iij' iiij^ for "dogging beast" in the common pasture. 

8 October, Marmaduke Tirwhitt, lord of the manor. Walter Emerson fined 
iij' iiij** because he had dug three turf pits at the same time. Robert Whaplott 
was fined viij'* " quia non posuit porcos ad le swineherde." 
1694. 26 April. 

It is laide in pajne by the Jmie aforesaid that eueiy housholder within this lordship shall 

yearlie provide sufficient elding and fewell for wynter in payne of every one making 

de^t iij* iiij* 

1595. 17 October. Thomas Vrrie and William Shaw, lords of the manor. 

1601. 12 April. Thomas Vrrie gentleman, one of the lords of the manor, 

fined xij^ for not dealing out a drain, "vnum le drean," on the east side of the 

orchard. This ditch can still be identified, as the orchard yet exists. It is curious 

Digitized by 


382 Notes from the Uncords of the Manor of Bottesford, Lincolnshire. 

to find one of the lords of the manor fined by hia court, as it has been generally 
assumed that the manor courts had no such power. There is evidence that in at 
least one other Lincolnshire manor the lord was threatened with a fine. In the 
court roll of Little Carlton of 1603, of which Charles Cooke was lord, occurs the 
following passage : " Item we do lay in payne that IT Cooke shall apoynte ts a 
place to sett our common fould on with sufficient wood for to make yt betwixt 
this and martynmas next in payne of v"." In this case we feel fully assured that 
legal proof could be given that the IT Cooke threatened with this heavy fine was 
identical with Charles Cooke the lord. 

1602. October 15. Thomas Vrry and John Shawe, lords of the manor. 

1603. 14 October. George Roger was fined xij* "for keping a decayed 
chimney and laying thinges near the same." Cuthbert graunger xij" "for dig- 
ging fur stockes vnder Wymehowe hill." 

It is layd in poine that none shall sell anie bassacks except to there owne neighbors and 
not ont of the towne in payne of eoeiy defalt for euery burthen vj*. viij^ 

1606. 13 October. It was ordered— 

that none shall take eny stubble of their land after harvest be don in payne of enery 
de&lt iij" iiij* 

There can be no donbt that this order was made to hinder the manorial 
tenants from impoverishing the land. It seems to point to a time when the soil 
was not held in severalty but redivided annually. 

1607. 13 April. A fine of vj' viij' threatened for all who stock "the comon 
pasture" not having a right to do so. A fine of xij" for all who "pull their 
neighbors shape ;" that is, those who catch the sheep and pull locks of wool from 
their fleeces. This is an offence by no means obsolete at the present day. The 
wool that was dragged off the sheep by bushes, or came off naturally, was in most 
manors the perquisite of the women of the manor. 

1508. Under this year it may be well to note that the Kirton in Lindsey 
manor roll furnishes an instance of the inconvenience which arose from a portion 
of Yaddlethorpe not being in the manor of Bottesford. It appears that William 
Ellis took a sheep with ite lamb which was astray from the common pinder and 
fled with it into the manor of Bottesford. 

1616. 15 April. An order that in case any cattle should die of " fellen or 
morren," a fire is to be made by the owner of brushwood, furze, and peats, and 
the body burned therein, the bones not consumed to be buried.- 

1617. 13 October. An order made that cattle which died of the " fellon or 
morren " should be buried, and the place where the said cattle had died burnt. 

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XXn. — On excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford, in Lincolnshire. 
By Gboegb "William Thomas, Esq. 

R«ad March 30, ] 

In fhe latter part of November in the past year I heard that in the course of 
operations consequent upon the widening of a portion of the Grantham, Sleaford, 
and Boston Railway, there had been several discoveries of human remains, 
accompanied by beads, fibulae, pottery, and spears. I was therefore led to ask 
permission to make a systematic ezploration of the locality. Through the kind 
favour of the Marquis of Bristol, the owner of the property, of his kinsman and 
representative, R. H. Hervey, Esq., and by the courtesy of the tenant, J. H. 
Marston, Esq., I was enabled to carry out what I believe to be an exhaustive 

Before entering into the details of the excavations, I propose making a few 
remarks upon the locality in which these remains were discovered. 

The place in question is a grass field about one hundred yards to the south of 
the town of Sleaford, which was included in the Saxon kingdom of Mercia. This 
town is of considerable antiquity, and was doubtless from a very early period a 
place of some importance. 

The following account is given in Domesday : — 

In Egla/orde. habet Bardi .xi. camoatas teirae ad geldutn Terra ad xi, carocatas. Ibi 
habet episcopus in dominio .iii. caracatas et zziz. villanoB et vi. sochemannoB et xi. bordarios 
habentos .xiiii. carucatas. Ibi presbitor et ecdeBia et viii. molini de x. librie et ceo. «t xx acras 
prati et i. acra silvae minutae MareBcam ceo. et xxx acramm. Tempore Begis Edwardi valebat 
XX. librafi, modo xxv. libras. 

British remains have not infrequently been found in the immediate neighbour- 
Lood, a fine camp being still discernible at South Kyme, only a few miles distant. 
VOL. L. 3 y 

Digitized by 


884 Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

Sleaford is situate upon the small stream or river Slea, which discharges itself 
into the Witham, and would thus afford a direct means of communication with the 
sea. The town lies about twelve miles from Grantham, and about eighteen from 
Boston. It adjoined a branch of the northern Roman road, Ermine street, and 
was within easy distance of the immense navigable canal of the same people, the 
Car Dyke. The road crossed a ford of the stream a few hundred yards to the 
east of the now existing town, and led in a direct line from Durobrivae, or Castor, 
to Lincoln. Certain localities in the neighbourhood of this street or road shew 
nnmistakeable evidences of a lengthened Boman occupation, in the frequent 
occurrence of coins and pottery. The settlement would seem to have been after- 
wards colonised by a tribe of the Saxons, or Angles, and, from the abundance of 
the remains now discovered, the occupation was evidently an extensive one. The 
conBguration of the &ce of the country having been so much changed by culti- 
vation, it is impossible to fix with certainty the absolute boundary of the Saxon 
cemetery; a high road, a railway, and farm-buildinge, more or less intersect 
the lines of burial. Judging, however, from the space which I have examined, I 
believe the cemetery to have been rectangular, based upon a due east and west 
line, and of an area of about 3,600 square yards, the southern base being at the 
least 60 yards, and the probable form an oblong. The space is intersected 
diagonally by the line of the Great Northern railway, which, from its width at this 
point, has unfortunately caused the destruction of more than two-thirds of the 
original cemetery; for I find on inquiry that not only upon the recent widening of 
the line, but also, many years ago, upon the original making of the same, bodies 
and relics were found in great profusion in the position which would be included 
in the space I have suggested. My operations were therefore confined to the 
southern portion of the cemetery in the angle formed by the railway and the high 
road. The small comer on the opposite side of the line was used many years ago 
for the purpose of digging gravel, and was found to contain similar remains, as 
was also the site of the farm-buildings on the other side of the high road. 

Although some of these relics have fortunately fallen into the hands of persons 
through whom they are made known to the antiquarian world, in the very aWe ■ 
and interesting history of Sleaford, written by a Fellow of this Society, the 
Right Reverend Edward Trollope, bishop of Nottingham, yet there has been no 
systematic exploration of the ground, and consequently no record of the details of 
the interments. The great majority of the relics discovered on these previous 
occasions seem to have utterly disappeared, and some them may have been again 
entombed in the course of railway operations. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 385 

There is but little elevation in the ground occupied by the cemetery, perhaps 
a rise of about two feet at the highest point, and, the country being slightly 
undulating in its outline, there was absolutely nothing in external appearance to 
mark it as a burial-place. I estimate the number of interments in the entire 
cemetery to have been at the least six hundred, as the burials in the portion that 
I have examined were arranged in rows coinciding with the external southern 
line of the cemetery, and were at a tolerably uniform distance of about ten feet 
from each other for about three-fonrths of the space explored. Beyond this 
portion the interments were very irregular, in some instances many square yards 
being utterly unproductive. In these barren spots I found the soil to be generally 
composed of gravel, which would thus appear to have been avoided for the 
purposes of burial, there being no evidence whatever of any interment therein ; 
as, even should the bones have perished from the more rapid percolation, yet the 
fibulae, pottery, and beads, would have remained. My impression is. that in this 
part of the ground there was originally a series of timttuli, within which the 
interments were made, and that such tumuli have been ploughed down. 

Without there being an absolutely fixed rule, there was a marked difference in 
the character of the burials, indeed sufficiently so to be noticed by my labourers. 
The bronze fibulae, beads, and pottery were chiefly found in burials at the 
western extremity, and the iron spears and shield bosses at the eastern end, while 
the extreme south-west comer, although perhaps more closely filled with bodies 
than the average of the remainder, was singularly barren of relics. 

One great peculiarity of the whole is the fact that, contrary to the usual 
custom, with but about a dozen exceptions (the majority of those being children), 
the bodies were in a doubled-up position, the knees bent and the hands before the 
faces, exactly as in earlier interments. The bodies were laid on the left side with 
the heads to the west, thus facing the north, except in one instance, where the 
head lay to the east, and on the right side; but with this body there were no relics. 

The original depth of the interments was probably about two feet nine inches, 
and I have, therefore, in the subjoined detailed account, made no reference to the 
depth, unless in the two or three cases where the average was exceeded. The 
surface of the ground was slightly undulating, having been ploughed into ridge 
and furrows, so that the depth varied. 

The subsoil is a well-defined stratum of white silt, upon or slightly within 

which the bodies lay, and thus affords, not only a good index to the original depth 

of the interment, but also, from its unmixed purity, a sure indication that there 

was no lower burial. The upper soil is a very porous sandy loam, which but ill 


Digitized by 


386 ,Excavatiom in an Anglo-Sascon cemetery at Sleaford. 

preserves the bones and pottery, both of which were in a very decayed condition. 
Sparsely scattered throughout this soil were fragments of pottery, not of a 
sepulchral character, as well as charcoal, and animal bones, and these occurred 
without reference to the graves. I can vouch for the position and number of all 
the relics to each interment, my plan having been never to allow any excavation 
beyond a foot in depth without my presence, and no bone or relic of any des- 
cription to be removed from its site except by wj own hands. I am thus enabled 
to furnish what I believe to be a close and accurate account of the ground that I 
have examined. 

I would call particular attention to the fact that not a single sword was found 
in the entire cemetery, and that they have not disappeared from decay, is proved 
by the discovery of much smaller iron articles, such as knives and buckles, in fair 
condition, and also by the absence - of any sword ornaments in other materials. I 
think it well to call attention to the remarkable symbol that occurs on the fibula 
from interment No. 143 (PI. XXIV. fig. 2), being the swastika or fylfot, so well 
known as an Aryan symbol, and which not only occurs on some of the antiquities 
discovered by Dr. Schhemann at Troy, and Mycenae, but is also still used as a 
symbol by the Buddhists. The forms of the fibulae in Nos. 95 and 182 are also 
modifications of this sign. 

In interments Nos. 121 and 155 the silver and bronze wire articles which 
formed ornaments for the wrists remind one somewhat of a gold ornament from 
the lake-dwellings at Morigen (Keller, trans. Lee, PI. LVir. 9), a type not 
common in Saxon cemeteries. 

That the settlement was an early one may, I think, be fairly assumed from the 
fact that cremation was still existing in its absolute and not merely symbolical 
form, as in six cases (Nos. 10, 38, 70, 139, 172, 183) the calcined bones were 
deposited in urns in the ordinary manner ; and in other cases the presence of 
charcoal bespoke the existence of the rite in a modified form. 

I would also specially advert to the annular objects of ivory accompanying the 
articles which have been variously called girdle-hangers and chatelaines (Plate 
XXIV. fig. 4). In five of the eight cases in which I have found these girdle-hangers 

' Two ivoiy rings were foTind by Mr. Akerman in graves of women in tlie cemetery at Bi-ighi- 
hampton, Ozod. and seem to have been 5 inches in diameter. See Archaeologia, xxxtui. pp. 86, 
89. They do not appear to have been accompanied by girdle-hangers, but in one were a nnmber of 
silver coins, and the silver mounting of a. purse. Mr. Akerman suggests that these ivory rings 
" appear to have formed the framework of a kind of bag, probably tor holding sewing materials and 
implements bt housewifery." Ibid. p. 92. See also Wylie, Fairford Graves, p. 15. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saaon cemetery at Sleaford. 387 

I have found the annular object with them in the fonn of an incomplete circle, with 
an opening of two or three inches, which wae lying towards the hinges of the chate- 
laine. I am informed that these have rarely been noticed, indeed I am not aware 
of any having been reported or ioade known to archaeologists. May they not have 
formed the framework upon which a pouch or satchel of skin or woven fabric was 
stretched, the impression of which latter is distinctly retained upon one ? The 
majority of the bangers have small perforations at the angles, and, being orna- 
mented on one side only, they would seem to have been attached to some material 
in the manner suggested. The frames without doubt formed some portion of the 
chatelaine, as they all lay in precisely the same position with regard to the bronze 
bangers, and were never present without them. 

The clasps of the various bracelets were uniformly surrounded by, and im- 
bedded in, a black substance, evidently leather, which probably formed the 
bracelets, but it was in too decomposed a condition to enable me to ascertain 
whether it was ornamented in any manner, or plain. I have noticed in several 
instances the presence of very fragile seed capsules of about the size of a bean, 
and with a smooth surface, intermixed with the necklets, as though they might have 
been strung among the beads, but they were all so very thin that they perished 
immediately upon exposure. That they formed part of the necklets may, I think, 
be assumed, because I found them occupying the spaces between the beads, which, 
without them, would have been at irregular distances from each other. With 
regard to the necklets themselves I can confidently assert that they were not 
used in the sense which is understood by the word necklet, but that they were 
simply festoons of beads, in many instances double ones, extending from the one 
shoulder to the other, supported at either end by a fibula or pin. This, I believe, 
has been found to be the case in some of the continental cemeteries : see for 
instance the graves of Livonia (Bahr, Graber der Liven, PI. 9), where chains are 
used in the same manner. The position of the skeletons laid on their sides enabled 
me to ascertain that all the beads were in situ in front of the body, and none of 
them either under or behind the vertebrae, which must necessarily have been the 
case if they had encircled the neck. 

I have found no coins other than Roman ones (chiefly those of Oonstantine 
and Maxentius), and only in one instance have they been deposited as coin per »e, 
being generally perforated and used as pendants to the necklets. The one excep- 
tion is that of No. 85, where six coins neatly piled in two heaps lay among and on 
the bones of the hftnd of the skeleton of a child. ' I would again call attention to 
the fact that in several instances I have found charcoal and carbonaceous earth 

Digitized by 


388 Excavatione in an Anglo-Saseon cemetery at Sleaford. 

■freely intennixed with tlie soil in immediate contact with the body, which 
■would imply the existence of some sort of sacrificial rites, and in two cases 
animal bones had been deposited with the body at the time of interment. In 
one instance the head of a child lay upon the jaw of a pig, and in the other 
three of the cervical verterbrae of a pig, with their processes in situ, and evidently 
placed there when covered with flesh, lay immediately behind the head of an 

The brooches or fibulae generally were of the usual type of the more northern 
districts, but in one instance (No. 194) the form was a purely southern one, being 
the saucer-shaped disc usual in Gloucestershire, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire, and 
those of graves 71, 117, and 233 are of a very uncommon form. 

The pelvis bones were unfortunately in such an imperfect condition that the 
sexes were not easy to distinguish, and I have therefore in the analysis of sexes 
given below' mentioned the numbers as implied by the character of the "relics 
accompanying the bodies, those accompanied by spears and shield-bosses being 
evidently males, and those by beads and fibulae beiag presumably females, while 
of the rest having urns, knives, &o. I have returned the sex as uncertain. 8uch 
of the femora and tibiae as were sufficiently sound and perfect, I have compared 
with my own, and pronounce the average height to have been 5 feet 6 inches. In 
only two or three instances have I found bones larger than my own, and the 
females were decidedly of a slight build, and of a size rather below the average. 
The crania which I have been able to preserve are mainly of a marked dolicho- 
cephalic tendency, that is to say, much more nearly approach the dolicho-cephalic 
than the brachy-cephalic type. The superciliary ridges are strongly developed; 
the frontal region in the main is oblique. The normae show in the norma 
lateralis a low forehead and flat crown, and in the norma verticalis a long skull, 
narrow laterally, with very square frontal region. There is no tendency whatever 
towards progpiathism. Several of the skulls showed signs of wounds, which, though 
of a very severe character, had been received some years before death. I have 
called attention to such points as seemed to me worthy of particular note, and 
shall now let the detailed account of each interment which follows speak as to 
the general character of the important cemetery which I have had the good 
fortune to explore. 

' Uales 51 ; FemB,lee 86 ; CMldren 18 ; Uncertoin 92. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. '389 

Detailed account of the interments. 
[The pine of all the fibulae have been, or are, of iron uuleBs otherwise stated.] 

1. Adult. Long spade-shaped fibula' of bronze oa left shoulder; small neck- 
let of fifty-five beads, chiefly amber, with a few of glass ; turquoise and white 
opaque glass bead from earring ; iron knife near femur. 

2. Adult. Two long spade-shaped fibulae at shoulders ; necklet of thirty- 
seven beads, chiefly amber, of elongated form, with a few of glass; pendant 
formed of two circular discs, of bronze gilt, with impressed circles round the 
edges ; iron knife near femur. Body incltwed in rude cist of unshaped stones. 

3. Adult. Bronze annular fibula at shoulder ; bronze ring (diameter. If inch), 
with iron ring overlapping it at hips ; small bronze pin at chest ; and iron knife 
near femur, 

4. Adult. Bronze twisted wire earring; small necklet of nine beads, one 
large amber, the rest glass ; with one large blue glass bead with white zigzag, 
accompanied by fragments of bronze wire sockets, &c., forming pendant of 
indefinite form ; pair of bronze clasps at wrist. Bude stone cist. 

5. Adult. No rehcs or ornaments. Bude stone cist. 

6. Adult. Iron knife near femur. 

7. Adult. 5 feet 9 inches deep. ITm close to face ; iron ring at hip, and 
knife near femur. 

8. Adult. Large urn close to back of head. Rude stone cist. 

9. Tim in fragments ; soil black and carbonaceous. No skeleton. 

10. Tim, with about a quart of calcined bones ; upper portion gone ; no sign 
of skeleton, or of local burning. 

11. Stone cist; but no trace of bones, beyond a few fragments of skull. No 
relics or ornaments. 

12. Fragments of bones, but no trace of relics. 

13. Adult. Large cruciform fibnla and fragment of another, both upturned, 
the interment having been evidently disturbed. 

* This BpadO'shaped fibala is similar to one fonnd near Rngby, engraved in Akerman, Pagan 
Saxondom, PI. XTiii. fig. 7 ; bnt has fonr small holes in the square part. 

Digitized by 


390 Excavations in am, Ariglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

14. Adult. Bronze annular fibula with iron acus preserred, and two small 
bronze Roman coins, much worn, perforated as pendants. 

15. Adult. Flat annular bronze fibula, with pattern of impressed horseshoes ; 
small necklet of seven glass beads, one of them double. 

16. Two adults, much intermixed. Flat annular bronze fibula, ornamented 
with two rows of impressed rings, and portions of bronze clasps. Pair of bronze 
tweezers ; boss of shield ; large spear ; and small urn near back of head. 

17. Adult. Flat annular bronze fibula, and portion of a bronze pin with eye 
near chest ; small necklet of seven glass and amber beads. 

18. Adult." Flat annular bronze fibula, ornamented with transverse cross lines 
and circles with central dots ; iron buckle at waist, with bronze plate. 

19. Adults. Two annular bronze fibulae like split-rings at shoulders, and 
small penannular fibula of bronze tinned, with bronze acus, moveable round the 
circumference, at throat. 

20. Adult; bones much decayed. Fragments of um near head, and iron 
knife near hips. Stone cist. 

21. Adult. Head of spear near back of skull; large iron buckle, with bronze 
plate, near hips. 

22. Adult. Small iron buckle and knife near hips. 

23. Fragments of skull, and other bones. No relics. 

24. Adult. Iron conical point, perhaps of dart or ferule of spear or staff, 
near face, and large iron ring (2^ inches in diameter) at hips. 

25. Fragments of skull and other bones of adult. No relics. 

26. Adult. Three beads, two of glass and one of amber, and small earring of 
twisted silver wire. 

27. Adult. Iron spear-head in front of face. 

28. Adult. Iron spear-head near hipa and hand, one arm being extended by 

29. Adult. Necklet of sixteen opaque glass beads of different colours. Rude 
stone cist. 

30. Adult. Large spear-head and boss of shield, close to face. 

31. Adult. Two flat annular bronze fibulae, ornamented with two rows of 
ptmched S-shaped marks. 

32. Adult. Two long bronze fibulae at shoulders, one spade-shaped and the 
other cruciform. Rude stone cist. 

33. Adult ; much intermixed with those of last interment. 

34. Adult. Spear at back of head, and knife near hips. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery ai Sleaford. 391 

35. Adult. Necklet of five opaque glass beads. 

36. Adult. Iron spear-head in front of face, and knife near femur. 

37. Adult. Iron spear-liead and shield boss at back of head, knife near femur. 

38. Urn filled with, and standing in, ashes, and fragments of bronze burnt ; 
the whole enclosed in a rude cist. An iron tag on the top, with large socket of 
iron, plated with bronze, about a foot to south of ciat. 

39. Adult, much decomposed. Fragments of bronze plates riveted on wood 
and leather near hips. 

40. Adult. Iron spear-head and knife near back of head. 

41. Adult. Necklet of fourteen beads, amber and glass, the latter variegated; 
knife near hips. 

42. Adult. Two flat annular fibulae at shoulders, one ornamented with 
double line of impressed crescents, the other with transverse lines and S-shaped 
marks ; necklet of seventeen amber and glass beads, with fragment of silver disc 
as pendant. 

43. Adult. Two bronze fibulae; one annular, with transverse lines, and the 
other flat annular, with transverse divergent lines ; a much worn Roman bronze 
coin as pendant near throat. 

44. Adult. Knife near hipa. 

45. Bones much decayed. No trace of implement or ornament. 

46. Similar to the last. 

47. Also similar to the last. 

48. Bones of young person, in eitended position, arms crossed on breast. 
Small bracelet of seven glass beads ; bronze clasp on right wrist. 

49. Adult. Large cruciform fibula, 5| inches long, two iron buckles, and 
knife near hips ; small necklet of twelve glass beads. Very large cist. 

50. Adult. Very large cruciform fibula of bronze gilt on left shoulder, 
df inches long (Plate XXIII. fig. 1) ; small spade-shaped fibula on right shoulder ; 
necklet of forty-seven large and eighty-three small amber, crystal, and glass 
beads, with animal's tooth as central pendant (Plate XXIII. fig. 5); ring 2^ inches 
in diameter, apparently made of the crown of a deer's horn, on chest, with frag- 
ment of iron, probably a key ; remains of bronze armilla, embedded in leather 
on each arm; small bronze ring clasp, and bronze wire, portion of pendant; 
fragment of silver finger-ring and stone ; two bracelets of amber and glass, nine 
beads each, with bronze clasps, and bronze tag (Plate XXV. fig. 5). Very large 
cist or cairn of unhewn 3tone. 

51. Adult. Coin as pendant to necklet; pair of clasps on right wrist, and 
iron knife at hips. 

VOL. L. 3 

Digitized by 


392 Eseeavatiom in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Skaford. 

52. Bones, much decompoBod ; no relics. 

53. Same as the hist. 

54. Adult, with two fiat annular fibulae, much broken, at shoulders. 

55. Adult. Two long fibulae, one oruciform, the other spade-shaped; small 
necklet of ten glass and one amber beads, and bone spindle-whorl, If inch in 

56. Traces of bone, but no relics. 

57. Intermixed with the last. 

58. Adult. Urn close to face ; fragments of fiat annular fibula and of iron. 

59. Adult. Two spew-heads lying side by side, one pointing upwards, the 
other downwards, close to face of body. 

60. Adult. Urn about 1 foot &om hips ; rude cist surrounding same. 

61. Bones in fragmentary condition, and portions of large um. 

62. Bones much decayed. No relics. 

63. Small um, with contracted mouth (Plate XXV. fig. 10). No body or relics. 

64. Adult. Boss of shield reversed under bead, and spear-head 6 inches from 

65. Adult, with two small long fibulae, one craoiform the other spade-shaped ; 
necklet of twenty-two amber and glass beads ; bracelet of nine beads, amber and 
glass, and single fiat glass bead, opaque white with blue spiral line, from an 

66. Child about seven years of age. Two long fibulae at shoulders, one cruci- 
form, the other spade-shaped; and one flat annular fibula, ornamented with two 
rows of incised circles; bead from earring of opaque yellow glass ; necklet of 
thirteen amber and glass beads, and two simple wire bracelets with running slip, 

67. Child about three years of age. Traces of small bronze buttons or fibulae 
at shoulders staining the clavicles. Portion of the skull of adult touching same, 
but no trace of any other portion. Um near natural situation of hips. 

68. Adult of which the skull shows a large wound extending from coronal 
suture to brow, penetrating skull in two or three places ; edges of bones smooth 
and round, and evidently healed in lifetime. No relics. 

69. Adult. Iron spear-head at the back of head, and knife at hips. 

70. Adult, embedded in rich black earth, with fragments of charcoal and 
burnt bonee extending the whole length of the body. No ornaments or imple- 
ments, but pieces of bronze plates, about 2 inches long and 1 inch wide, at one 
end, by f inch at the other, rivetted upon wood about a quarter of an inch thick. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 39S 

lying in confused heap about 3 or 4 inches from crown of head ; perhaps portions 
of a bucket. 

71. Adult. Square bronze buckle, ornamented with line of incised dots ; 
smaU necklet of eight glass beads. 

72. Adult. Small bronze buckle and tag near hips, with iron knife. Stone cist. 

73. Adult. Flat annular fibula upon sternum j necklet or pendapt thereto of 
five glass and amber beads. 

74. Child. Fragments of small urn about 8 inches from head. No other 

75. Adult. Rude, simple bowl-shaped nm close to crown of head. 

76. Adult. Knife near hips ; no other relics. Rude stone cist. 

77. Adult. Boss of shield close to face, and the upper portion of a pair of 
tweezers, with portion of ring for suspending them near hips. 

78. Adult. Large bronze ring, 2J inches in diameter, at hips, and girdle- 
hanger with poirtion of ivory ring or frame ; part of bronze circular pendant in 
front of chest. 

79. Adult. Large cruciform fibula, 6J inches long, and small annular ditto, 
which has had a bronze acus and small necklet or pendant of five amber and glass 

80. Adult. Large cruciform fibula, 5f inches long ; flat annular fibula, orna- 
mented with a double row of small impressed circles joined into an S form ; small 
necklet of nineteen amber and glass beads, and pair of bronze bracelet clasps. 

81. Adult. Small necklet of six glass beads; three Roman coins, pierced as 
pendants ; and a pair of bronze clasps of bracelet. 

82. Adult. Small urn with incised pattern near face, and knife at hips. 

83. Adult. 

83a. Interment beneatii the last. No relics ; bones much decomposed. 

84. Adult. Knife near femur. Head of another person at feet, but no trace 
of further bones. 

85. Young person about ten or twelve years of age in extended position, 
hands crossed on chest. Small bracelet of eight amber and glass beads, and 
seven coins piled in two heaps in left hand, near right elbow. 

86. Large cist or cairn beneath 85 contaiuiug interment at 5 feet 6 inches 
deep of adult. Large cruciform fibula 5^ inches long in front of chest, two flat 
annular fibulas with e^-and-tongue pattern ; pair of bronze clasps ; necklet of 
one hundred and twelve amber, crystal, and glass beads with fragments of small 
bronze pendant chased and gilt; girdle-hanger at hips with ivory framework, 

Digitized by 


394 Excavations in an Anglo-Saaon cemetery at Sleaford. 

within which lay several small bronze tags riveted together upon leather, and 
iron knife ; portion of iron buckle and bronze tag at waist, 

87. Portion of skull and humerus of child. No other remains. 

88. Adult. Head to east ; tibiie and fibulae in almost upright position, arms 
in front of face, whole position of body showing carelessness of burial. No relics. 
Stone cist. 

89. Bones of skeleton mucli decayed. No relics. 

90. Young person, twelve or fourteen years of age, in extended position. 
Fragments of bronze clasp at wrtet, and small necklet of six glass beads. 

91. Bones much decayed. No relics. Stone cist. 

92. Adult. Enife near femur. Stone cist. 

93. Adult. Skull broken and much compressed ; other \>one& decayed. No 
reUcs. Stone cist. 

94. Adult. Spearhead about 10 inches from back of head. 

95. Adult. Two large flat circular fibulae with pierced centres, forming a 
swastika pattern, and ornamented with double lines of impressed semi-circles ; 
large bronze pin,* 6 inches long, in front of chest, with head richly chased and 
gilded (Plate XXIV. fig. 1.) ; two circular discs of silver, with central bosses and 
incised ornaments on breasts (Plate XXIII. figs. 6 and 7) ; two pairs of bronze 
olaaps on wrists ; necklet of one hundred and twenty-five amber and glass beads ; 
two bronze rings and knife at hips ; and portion of bronze fittings with wood 
between the plates. Large stone cist. 

96. Adult. Two large flat annular fibulae ornamented with repousse dots ; 
small silver disc with central boss ; necklet of six beads, five large amber and one 
green glass bugle ; a bead From earring of blue glass with white spiral line. 
Stone cist. 

97. Adult. Two long spade-sliaped fibulae ; two pairs of clasps on wrists ; 
tibese are of a somewhat unusual kind, having each a hollow tube fixed to them ; 
small fragment of bronze tag, and an iron buckle. 

98. Adult. No relics. Head and shoulders previously disturbed. Stone cist. 

99. Adult. Iron spear-head 6 inches from face ; a portion of bronze fitting 
8 inches behind head ; knife near hips. Stone cist. 

100. Adult with um and shield-boss close to back of head ; iron spear-head 
8 inches from face ; knife near hips. Stone cist. 

* One ot the same pattern from Islip, Oxfordshire, is engraved in Frwxedingi, 2d S. iz. 90. 
^ A rich pin of the same general form, bnt jewelled, from Wingham, Kent, is engraved in 
Akarman, Pagan Saxondom, PL XL. fig. 3. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 395 

101. Young person. Bones much decayed. No relics. 

102. Very large stone cist or cairn. Fragments of tibia of adult. No trace 
of other bones or relics. 

103. Very large cairn at a depth of 5 feet 6 inches. Adult. Large bronze 
bowl, 1 foot in diameter and 5 inches high, with two small loops for suspension 
in the form of heads of swans or serpents. The bowl was in an upright position 
closely im 

were indi 
work of '. 
high, hav 
iron, and 
rings abo 
scrolls eq 

hoop. Tl 
bottom hi 
feet of skt 

104. I 

105. I 
No relics. 

106. C 

107. I 
feet. Sto 

108. J 
Stone cist 

109. C 

110. C 

111. I 
cist and ci 

112. Adult in extended position; body incliaed upwards, head within 1 foot 
of surface, and 2 feet higher than feet. No relics. 

113. Adult. No relics. Small cairn. 

114. Adult. Knife at hips. 

115. Similar to last. 

116. Adult. liarge cruciform fibula, richly chased and gilt, with remains of 

Digitized by 


396 Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

plates of silver riveted to ends, deposited in front of chest, Two flat annular 
fibulae at shoulders, in fragments, ornamented with two lines of incised circles 
divided into segments by groups of transverse lines ; small circular disc with 
raised centre on breast; one and a half pairs of richly-chased and gilt massive 
clasps for bracelets on wrists (Plate XXIII. fig. 5) ; iron ring and knife at hips. 

A post hole driven through part of this interment had doubtless caused the 
loss of the part of one clasp; as, notwithstanding a most careful search, no 
remains of it were found, and its massive character would preclude the suppo- 
sition of decay. 

117. Adult, close to 116. Upon shoulders, two fine S-shaped fibulae, orna- 
mented with border of incised semicircles (Plate XXIII. fig. 9). Rude stone cist. 

118. Adult. Enifeathips. 

119. Adult. Large spear-head at hipa, of unusual shape; blade leaf-shaped, 
and 11 inches long by 2^ inches wide ; socket 6 inches long ; point of junction of 
socket and blade disproportionately light (Plate XXV. fig. 7). 

120. Adult. Knife and iron key, under hands. 

121. Adult. Two circular fibulae at shoulders, ornamented with rows of 
impressed dots in lines; four ornaments in two sets at wrists, embedded in 
decomposed leather ; the ornaments are like large modem hooks, and consist of 
two spirals of silver wire, with a shank or junction of about 1) inch, termi- 
nating in a hook (Plate XXTV. fig. 6). Necklet of ninety-seven beads of amber, 
glass, crystal, and porcelain; and iron ring near hips, 

122. Adult. Fragments of iron, and knife at hips. 

123. Adult, Two annular fibulae, with egg-and-tongue moulding at shoulders, 
and one long cruciform fibula on breast ; two pairs of clasps at wrists, and frag- 
ments of iron at waist. 

124-125. Two adult skeletons, much intermixed. One pair of clasps at wrist ; 
and one small flat annular fibula at shoulders; remains of small tube of bronze, 
about 2 inches long by \ inch in diameter, at hips, and spear-head between the 
heads of the skeletons. 

126. Adult. Two small spade-shaped fibulae at shoulders; bronze buckle, 
knife, and fragments of iron at hips. 

127. Adult. Spear-head near back of head; also, small urn with contracted 
neck; and the skeleton of a child, contained in an irregular-shaped cist, close to 
head of the adult. 

128. Adult. Spear-head behind head ; shield boss in front of face ; and knife 
at hips. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in tm Anglo-Sasaon cetnetery at Sleaford. 397 

129. Adult. No relics. 

130. Similar to last. 

131. Adult. No relics. Femora and tibiae very perfect, but no trace of any 
other bones. 

Digitized by 


398 Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

143. Large grave containing two interments, evidently females, close to each 
other ; one having only a single long fibula with large square head and small pro- 
jections at angles, the other having a large richly gilt and chased cruciform fibula, 
on which is engraved a swastika (Plate XXIV. fig. 2), and a small spade- 
shaped one at the shoulders ; large necklet of two hundred and seventy-one beads, 
chiefly amber. Two discs of silver of about |- inch in diameter upon the breasts ; 

. silver bulla in two hemispheres before the chest, evidently pendant to the necklet 
(Plate XXni. fig. 8). Two silver armillae of strips about ^ inch wide, and making 
almost a twist-and-a-half round the arm, ornamented with rows of impressed 
crescents at each margin ; remains of bronze clasp of bracelet, and fragments of 
small bronze rings, &c. of wire; girdle-hanger near femur composed of three 
bronze hangers, one of them reversed in position (Plate XXIV. fig. 4); ivory frame 
of pouch ; large bronze ring, about 2 inches in diameter, to suspend sameJ Within 
the space inclosed by the ivory frame was a small article of bronze, about 1^ inch 
in diameter, in the shape'of the head of a windlass, evidently forming the point of 
junction for two crossed straps ; iron buckle and knife at waist. 

144. Adult. One flat annular, and one simple annular fibula at shoulders ; 
necklet of thirty-four glass beads; corroded mass of iron, evidently a girdle- 
hanger and keys, with several small bronze tags at hips. 

145. Well preserved skeleton of adult, one foot to west of the last interment. 
No relics. 

146. Young person, bones much decayed. Knife at hips; no other relics. 

147. Adult ; head to the south, and body in very distorted position upon back, 
with arms and legs extended almost at right angles to body. Bronze annular fibula, 
with egg-and-tongue pattern, on left shoulder ; two pairs of embossed clasps on 
wrists. About two feet to the east of this interment was a mass of about a 
gallon of carbonaceous earth and charcoal, but no visible remains of any urn. 

148. Adult. Iron buckle, bronze tag, and knife at hips ; spear-head in front 
of face. 

149. Adult. Broken shield-boss and spear-head before face; knife and baaid 
of bronze bent over and riveted with iron, containing fragment of wood, at hips. 

150. Well-preserved bones of adult. TJm of bowl-shape, decayed, near knees. 
No other relics. 

151. Adult. Two large flat annular fibulae at shoulders, ornamented with 
double line of crescent-shaped impressed marks ; two pairs of embossed bronze 
clasps at wrists ; small necklet of thirteen amber beads, and as pendant a bronze 
disc coated on one face with silver ; large bronze massive ring at waist (Plate XXV, 

Digitized by 


Excavations in am. Anglo-Sasexm cemetery at Sleaford, 899 

fig. 2), from which were suspended three iron keys (Plate XXV. fig. 3), and one 
bronze girdle-hanger; ivory frame of pouch shewing impression of canvas covering; 
smalt bronze tags within, 

152 and 153. Two adult males in extended position, the head of one resting in 
the hollow of a reversed shield-boss, and a small diamond-shaped spear-head near 
left side of head ; the other with long spear head between the tibiae, and knife at 
hips ; four large iron discs round shield-bof 

154. Adult. Two fiat oval annular fibu 
teen amber and glass beads, and two pairs < 

155. Adult. Two small cruciform fibul 
amber and glass beads, with bronze ring fi 
(probably similar to those of silver desci 
clasps on one wrist, and simple circlet of bi 
iron of undefinable shape near right elbow, 

156. Grave only distinguishable by colo 
of adult. No relics. 

157. Adult, in much decayed condition. No relics. 
158 and 

with large ( 
at wrists, ai 
small bronzE 
probably ke; 
fibulae at sh 

160. Adi 
with double 
ment of fom 
pair destroyed}. 

161. Adult. Iron buckle, bronise tag, and knife at hips. 

162. Adult; very much decomposed. No relics. 

163. Grave 4 feet 6 inches deep, containing bones much decayed, of an adult. 
Remains of bronze clasps at wrists ; fiat annular fibula ornamented with impressed 
circles forming an S-pattem ; plain pin of bronze, which has had a loop at the 
end, now imperfect, 2^ inches long, on breast ; bronze finger-ring, a plain circlet, 
on left hand ; coin pendant of bronze, and remains of another. At the waist a 

VOL. L. 3 H 

Digitized by 


400 Excavations in cm Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

large bronze ring, 3 inches in diameter, with mass of corroded iron — probably 
keys. The whole of the grave was filled with soil of an unusually dark colour, 
and in immediate contact with body seemed to be oomposed mainly of decayed 

164. Young person about fourteen years of age. Knife at hips; no other 

165. Fragments of three urns lying about a foot from each other, and in a 
Tein of sand. No trace of skeleton or of cremation. 

166. Adult. Spear-head in front of face, and large knife under left side at 

167. Adult. Spear-head in front of face, and small knife near left elbow. 

168. Adult. Two long spade-shaped fibulae ; small necklet of fourteen beads 
of amber and glass, and two pairs of massive bronze clasps with traces of gilding, 
at wrists, imbedded in decayed leather ; knife and key at hips, with small ring of 

169. Adult. Large cruciform fibula, richly chaaed, gilt and silvered, with flat 
garnet in square setting at one end; one of the arms of the cruciform part 
missing; two other small cruciform fibulae on shoulders; necklet of forty-three 
amber and glass beads, with fragments of bronze disc as pendant ; iron buckle 
and knife at hips, and rude bowl-shaped urn in front of face. 

170. Adult. Spear-head and two urns near face. 

171. Adult, remains in much confusion, evidently disturbed. Fragments of urn 
(Plate XXV. fig. 8) intermixed ; small necklet of twenty amber and glass beads. 

172. Lower half of a large um, capacity of about a gallon, and containing 
about a quart of bones and ashes. 

173. Adult, imbedded in clay; bones so much decayed as to make position 
unrecognizable. No relics. 

174 and 175. Two adults, side by side, legs crossing each other; one had a 
spear in front of chest, and a second spear and reversed shield-boss beneath the 
head, and also a pointed ferule or pike-head of iron near the knees (Plate XXV. 
fig. 6). The other one with the head doubled over and lying face downwards near 
the hips, the claviculae and heads of humeri being 8 or 10 inches behind the skull ; 
a shield boss of pyramidal shape occupying the natural position of head; knife 
at hips. 

176 Adult. Two long fibulae of unusual shape (the lower part lozenge-shaped, 
the upper semicirculM* with five radiations) with small necklet of fifteen amber 
and glass beads ; two pairs of embossed clasps at wrists ; and fine um with incised 
pattern before fa^. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 401 

177. Adult. Two annular fibulae at shoulders, one being fiat, ornamented 
. with a single row of incised dots, and the other cylindrical in section ; a necklet 
of eighteen amber and glass beads with coin as pendant. 

178. Adult. Spear-head near back of head, 

179. Adult. Buckle and knife at hips, and pair of bronze tweezers ; larger 
buckle slightly above the interment, probably of later date. 

180. Adult, much decayed. Large urn, bowl-shaped, in front of face. 

181. Stone cist containing bones of adult much decayed, with urn close to 

182. Adult. Two lai^e cruciform fibulae, and one flat annular fibula with 
pierced centre, forming a swastika, similar to the one in grave 95 ; knife at hips, 
and urn close to face. 

183. Stone cist containing small urn with carbonaceous earth, fragments of 
bone, and stains of bronze and iron among the ashes. 

184. Adult. Spear-head close to face, and small am at hips. 

185. Adult, embedded in clay ; grave 4 feet deep. No trace of any relics. 

186. Adult, much decayed. Spear-head near back of head, and knife under 

187. Adult. Spear-head near back of head. 

188. Adult. Knife at hips. Eude stone cist. 

189. Large cruciform fibula, much decomposed, embedded in rich carbo- 
naceous earth, evidently the result of decay of animal matter. No trace of bones 
or other relics. 

190. Stone cist, containing um, but no trace of bones, relics, or cremation. 

191. Adult. Two small flat annular fibulae with egg-and-tongue pattern ; 
necklet of eighty-nine amber and glass beads, a portion of them being set in a 
framework of iron and bronze ; coin as pendant to necklet, with fragment of woven 
fabric adhering, and a remarkable pendant of dark blue glass, nearly black, with 
a turquoise zigzag band round the body and a loop for suspension (Plate XXTV. 
fig. 3) ; three small bronze wire rings and fragments ; large heavy bronze ring at 
waist nearly 2 inches in diameter, with tooth of carnivorous animal perforated and 
suspended thereto by bronze wire loop (Plate XXIV. fig. 5) ; four small tags of 
bronze and large gilt bronze plate with corroded iron buckle at hips ; long pin 
on chest with annular head, broken. Two small urns lying on sides, mouth to 
mouth, close behind sacrum. (One in Plate XXV. fig. 8), 

192. Adult, much decayed. No relics. 

193. Adult much decayed. Urn lying on side with mouth towards the south, 
and near head of skeleton ; in front of mouth of um remains of flat annilla of 

Digitized by 


402 .Excavatwm in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at SUaford, 

bronze tinned^ with hook-and-eye fastening, and with Bmall punched orna- 

194. Adult. Two flat annular fibulae, ornamented with a row of impressed 
dots on shoulders ; solid saucer-shaped fibula, having pattern of intricate inter- 
woven lines and central raised boss, in front of chest ; necklet of twenty-three 
amber and glass beads ; fragments of bronze amulla ornamented with central 
waved line. 

195. Adult. Buckle and knife at hips. 

196. Adult, much decayed. Iron flat annular fibula, and bronze fibula with 
double line of impressed conuna-shaped marks, with segmentary divisions of 
^transverse lines ; pendant of three amber beads and one glass. 

197. Adult, much decayed. Two large flat annular fibulae, engraved with 
four sets of transverse lines ; necklet of twenty-six beads, chiefly amber, with two 
of rock crystal, facetted, and one ribbed bead of blue porcelain, with pendant 
bulla composed of two hemispheres of silver, forming perfect sphere; small 
earring of simple twisted wire, and silver finger ring, making one and a half turn 
round finger ; large clasps at wrist and knife at hips. 

198. Adult. Spear-head at back of head and knife at hips. 

199. Adult. Spear-head at elbow. 

200. Adult. Spear-head at back of head and shield-boss behind sacrum. 

201. Adult. Knife at hips and fragments of clasps at wrist. 

202. Adult. Bowl-shaped van, small knife, and bronze ferule at hips. 

203. Adult. Iron pin and iron ring at shoulders in the usual place of the 
fibulae; small necklet of twelve fine anjber beads and one of rock crystal, 

204. Adult. Two flat annular fibulae, much decayed, at shoulders ; head of 
pin of saucer-shape, with gilded interlaced lines, and rude human head, the rest 
of pin gone ; two paira of clasps (embossed) at wrists, fragments of bronze ferule 
ftt waist ; necklet of seventy-nine large amber and glass beads. 

205. Adult. Two cruciform fibulae at shoulders, and one large flat annular 
fibula in front of chest, pair of massive bronze gilded clasps on wrists, necklet of 
forty-three amber and glass beads, large bronze ring, and portion of iron buckle 
and bronze tag at hips. 

206. Adult, with bones of small child of about seven years of age intermixed. 
Small iron arrow-head or ferule. No other reHcs. 

207. Adult. Embossed bronze clasps at wrists, remains of girdle-hangers 
and ivory ring or frame ; small wooden bucket about 3^ inches high, bound with 
bronze, at waist. 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 403 

208. Adult. Knife at elbow, whole body embedded in carbonaceous earth and 

209. Adult. Two small cruciform fibulae at ehoulders, and long pin with 
ornamental head on breast ; two bronze finger-rings, and one and half pairs of 
massive gilt clasps at wrists. 

210. Adult. Spear-head and knife near hips, and another spear-head about 
6 inches from front of face. 

Digitized by 


404 Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

224 and 225. Grave containing tte remains of two adults ; one with two flat 
annular fibulae and necklet of fift.y-one very small amber Mid glass beads ; the 
other with shield-boss at back of head ; small bronze ring, iron buckle, and knife 
at hips, and truncated cylindrical um at back of head. 

226. Adult, evidently disturbed. Among the bones a fragment of a cruci- 
form fibula, part of that found in grave 233. No other relics. 

227. Adult. Two flat annular fibular, having marginal ornamentation of tri- 

angular indentations, and small silver disc of the size of a shilling, 
§ ornamented with a marginal circle of punched circles, with three 

radiated lines of similar circles from centre ; necklet of eighty-two 
amber and glass beads; Roman intaglio in onyx, without setting, 
(ftiu Mi^ " representing Minerva with a snake at her feet (see woodcut) ; and 
two pairs of highly ornamented and gilt massive clasps at wrists 
(Plate XXIII. fig. 4). 

228. Adult, evidently disturbed. Portion of a flat annular fibula among the 
bones ; no other relics. 

229. Adult. Flat annular fibiila with bronze acus, and necklet of thirty-seven 
small amber and glass beads. 

230. Adult, much decayed. No reUcs. 

231. Child, much decayed. Small simple circlet of wire on wrist, and plain 
um at crown of head. 

232. Adult. Remains of clasps on both wrists, two medium-sized cruciform 
fibulae and necklet of sixty-nine blue glass and amber beads ; bronze tags at waist, 
part of bronze pin with hook at chest, simple wire earrings, Roman coin at feet. 

233. Adult. Remains of clasps on both wrists; large cruciform fibula; flat 
annularfibula; and double-ended spade-shaped fibula, with bronze pin (FlateXXIII. 
fig. 2); small necklet of nineteen amber and glass beads; fragments of um at head; 
bronze semicircular strap, snspending knife and keys, the latter much corroded.. 

234. Adult. Head of spear in front of face. 

235. Adult. Bowl-shaped um with ornamentation of simple diagonal scorings 
in front of face ; knife at hips. 

236. Adult. No relics. 

237. Child. No relics. 

238. Adult. Simple bowl-shaped um in front of face, small annular fibula 
(egg-and-tongue pattern) at shoulder ; necklet of thirteen opaque yellow glass and 
amber beads. 

239. Adult. TTm at back of head, fragments of shield-boss at crown of headj 
knife at hips (no spear). 

Digitized by 


Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 4^5 

240. Adult. Shield-boss reversed under shoulders, four large rivets ; spear- 
head in front of face. 

241. Adult. Bpear-bead near knees, buckle and knife at hips. 

242. Adult. Two annular fibulae at shoulders, and iron tweezers near hips. 
There were obtained from the same ground, without any details as to the 

finding, a medium-sized cruciform fibula, a flat annular fibula with flat acus, and 
a very fine long fibula with square head, having projections at the upper angles* 
the whole richly gilt and deeply cut, with centrs 
four beads of glass and earthenware. 

These were all obtained by purchase, havii 
tions, and were indeed the means of indicating t 

[The collection of objects discovered by H 
communication, was sold by auction at Boston i] 
Mr. A. W. Franks, F.S.A. by whom it has been 


Fig. I. Cruciform fibula oJ 
coarse riveta below the bow. 1 
now much decayed. The pin, i 
of the upper part and the centn 
fiicee. Grave 50. 

Fig. 2. Bronze fibtda of u: 
bronze pin, now lost. Grave 2 

Fig. 3. One of a pair of br 
leaving a thickaesB of about \ 
remaine. The central portion, ' 
gilt, while the expanding ends t 

Fig. 4. Pair of clasps of _ 

probably made of leather. Such clasps seem to have occurred in many of the graves in this 
cemetery, but are by no means common elsewhere. A second pair of similar design was found 
in the some grave. Grave 227. 

Fig.'S. Fair of clasps from a bracelet, of bronze^ partly gilt Grave 116. 

Fig. 6. Silver disc or pendant with central boss and punched ornaments forming a kind of 
rude arcade. Grave 95. 

Fig. 7. Similar disc of silver with punched dots forming a triqaetra pattern. In one place 
near the edge is a small hole by which the object was suspended. Grave 95. 

Digitized by 


406 Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford. 

Fig. 8. Two hemispberea of silver, which have been orifp'nally joined together so as to form 
a hollow ball Each has aix sets of bands partly gilt Grave 143. 

Fig. 9. One of a pair of bronze -fibnlae, the pins of whioh were of iron. Th^ are of an S 
shape, and the terminal ornaments seem to be intended to represent animals' heads. The surface 
has been tinned and ornamented with small crescent-shaped punch marks. Grave 1X7. 

Plate XXrV. 

Fig. I. Fin of bronze, the surface of which has been partly tinned and partly gilt. The 
ornament seems to be intended for a grotesque head. Grave 95. 

Fig. 2. Cruciform fibula of bronze, partly gilt The central ornament of the head consists 
a BwaslJka engraved on the surtiice. Grave 143. 

Fig. 3. Glass pendant of an nnnsual kind. It is of dark bine, with a serpentine line of an 
opaque greenish colour. Grave 191. 

Fig. 4. Three girde-hangers suspended from a loop, all of bronze, with punched ornaments 
on one face only. One of the side pieces was found with the plain face upwards. Grave 143. 

Fig. 5. Canine tooth pierced at the root, and with part of the bronze ring by which it was 
suspended. Grave 191. 

Fig. 6. Hook formed of silver wire. Grave 121. 

Plate XXV, 

Fig. 1. Framework of a bucket of nnnsnally large size, the diameter of which is 16 inches. 
The broad band round the mouth is of bronze edged with iron, and the three lower hoops, the 
handles and ornaments are also of iron. The wooden staves are now entirely decayed. This 
bucket is probably the hu-gest that has been found in an Anglo-Saxon cemet«ty, thougli greatly 
inferior in size to the specimen found near Marlborough, and published in Hoare's Ancient Wittt, 
vol. ii. PI. VI. This measured no less than 2 feet in diameter and 21 inches in height It seems, 
however, to belong to a pre-Saxon period. Grave 103. 

Fig. 2. Solid bronze ring with four projecting knobs. Diameter 2^ inches. Probably 
connected with the iron keys found in the same grave. Grave 151. 

Fig. 3. ^ree iron keys about fS inches in length. Grave 151. 

Fig. 4. Iron shield-boss of somewhat nnnsual type, being narrower and higher than the 
others from this cemetery. Diameter 5^ inches. 

Fig. a. Bronze tag formed of a double band riveted together at each end. On one face 
lines of crescent-shaped punch-marks. Length 2| inches. Grave 50. 

Fig. 6. Iron spike or ferule, probably from the bntt end of a spear. Length 4 inches. 
Grave 175. 

fig. 7. Spear-head of slender make and unusually graceful outline. Length 12 inches. 
Grave 119. 

Fig. 8. Diminutive urn of hituk ware, with seven projecting bosses on the body ; band of 
impressed dots round the neck. Height 2^ indies. Grave 191. 

Fig. 9. Small nm of brown ware, having on the sides four triangular compartments filled 
with impressed, oirdes bordered by lines. Height 5 inches. 

Fig. 10. Diminutive um of rude make, with scored lines (much injured). Grave 63. 

Digitized by 




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XXIII. — On certain churches on the eastern coa»t qf Italy. By 
Edwin Freshfield, Esq., Vice-President. 

Read December 14, 1882. 

I NETER consider my holiday well spent if I am not able to bring back from it 
something of interest to tell the Society. 

I am afraid what I have to tell upon this occasion is very poor, but I hope 
at a future time to improve upon it. 

I had so often passed Bari and the towns on the eastern coast of Italy that 
I was glad of the opportunity (being obliged to leave England late) of visiting 
this district. 

There is a series of towns situated along the east coast of Italy, commencing 
just south of the little lump caused by the projection of a spur of the Apennines 
at Monte St. Angelo (Monte Gargano) into the sea. The first of these towns is 
Barlctta, and the last may be said to be Taranto. South of Monte St. Angelo 
the Apennines recede altogether to the western side of Italy, and the country 
from Monte St. Angelo down to the heel is, speaking approiimat«ly, flat. It 
consists of a series of undulating stone hills, backed with downs about the height 
of our English South Downs. The whole district is cultivated to the highest 
extent with vines and olives. In some places wheat is grown, but the staple 
products of the district are wine and oil ; com is found only on the higher hills and 
the plain of the river Ofanto. To those who are interested in tracing the history 
of antiquities, these vineyards will be instructive. In each of them is a circular 
house, built of stone, and domed, looking exactly like a bee-hive, and bearing, I 
suppose, a great resemblance to the ancient British houses found in the neighbour- 
hood of Holyhead and elsewhere in Wales. The towns along the coast generally 
are built upon slight projections into the sea, which must in the times of the early 
Oreek colonists have afforded safe harbours to the small ships then in use, and 

VOL. L. 3 I 

Digitized by 


408 On certain churches on the eastern coast cjf It<dy. 

'which eren now are available for a certain amount of protection. Thus we find 
Bflrletta, Trani, Molfetta, and Bari^ all built in similar situations upon slight 
promontories running out into the sea, while Brindisi, the great natural har- 
bour of this coast, is built upon a promontory between two arms of the sea, and 
Taranto upon a rock projecting between two seas. 

There is another, series of towns built along the line of the Via Appia, which 
fall into the seaboard series at Ban. These are Canosa, Andria, Corato, Terlizza, 
BuTo, and Bitonto. The names Canosa, Buto and Bitonto, will be recognised by 
those who are acquainted with Horace's amusing account of his journey from 
Rome to Brindisi, as lying between Beneventum and Bari.' 

I had not the least idea what I was to expect from the journey. I had only 
seen these towns — sometimes by moonlight, sometimes in the glaring sun of a 
southern Italian sky — from the train, and all I could tell was that each seemed to 
possess a large church with a prominent tower.. I went expecting to find some 
remains of the Byzantine occupation. 

The interest attaching to these towns is that the country was occupied by the 
Normans, about the same time as the Norman conquest of England, and taken 
from the Greeks (the last remnant in Italy of the Roman empire), who had 
governed it imtil then ; moreover, the district is, I believe rarely, if ever, explored 
by an Englishman. 

The difficulty in doing this, particularly if you are travelling with a lady, is 
the trouble there is in finding any point from which the exploration can be made. 
With the experience I have had now I think I can see how a bachelor might 
see much more than I was able to do, if content with rough accommodation ; 
but for any one travelling with his wife I think the plan that I adopted was the 
best, but it was by no means a cheap expedition. 

In one respect the visit was a disappointment. As far as I could judge, 
tlio Normans have unfortunately destroyed every vestige of the Byzantine 

I shall presently tell the adventure I had in searching out what was stated in 
Murray's Sand-book to be the remains of an old Greek church, but, although 
there was abundant evidence at every tium that the Normans had copied largely 
from their Greek predecessors, I did not find except at Taranto a single trace 
of what I might call the Byzantine occupation of the country. 

I determined to make Bari my headquarters, believing that I should find 
there, at all events, some accommodation. In this I was right. 

' Iter Brimdasiaum. Q. Horatii Flacci Sermonian, Liber I, Sat. 5, 

Digitized by 


On certain, churches on the eastern coast qf Italy. 409 

Ban is the largest of the maritime towns, and has an establishment which 
may be called a hotel, named II Eesorgimento. The old town is, as I have said, 
situated upon a slight promontory jutting out into the sea. The old port lies to 
the south-east of the town. A new and really magnificent port has been built to 
the north, capable of accommodating a lai^ mercantile fleet, and during my 
visit there was a fair sprinkling of vessels in it. It is between these two ports 
that the old town lies ; it is surrounded by a wall, with a castle at the northern 

The buildings of interest consist of the cathedral, the abbey church of St. 
Nicholas, and a small church dedicated to St. Gregory, forming the northern 
part of the enclosure of the abbey of St. Nicholas. 

The cathedral is a Norman building, consisting of a nave, two aisles, a 
transept, and three apses. At the crossing of the nave and the transept is a 
dome. At the south-west end is a tall square tower of the same date as the rest 
of the building. At the south-east side is a large court in which is the house 
of the archbishop. 

It is impossible to give any account of the interior, or even to say if the pillars 
are original ; they have all been painted and whitewashed, the capitals painted, 
plastered and whitewashed, and I do not think that there is in the interior of the 
church anything which can with certainty be called old, although from what I 
shall presently say I believe that if the whitewash and plaster were removed, the 
old work would be found intact, except where it has been picked over for the 
purpose of making the plaster to adhere. 

I think, however, that the ceiling, which is fiat and panelled, is ancient. 

Under the east end, and extending also beneath the transepts, there is a 
crypt. This crypt is approached by steps at the eastern extremity of the two 
aisles, and I am not stu:e that a small portion of the balustrade leading down to 
the crypt is not old. The crypt itself has been rather less hardly dealt with 
than the church, and is not unlike the crypt at the east end of the cathedral 
churches of Winchester or Canterbury, though not entered in the same way. 

The outside of the church is almost entirely perfect, and is as beautiful a 
specimen of the Norman architecture of the time, infiuenced by the country and 
the architecture of the people the Normans found there, as oould be seen. The 
arches are all rotmd, and so are the windows. The dome is a real dome, so far 
us I could make it out, supported on Byzantine pendentives, and is a true roof, 
that is to say, it is not a mere ceiling covered with a roof. The ornamentation 
of the arches of the doorways and windows is most elaborate, and is such as you 

Digitized by 


410 On certain churches on the eaatern coast of Italy. 

would expect to find just at the period before the Nonnan arcliitecture in 
England fell into Early English. I would give as an example of the ornamenta- 
tion the south-western transept of Ely, although from the nature of the stone 
and the goodness of the climate the details of the outside are fresh and sharp. 
The pillars at the doorways are in many cases supported by animals, which were, 
I think, almost inrariably elephants. 

There is a large circular building attached to the north-west end of the 
cathedral, which is, I think, of the same date as the rest, and may have been used 
as a baptistry. I cannot speak Tery certainly as to this, as the inside is hope- 
lessly mutilated, but a very little investigation, if one was allowed to pick off 
the plaster, would prove this. Several of the windows in the cathedral have the 
original stone lattice, which is very interesting. There was originally a stone 
porch at the west end, but this has disappeared. I did not find a single mason's 
mark upon any part of this, or the other buildings, although I searched for them 
very carefully. 

The next building in the town is the church of St. Nicholas. This building 
holds equal rank with the cathedral in point of dignity ; it has a chapter of its 
own and has also, I believe, a bishop, who is independent of the bishop of the 
cathedral ; at least this is the explanation that was given to me by an intelligent 
resident engineer employed by the Italian Government, who has offered to be of 
assistance to me in any further investigations I may wish to make in this district. 
Unlike the cathedral, the interior of St. Nicholas is almost untouched, and where 
it has been touched the alterations are no great detriment. 

The account given to me by the engineer of the peculiarity of this church 
is that St. Nicholas was a royal foundation instituted by the Normans, and had 
preserved its original charter and constitution ; I suppose it is to this fact, and 
its independence of outside influence, that the complete condition of the church 
may now be traced. 

The church, like the cathedral, consists of a nave with two aisles and a 
transept. There is no tower or dome at the crossing, and the transept is slightly 
higher than the nave and aisles. Applied to the transept are three apses ; the 
tower of the building, which was to have occupied the same position as that at 
the cathedral, is unfinished. The building is a T-shaped basilica. 

The exterior of the church is somewhat plainer than that of the cathedral, 
although hero, again, the details are of the most beautiful Norman that can be 

In the interior the pillars, which have been taken from some oldei' buildings 

Digitized by 


On certain churches on the eaatem coast of Italy. 411 

have upon them capitals which I believe to be Norman imitations of the Roman 
or Greek work which the Normans found there. The Normans did not take the 
Roman capitals and apply them to their buildings as was done in cliurches in 
other parts of Italy, but executed for themselves capitals in imitation of the 
Roman or Greek work. At some period the Normans were not satisfied with 
the strength of the building, and built two arches tying the church together 
across the nave. These arches are also Norman, hut of a date, I think, somewhat 
subsequent to the original building, though not much later. 

The chancel is raised and the altar stands under a baldachino, something like 
that at St. Lawrence's without the walls, at Rome. It is square at the bottom 
and octagonal at the top, but this also is Norman, and the date, twelfth century, 
is fixed by an inscription. There is some mosaic work in the floor, and the 
archbishop's throne at the extreme east end is in situ, all of Norman work. The 
north and south apses have been closed, but they are perfectly visible, and indeed 
you can go into them. The church is square at the east end, offices being 
built outside the apses, and this is not an unusual arrangement in this district ; 
the roof is wooden. 

The great interest of the church lies in the crypt. Under the high altar hes 
the body of St. Nicholas of Myra, which was brought from Myra in Lycia, to 
Ban, at the time when the rapid approach of the Turks made it clear that the 
Christians would no longer be able to preserve the relics from the Infidels. This 
took place about the time of the Norman conquest of this part of Italy, and the 
bones were removed and placed in the church built for them by the Normans. 

Tlie crypt in this church is exactly similar in situation to that in the 
cathedral. It is in a great measure intact, hut has unfortunately been 
modernised just in the place where it might be expected to be most interesting, 
namely, over the tomb of St. Nicholas. St. Nicholas's tomb lies imder the .'iltar 
in the crypt, and it is somewhat of a business to get a sight of him. I had 
announced beforehand that I intended to be present with Mrs. Freshfield, but I 
had no idea at the moment of what was going to happen to me in consequence. 
On arriving at the church and going into the crypt we found the front of the 
altar uncovered. It is a beautiful piece of silver-work, about two hundred 
years old, representing difierent occurrences in the life of St. Nicholas and the 
translation of his remains. The altar is hollow, and the inside is approached by 
a low round archway from the western side. When we got there we found the 
church filled with people, and two or three canons awaiting our approach. Two 
large cushions were put one on either side of the priest and the canon who was 

Digitized by 


412 On certam churches on the extern coast of Italy. 

"kneeling in front of the altar, and Mrs. Freshfield and I had to kneel on either 
side of him. A short service was then read, in which the canon asked me to 
join, and when this was finished the canon lighted a taper, and kneeling down 
went head first under the altar into this hole, and let the taper down, and then, 
having come out, he called upon Mrs. Freshfield to enter— all this of course had 
to be done upon one's knees ; and Mrs. Freshfield went in, and stayed, as she 
thought, a sufficient time and came out again, but the canon considered it was 
not sufficient, and she had to go in again. I profited by this, and stayed at 
least ten minutes in the hole, but I regret to say that I did not bring away any 
information which can be with interest communicated to the Society. I did see 
what I beliere to be St. Nicholas's hones at the bottom. It seems, however, that 
upon St. Nicholas being deposited there a miraculous spring of fresh water 
came up, and the canon proceeded to let down a little silver bottle (having 
previously shown iis it was quite empiy) very like a reading-lamp into the hole, 
for the purpose of bringing out some of the water, and presently brought it up 
full. This water he poured into a most beautiful little silver cup, and handed 
it to Mrs. Freshfield to drink. Mrs. Freshfield, like myself, is painfully par- 
ticular upon the subject of drinking-water abroad, and I can conscientiously 
say that for twenty years I have never tasted a drop of it. It was a startling fact 
to be called upon to drink water which professedly came out from a dead man's 
bones — concentrated essence of typhoid fever. Mrs. Freshfield, therefore, put 
the cup to her lips and handed it to me. I did the same ; but this did not satisfy 
the canon, who said that Mrs. Freshfield and I had not drunk enough to benefit 
us and we must drink more ; whereupon we proceeded to repeat the operation, 
and, before the canon could get the cup a second time, I got hold of my courier 
and told him that it was a part of his duty to relieve us from the difficulty, and 
he must drink the water ofi', and I gave him the cup. I cannot say whether he 
suffered from the operation, but he is still alive. The populace afterwards were 
allowed to see the relics and have as much water as they pleased; afterwards I 
got two bottles fiiU of it, but I think they got broken ; I also obtained a little 

From there we went into the sacristy. The things preserved here were not 
very curious; there was a large Iltissian picture of St. Nicholas, and several pieces 
of the cross preserved in a not very old case of cruciform shape. There was how- 
ever an iron crown said to be that, of Robert Guiscard, and a smaller crown said 
to be that of his wife. The iron crown I should think may be old, although it 
must have been I think the ornament of a helmet and not of a head from its 

Digitized by 


•On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. 413 

great size: it is quite plain. The smaller crown, which would have fitted a head, 
I think must have at some time or another adorned a statue of the Virgin, hut 
it did not seem to me to be old. 

There were in the sacristy one or two prettily illuminated manuscripts and 
one old printed office-book, with what I should think is a very early instance of 
engraving; but both the title-page and the last page were torn out, and I could 
not tell where the book had been printed. 

The third building at Ban is the church of St. Gregory, a small chapel 
consisting of a nave and two aisles with the usual triple apse, as in the cathedral, 
the central apse only being used. This is Norman and of the same date as the 
cathedral and St. Nicholas. There is nothing very particular in this building, 
though as forming one of a group it is worthy of note. 

The next church which can be visited easily from Bari is the church of 
Bitonto. Bitonto is a large town standing inland upon the Via Appia. This 
building is also Norman, of the most gorgeous description, more like in design to 
St. NichoU^ than to the cathedral, there being no dome to it. It consists of a 
nave with two aisles, transepts, and the usual triple apse. This chxu-ch has been 
modernized in the inside, but I observed that the authorities have commenced 
clearing away the plaster at the west end, and the Norman details will be found 
completely preserved underneath, picked over to enable the plaster to adhere; 
but with an extraordinary perversity it is clear that those who modernized the 
interior did not even trouble themselves to follow the line of the arches, as is seen 
plainly by the moulding over the arch which as been uncovered in the process of 
removing the plaster. The church possesses a very beautiful Norman font, two 
pulpits more or less decorated with mosaic, the larger pulpit having a stone eagle 
in front of it. The crypt is also more or less uninjured, the two entrances 
bping ancient. In the third chapel from the west on the south side there is a 
beautiful piece of Norman carving in imitation of the older Byzantine work, but 
obviously Norman. The whole of the interior of this church is very beautiful ; 
perhaps the most beautiful feature is an arcade in the south aisle, one of the most 
gorgeous pieces of Norman architecture I ever saw. There was formerly an 
open narthex or porch in front of the western doors of this cathedral. The 
platform of this remains, but the porch itself has been destroyed. 

In this church also the T-shape of the basilica has been used. 

The next building I visited is the church at Trani; this is like the church of 
St. Nicholas at Bari ; that is to say, it has a nave and two aisles, a transept 
without any tower at the crossing, the transept higher than the nave. It has 

Digitized by 


4)14 On certain chwrckea on the eastern coast of Italy, 

also three apses and a beautiful tower. The outside of this church is perfect, 
and has been judiciously restored by the Govemment. The inside has been so 
entirely modernized as almost to make it unrecognisable. There is in addition 
to the crypt under the east end a crypt lying under the whole body of this 
church; that under the body of the church is in the hands of the Govern- 
ment, who have repaired the outside ; it is in good preservation, but it is some- 
what difBcult to get access to it. The situation of this cathedral upon the 
furthest point of the promontory, like that at Molfetta, makes it a very beautiful 

There are some plain bronze doors on the south side of the church which 
are of a very early date. This church has also had a narthex. 

There is in thw town another church worthy of inspection, but it has been 
so knocked about as to make it more difficult of identifying than the others 
I have mentioned ; it is in the High Street, and is a small building consisting 
of a nave with two aisles ; the nave is roofed with three domes ; the inside is 
modernised, but the outside preserves a good deal of the Norman work, and 
the west end is particularly good. 

And this brings me to the church of Molfetta, which lies between Trani 
and Bari. I had not intended to visit Molfetta, hut I was attracted to it by 
a statement in Murray, that just outside the town there were the remains of a 
Byzantine church, and so I drove there from Trani. Murray describes the Greek 
church as being in the Yigne de San Giacomo. I found the Vigne after some 
trouble; it is now used as a soap manufactory, and nothii^ is left of the Greek 
church. They show you where there was a building, and I will not say that it 
might not have been part of a church, but it might as well have been the part of 
a tower or a water-cistern. But I was amply repaid by my vfeit to Molfetta. 
The principal church there, which is as large as either that of St. Nicholas 
or Trani, is perfect, and is one of the most interesting churches that I saw on 
the seaboard. It is a tall church, the nave roofed with three domes ; the 
central and the first dome towards the east being true domes, that is to say, 
being supported upon Byzantine pendentives. The westernmost dome appeai-s 
to have been repaired at a later time, when it was supported, in the fashion of 
Lombard domes, upon recessed arches ; the easternmost dome has an ornament 
round the rim in the inside. 

The aisles of this church are lean-to, with semi-circular stone roofs, which 
are extremely curious. As in the churches at Bari, there are three apses to 
this church, but only one is used. There is also a crypt under the building at 

Digitized by 


On certain churches on the eastern coast qf Italy. 415 

the east end as in the other churches. It has two tall towers at the east enJ, 
which is rendered therehy externally square. This church has really no 
transepts, though in the inside it is arranged so as to seem that a hay of the 
aisle on each side is part of a transept. 

The huilding, like that at Trani, is situated upon the sea, and is, to my mind, 
one of the most interesting, as I said before, in the district. 

There is another church at the southern extremity of the town roofed with 
two domes. This has been so much modernised that I cannot be certain of its 
age, but it is I believe also Norman. 

From Bari I made an excursion to Canosa. I went by train to Barletta and 
took a carriage from thence to Canosa. It is a long expedition, hut the church, 
which is entirely diflFerent from any of those before described, is quite worth 
a visit. 

The town of Canosa is situated on the northern slope of the low hills forming 
the southern boundary of the valley of the river Ofanto. The valley stretches 
out before you, and there is a most beautiful view over the battlefield of CannsB 
to Mount Gargano while from the brow of the hill you can see the whole 
seaboard of the Mediterranean, from Manfredonia to Bari. The town must 
have been a very large one ; the distance from the church, which is at the 
south-eastern extremity, to the Roman arch over the road at the entrance of 
the town, is at least a mile and a half. The present town clusters round a 
castle upon a high hill, approached by steps. The most interesting building is 
the church. This is as curious a buildinjj as I have seen anywhere. It is in the 
shape of a Latin cross, consisting of a nave and two aisles with transepts. The 
church is very low ; the roof of the nave consists of three domes, and the roofs 
of the transepts of one dome each. The church is therefore roofed with five 
domes. East of the transept is an apse covered with a semi-dome, with two 
other apses on the north and south. All the arches in the church are round. 
The church is entirely and unmistakeably Norman. There is a crypt under 
the east end of it, also Norman. The domes are supported upon Byzantine 
pendentives. The pillars appear to have been taken from some older buildings. 
Some of the capitals are Norman, and some classical. "Whatever may have been 
the original construction of the domes they are at present covered with tiles. 
Tiie building is in every respect most curious, and it may throw some light upon 
the domed buildings of which the church of St. Front at Perigaeui is an 

Attached to this church, in the south-east corner, is a building which is, 
VOL. L. 3 k 

Digitized by 


416 On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. 

I suppose, unique. Tou go out of the doorway, at the end of the south transeptr 
and find yourself in a little court, now considerably below the level of the 
churchyard, which surrounded the church. In this small court is a large 
octagonal building faced entirely with white marble. This building covers the tomb 
of Bohemond, prince of Antioch. It is also Norman ; and the great interest in 
it arises from the feet that it is a good Norman imitation of the building 
called the Dome of the Bock at Jerusalem,* and I have no doubt that Bohemond's 
representatives, considering his position as a crusader, and his rank, built this 
mausoleum for him. The doorways are old bronze, and covered with curious 
inscriptions. There is a small hole in the centre of the building in which are 
shown Bobemond's bones. This building is under the care of the municipality, 
and is difficult of access. It contains a candlestick of Egyptian alabaster. 

In the church there is a pulpit like that of Bitonto, and some ornaments 
round the altar which are of the same age as the church. At some time or 
other a modem porch has been added to the church, probably taking the 
place of an older one, but it is unfinished. In the sacristy is a cross which may 
be Byzantine. 

Returning from this expedition we came to Barletta; this is a large town^ 
next in size to Bari, though not so beautifully situated. The church has been 
much modernised ; it is like the cathedral at Tranl, but has no towers ; on the 
south of it is an exceedingly interesting bronze statue of the emperor Theo- 
dosius, part of the plunder of Constantinople. The statue represents him 
in his dress as a Boman emperor of the classical times, with the orb in his 
hand. I see it has been suggested that the statue is that of the emperor 
Heraclius, but it is much too classical, both in design and dress, to be of his 
date. The figure is much larger than life-size. 

The next building which I shall mention, but which is not the next I visited, 
is the cathednil at Taranto, which is also Norman. This building is larger 
than any of the others. It is in shape like the church of St. Nicholas at 
Barri, but there is now no crypt under the east end, although I think there 
originally has been one. The church has, unfortunately, been very much 
modernised inside, as well as built round on the outside, but it retains its 
original pillars and some of the most interesting capitals which I ever saw in any 

* I hare hazarded thia suggestion, bat the original Chriatian chnrch at Antioch was octngonal in 
Ehnpe ; and it U just possible that this bnilding may be a miniature representation of the church of 
Bohemond's city. 

Digitized by 


On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. 417 

church. Some of them have been taken from classical buildings, but a great 
many of them are Norman copies, and extremely curious. 

There is a curioiM chapel on the south-east of this church, in which, I 
beUeve, an Irish saint, named Cataldus, is buried. 

The outside of the cathedral retains some of its Normaa features — quite 
-enough to fix it as undoubted Norman. In this case, as in the case of Bitonto, 
I have no doubt if the plaster were removed the whole Norman details could 
be found. The cathedral is situated in the middle of the town, which, I believe, 
occupies the position of the old citadel of Taranto ; it faces south, and overhangs 
the Ionian Sea. The situation is most picturesque ; a large hay runs inland for 
several miles, and the citadel has been built upon the rock forming a promontory 
between the sea and this bay. The mouth of the bay is extremely narrow and 
has now been bridged over, but I understand the Italian Government, who are 
executing large works here for an arsenal, propose to open the channel into the 
bay again, and to use it for the building of ships. There are very slight traces 
of the old theatre, and there is a long Byzantine aqueduct by which the water 
is still brought to the town from the neighbouring hills ; this is not worth a 
visit, as it is extremely plain, and has been from time to time modernised, so as 
to keep it watertight. 

I made another expedition from Bari, which is of sufficient interest to he 
mentioned. Lying upon the downs, at the back of the Appian Way, is a large 
castle, built by the emperor Frederick the second, which stands entirely by 
itself upon a conical hill. It is called Castel del Monte, and is, I should suppose, 
as remarkable a building as could be found. It is octagonal in shape, with eight 
hexagonal towers at the comers. The building is in the most wonderful state of 
preservation ; it must have been untenanted for centuries, except by shepherds ; 
it has been built entirely of marble from Barletfa. A great deal of the carving 
has been broken away, but quite enough remains to make it perfectly capable 
of being understood. 

The entrance is from the south or south-east. From it you get a view more 
extensive than that from Canosa, embracing the whole of the same district ; and 
in the distance Mount Vulture, The arches are all pointed, and the architecture 
is of the finest thirteenth -century work. The centre of the building is now open 
to the sky, but it is apparent, from the doorways opening into it from the rooms, 
that originally it must have been covered, in part at all events, with wood ; tlie 
places can be seen where the beams were fixed. I should think it could not have 
been entirely covered, otherwise it is difficult to see how it coidd have been 

Digitized by 


418 On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. 

lighted except by skylights. lu the interior there are two stories ; the rooms lie 
between the inner and outer walls of the octagon ; they all have groined roofs; 
the roofs of the rooms in the first floor, which were apparently dwelling-rooms, 
being very beautiful, and the pillars supporting tbem, in many instances, 
remaining. Four rooms have chimney-pieces, and all the rooms seem to have 
been lined with variegated marbles. The earth-closets seem to bave been in the 
towers. The Italian Government, who are taking charge of this building, have 
preserved it in such a way as to prevent it from suffering any more from the 
weather or from the shepherds, and in doing so have preserved an extremely 
curious feature, namely, the method of supplying water. Every drop of water 
falling upon the castle was collected. In the top of each tower was a large 
water-tank, and when this tank was filled there was an overflow pipe from it 
into a large underground cistern at the bottom of the building, so that the 
emperor Frederick had discovered a plan by which to lay on water to all the 
upper rooms. The engineer whom I mentioned to have seen at Bari had the 
charge of the work, and told me that he had had the most carefid drawings made 
of every detail in it. 

The position is extremely inaccessible, but I will tell you how I got to it. 
There is a steam tramway running from Bari along the old Via Appia, by 
Bitonto, Buvo Tertizza, and Corato, to Andria ; here the tramway leaves the 
Via Appia, and proceeds to Barletta. I took this tramway as far as Corato, and 
from there I went by carriage, which I had sent on from Bari, to the castle, 
which is some eight or ten miles off. Coming back again my guide thought to 
shorten the road by going to Andria, which resulted in our missing the last 
train and having to drive to Trani in order to get back again. 

Going by the train, I had the opportunity of seeing the church at Ruvo, 
which is also an extremely interesting Norman building, much like the building 
at Bitonto, but, as it seemed t<> me, rather later. It is in shape exactly like it, 
consisting of a T-shaped basilica, with a transept rather higher than the nave, 
and a grand west entrance. 

The church at Corato, which I also visited, is too much injured to be worth 

There still remains a group of churehes at Brindisi. These are neither as 
large nor as interesting as the churches I have before described. The cathedral 
is entirely modern, the only feature of interest that I know in it being the 
coloured tiles with which it is floored. 

There is a circular building, now roofless, and filled with weeds, which is 

Digitized by 


On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. 419 

Norman, and is said to have been a church of the Templars. This is on the high 
ground above the harbour. Close to the harbour is a church called " the 
church of the Greeks," which is also Norman, consisting of a nave with two 
aisles and an apse. This church is also filled with weeds, and is without a roof. 
There is no indication whatever that it has ever been used for the Greek ritual, 
aud it is decidedly much later than the churches at Bai-i. 

About two miles from Srindisi, upon the hills, is a small church called 
Santa Maria de Casale. This is also said to be Norman, but I should say it was 
of considerably later date ; it is attached to a monastery. It ia a small building 
consisting only of a nave. The most interesting feature in this is the porch, of 
which I exhibit a photograph. I should say that this church is not older than 
the time of the emperor Frederick. The monastery to which it is attached is 
. desecrated, and the monks offered to sell me the chapel, to take away if I liked 
it, for £1,200. 

I unfortunately had not time to visit either Lecce or Otranto. 

It will be seen that there are in this district three distinct descriptions of 
churches. First : the group represented by St. Nicholas, where the building is 
a T-shaped basilica with the transepts higher than the nave. Secondly: tie 
buildings represented by the church at Canosa and those at Molfetta, and the 
small church at Trani, where the buildings are entirely domed. And thirdly; 
the cathedral at Bari, where the building is a T-shaped basilica with a dome at 
the crossing. 

There are also the following peculiarities : (1.) All the churches have three 
apses. (2.) Several of the churches have square east ends applied to the apses. 

I should say that the Normans borrowed the domical features from the 
Greeks, the domes being all purely Byzantine in construction ; the westernmost 
dome of the cathedral at Molfetta being as I should suppose a reparation by 
some person more acquainted with the Lombard style of building. The three 
apses, which are unintelligible in a Latin church, also seem to represent a Greek 
feature ; but, with the exception of a small piece of carving that I saw in the 
third chapel of the church of Bitonto, there was not one which I should say was 
a reproduction of the distinctly Byzantine clinging acanthus. The circular 
Norman windows form one beautiful feature in these buildings. 

I could not quit this part of the country without passing over to Salerno in 
order to compare these buildings with the glorious Norman cathedral there. 
Whether having regard to its size, or its arrangement, or the internal decorations. 

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420 On certain churches on the eastern coast of Italy. 

its pulpits, candlesticks, mosaics, or ivory altar-piece, it is one of the most 
beautiful and interesting buildings I ever saw. 

Although it hs not in my line I cannot leave the subject alt(^ther without 
saying one word about the Via Appia. I do not know at what time of the year 
Horace travelled along it. He arrives at Canosa and there he describes the 
gritty bread." If any one chooses to buy a piece of bread in modem Canosa 
they will find it still gritty, caused as I believe by the softness of the stones 
with which the flour is ground. Horace describes that, as he left Canosa, the 
way became worse and the weather better ; " this waa, I have not the least doubt, 
owing to the fact that he was really getting into the south-eastern climate : all 
tbe bad weather goes up the vaUey of the Ofanto, and as he got round under the 
shelter of the downs he would find himself in a true southern country. Many a 
time we saw storms going along the valley into the sea, while it was perfectly 
dry fine weather at Bari and in the neighbourhood. The road here is over a 
stony ground, and is infamous. 

I had comforted Mrs. Ereshfield, who had been somewhat starved on the 
journey, by telling her that at Bari at all events we should have good fish because 
Horace had called it " fishy Bari." " One portion of our impedimenta, consisting 
of Mrs. iPreshfield's box, always remained in our sitting-room, and we were pain- 
fully reminded of Horace's epithet as applicable to Bari by the fact that this 
particular box had been put by the guard of the train into the fish dep6t at Bari, 
and for the rest of our journey we were reminded that Bari was and still is fishy. 

I had originally intended to amplify this paper and illustrate it with some 
photographs ; but after I had written and read it, I found that the subject had 
already been dealt with much more fully, though not in the same connexion in 
which I have treated it ; my object having been to trace the Byzantine influence 
on the northern architecture." 

' Sed panis longe pulchemnms, ultra 

callidus ut eoleat hnmeria portnre riator; 

nam Canusi lapidosue. Sena. Lib. I. 5, 89, et teq, 
^ PoBtera tempestas melior, via pejor, ad usque 

Bari mocnia piscosi. lb, I. 5, 96, 
' " Denkmneler Der Kunst des Mittelalters in Unteritalien," tou H. W. Schultz. 

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XXIV. — The History of Malmesbury as a Village Gommvmty, 
By G. L, GoMMB, F.8.A. 

B»d Jannarj 20, 1887. 

In the north-west of "Wilts is a district which contains some remarkable 
reminiscences of the two dominant races who have influenced the history of this 
country. In tracing out the history of this district, as it has come down to us by 
the traditions and records of early chronicle writers, we arrive at an important 
epoch when for the first time is brought into strongly marked prominence the 
outline of the community which had settled there. This community, known to us 
later under the local name of Malmesbury, is one of the most perfect types of the 
primitive village which has survived in England, and to the elucidation of its chief 
characteristics it is proposed to devote some little attention. Keeping before us 
the outline made known from early records we shall see how this is gradually filled 
in from facts, which though gleaned from later and modern records, are never- 
theless stamped as belonging to the earliest stages of history. And when this 
local mosaic is completely pieced in we shall be able, I think, to satisfy ourselves 
that what has so persistently clung to locality in later days originally belonged to 
a social group, types of which are still to be found in Eastern Europe and India, 
where society is in a state of arrested progress and has not advanced along the 
lines which mark its development in "Western Europe. 

At the commencement of our researches we meet with some significant facts 
which in the first place give some kind of definite outhne to a district which has 
Malmesbury for its centre point of interest, and in the second place enable us to 
discover in this district strong traces of the continuance of Celtic habitation un- 
broken by the Saxon conquest. It is necessary to clearly understand these facts. 

The western boundary of this district is the British trackway marked in most 
maps as Akeman Street, running from Bath to Cirencester, while on the eastern 
side the great forest of Braden spread its thick foliage. In the north-west angle 

Digitized by 


•422 The history of Malmesbm-y as a village eoTmmcnity. 

of this district was situated the British fortress of Caer Dur. The present topo- 
graphy of the place sufficiently attests that it was once a position of importance, 
and by nature well adapted for the site of a fortress, while the lane leading to it 
by Back Bridge affords, says Mr. Akerman, to this day, one of the most perfect 
examples of the roads by which our ancestors were wont to travel." Before the 
Romans left this island they had turned the British trackway into a foss road and 
Caer Dur into one of the defending halting places along the line."" 

Driven out of Caer Dur by the Romans the British settled in a fortress two 
miles off which they knew as Caer Bladen. That this seems to have been the 
course of events is borne out hj the fact that no Roman remains have been found 
on the site of Caer Bladon;" and curiously enough there still exists a tradition 
among the inhabitants of the place that Caer Dur is "one hundred years older.'"' 
Caer Bladon was built on the summit of a hill surrounded on all sides but one by 
two rivers, and its position as a formidable hill-fortress had probably much to do 
with its later most interesting history.' 

We have thus clearly before us by the light of modem topographical remains 
the two British strongholds of Caer Dur and Caer Bladon, and our next point is 

• Arckaeologia, xzxtii. 257. 

* Traces of Bomati work at Caer Dor are noted in Wilts Arch. Soc. viii. 6. 

' An account of some Ancient Triangular Bricks Jiiscovered at Malmeshury is given in Qent. Mag. 
1831, part ii. pp. 499, 500. These are conclnded to be Roman in Joum. Arch. Agtoc. xxriii, 41, by 
Mr. Syer Cnming, who, writing about some triangular bricks discovered in Marden Castle, Dorchester, 
says, " Triangnlar bricks have been discovered at Malmesbnry [Caer Bladon], and near Canterbury, 
having perforations through them of about the same diameter as thoBe in the Dorset examples. The 
date of the Malmesbnry bricks is not well defined ; bnt those met with in Kent positively belong to 
the Roman epoch, and constituted a portion of a hearth with which was an iron triput, hooks, &c. 
for cooking." — Jovm. Arch. Astoc. iviii. p. 272. On turning to this last-mentioned reference we find 
Mr. Syer Cuming himself the exponent of the Roman theory. Mr. J. Brent exhibited the " tri- 
angular bricks very imperfectly burnt," which had been discovered in digging for gravel at Bigberry 
Hill about two miles from Canterbury at a distance of seven feet from the surface, which originally 
had been two feet higher (a wood which stood thereon having been grubbed up). Near to them was 
picked up a very perfect arrow-head of flint ; and Mr. Cnming pointed out a vessel, found taaong the 
debris, " the parts of which bespeaking a Celtic origin," and he " detected a portion of the rim of a 
rude nm referable to the stone period, so that," says Mr. Cuming, "there are within the limited area 
of a few feet objects of the primeval, Celtic, and Roman periods." But there is no evidence that 
these bricks are Roman, and they are associated at all events with primeval and Celtic objects. 

^ Arckaeologia, xxxvii. 257. 

' The position is best described by a passage in Qent. Mag. 1831, part ii. p. 500, where the 
discovery of triangular bricks is noted. 

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S%e histoiy of Malmeshtry as a village community. 423 

to consider their position after the Kng'lish inroad, which, Bucceeding the epoch- 
making battle of Deorham, brought the Celt and Saxon for the first time face to 
face in this district. It is extremely difficult to decide this part of the question, but 
I think it can' be satisfactorily established (1) that the English at once sacked and 
occupied Caer Dur, renaming it scornfully, and in illustration of its condition 
then and long afterwards, Brokenburgh ; ' (2) that they sacked the homestead at 
Caer Bladon, but left the British garrison isolated in its strongly defended 

I have partly followed Dr. Guest" in the reading he has given of an interesting 
passage from the Eulogimn Historiarvm; but ae this passage is the key to much 
that I shall have to advance presently in connection with the early history of the 
community who settled at Caer Bladon, it will be well to quote it here. It is as 
follows : — 

There was in Ireland (Seotia) a certain monk named Meildulf, who was so harassed by 
thieves and robbers in his own conntry that he conid hardly live. He, seeing that he conld not 
long remain there, took to flight and came as far as England. As he was surveying the country 
and thinking how God would dispose of him, he at last took up his quarters under the Castfillnni 
of Bladon, which in the Baxon tongue was called Ingelboume Castle. This Castellum was built 

by a certain British king by name Dunwallo, and by surname Molmuncius ...... 

There had furmerly been a city there, which was totally destroyed by the foreigners (alienigenis) 
hut the castellum, being a fortified building, maintained itself, and stood there for a long time .... 
without having any dwelling near it. The king's residence and the manor belonging to it were, 
both in the Pagan and in Christian times, at Kairdurburgh, which is now called Brnkebnrgh, or 
otherwise Brokenbem (Brokenberh), The hermit aforesaid, by name Meildulf, selected for 
himself a hermitage beneath the Castellum, having obtained permission from the men in charge 
of it, for there was not much resort of people there ; and when the necessaries of lite began to 
&ii him, he collected round him scholars to teach, that by their liberality he might mend his 
scanfy commons. In a short time these scholars so learning the mdiments swelled into a small 

This passage follows up the evidence from the topographical remains, and it is 
important to bring into prominence its chief features. They are as follows : — 

1. The Anglo-Saxon head-quarters were at Brokenburgh ; 

2. The British still held out at Bladon, which was known to the English as 

Ingleboume Castle ; 

3. The Irish (Celtic) monk settled under the walls of a fortress inhabited 

by his fellow-countrymen. 

■ Gnest, Originet CeUicae, H. 252. » Ibid. ii. 251, 252. 

e Eutogium Bittoriarum, Eolls Series, 1857, i. 225 
VOL. L. 3 L 

Digitized by 


424 The history of Malmeshury as a village commmiity. 

Dr. G-uest suggests that Meildulf " found an English guard posted" in the 
castellum at Caer Bladon;' but there is ahsolately no evidence in the chronicle 
for this. On the other hand, all the facts point to Caer Bladon being occupied 
by the British. Meildulf would settle where he obtained some sympathy, and not 
where he was at the mercy or by the sanction of people whom he considered 
foreigners — alienigenos. We are told that the castellum maintained itself, 
and was known in the Saxon tongue as Ingelbourae CastJe; but this naming 
by the Anglo-Saxons is no proof of conquest, as the brook flowing by Broken- 
borough was known as the Ingelboume, the brook of the Bngle, Caer Bladon 
would be correspondingly known as the castle on the Ingelboume. To empha- 
size the evidence for the continued British occupation, it is curious to find that 
the Celtic name of the river, the Bladon, was known in later times and used 
by the Saxon bishop in his charter of 672, and both the Celtic name Caor 
Bladon, and the English, Ingelboume Castle, subsequently gave way to one 
which originated from the Irish monk Meildulf, the old English name being 
MailduUsbury, thence the Malmesbury of modem times. ** And it is worth 
asking whether this Celtic monk could have imposed his name upon a community 
who were not of the same race and language as himself, especially as we learn 
from a passage preserved by Leland in his Collectanea {ii. 304), that the Saxons 
had previously to this date destroyed " a house of nuns close by the castle of 
Ingleboume, in a certain hamlet called Hanburgh, by the Saxons termed Biu-gh- 
ton." Noting that here again we have a Celtic place-name supplemented by its 
Saxon equivalent, it is clearly arguable that the destruction of the Christian 
convent would not have been followed by the ready assent to the establishment 
of a Christian monk if the occupiers of the castellum were of the same race as the 
destroyers of the convent. And the reasonable assumption is that the castellum 
was held by the British as a frontier stronghold for that king who, in the language 
of Dr. Guest, as "lord of the rich and beautiful district which stretched from 
Malmesbury to Lands End must have been little inferior to the King of Wessex 
himself, either in the extent or resources of his dominions."" 

We have some confirmation of this from the history of the Celtic church which 
was established in this district. When Meildulf settled under the castle of Caer 
Bladon he saw around him nothing but the ruins of the former town. " There 

' Originet Celticae, ii. 252. 

•• Cf. Rev. W. H. Jones in WilU. Arch. 8oe. viii. 69. 

' Ongines Celticae, ii. 270. 

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The history of Mahneshury as a milage cormriunU;/. 425 

had," says the record previously quoted, " formerly been a city there, which was 
totally destroyed by the foreigners, but the caatellum, being a fortified building, 
maintained itself and stood there a long time without having'any dwelling near 
it." He built a cell (tugurivm) under the walls of the castellum, and an extract 
given by Leland in his Collectanea (ii. 301) fixes the date of this as a.d. 637. It 
was thus that the light of the old Celtic church was kept burning in. spite of the 
opposition of the fierce paganism of the early Saxons.' The same British chief 
who is credited with building Caer Bladon is also said to have built castella at 
Laycook and Tetraonburgh, and though the latter place is not now to be iden- 
tified, Laycock, it is important to note, is situated in this old Welsh district with 
which Malmesbury is identified, and was also the seat of a British church. 

And even the first glimpse we get of Saxon influences is the appearance of the 
far-famed Aldhelm, a near kinsman of Ina, who, in 688, became King of Wessex, 
but who had been a pupil of Meildulf. It was his great mission to soften and 
almost eradicate the bitter enmity that existed between the Celtic churches and 
those which recognised the authority of Augustine and his successors. It has 
been well said that there was a fixed determination among the British not to 
attempt the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon race.'' But Aldhelm came to the work 
fresh from the teaching of his Celtic master Meildulf of Malmesbury. There he 
built two churches, one on the foundation of an old British church," and later on 
he founded other churches at Bradford and Frome, both of which places again 
are situated within the Celtic tongue of land which had for its northernmost 
stronghold the castellum at Caer Bladon or Malmesbury. Thus again we are 
forced to the conclusion that strong Celtic influences existed in this district, and 
they must be reckoned with in any attempt to understand the evidences of early 
times which meet us in the institutions which now exist. 

I think we thus get as a starting point clear evidence of a Celtic stronghold 
at the northernmost boundary of a wedge-like Celtic district, maintaining itself 
between the English-conquered districts of Mercia and Wessex longer than any 

* Mr. Trice Martin in his introdaction to tlie Begislrum Malmetburietue, ii. pa^ xl. comes to the 
eame coaclosion as mj'self, that Meildulf b chnrch was Celtic, " it mnet have followed the rule of 
St. Colamba, and it was not natil the reforms of Eadgar and Donstan that the stricter Italian rale 
was enforced and observed." I notice also that Dr. Leo points ont that " it was to the west of 
England and to Wales that the British Christiana were driven in early times, witneBB the names of 
the headlands on the Welsh Coast." — Zocal Nomenclature of the Anglo-Saxom, p. 54. 

" Rev. W. H. Jones, in Wilts. Arch. 8oc. viii. 76. 

« Ibid. 73. 


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426 The history of Malmsghury as a village comrmmity. 

other stronghold.' And in addition to the military stronghold there is the 
influence of the subsequent religious foundation tending to keep up as far as 
possible, in the midst of other influences, Celtic traditions of social organization. 
If we add to these two pregnant facts the extreme probability of a strong Celtic 
population having survived the Saxon occupation" of the district, we may expect 
to find that the institutions which are discoverable at the dawn of history, or by 
the light of modem scientific research, are strongly tinged with Celtic charac- 
teristics. And I would further suggest that the realization of these expectations 
would go far to substantiate the reading of the early chronicle evidence which I 
have ventured to adopt. 

We are now in a position to ask ourselves what are the initial facts with 
respect to the community who settled at Malmesbury ? In 637, when Meildulf 
took up his abode, there was no village or inhabitants outside the fortress. - In 672 
Leutherius, bishop of the Saxons, granted to Aldhelm " terram illam cui vocabu- 
lum est inditum Maldumesburg." This gift no doubt included the ground upon 
which the two churches were afterwards built. But the building of a church 
other than the monastic church implies the existence of a community who would 
use it, and the question that therefore arises is — was this community, which now 
appears for the fiirst time, composed of the original garrison of Caer Bladon and 
their descendants, or was was it a band of Saxons who were attracted thither by 
the monastery? My own readiug of the evidence is that it was the Celtic com- 
munity who had occupied the castellimi, and who, as more peaceful times arose, 
and as the monastery flourished beneath their walls, again occupied the deserted 
village, and again worshipped in the church of their forefathers. At all events 
there is no evidence of any great inroad of Anglo-Saxons, and, though they un- 
questionably took part in the final settlement of the district, it was side by side 
with their old Celtic foes, not in place of them. If this is the correct view to 
take there will be traces of this race origin in the later institutions. 

What these later institutions were it is our next step to establish. The 
chronology of events has guided us so far, and now we must leave chronology 
and seek our guide in the science of comparative pohtics. By this we know that 
an institution is not modem because it happens to have been noted for the first 

• Gtneat'a map in Origines Oelticae, ii. 242, gives the poaitiou of the races very clearly. 

^ I say " occupation," becaose, if Caer Bladon, sacked in a.d. 577, was still allowed to retain its 
British garrison in the castellnm the "conquest" of the district clearly did not take plttoe then. 
But an occupation nnqnestionably did take place when Mercians and West Saxons in later years 
overlapped their earlier bonndaiiee and f onglit f^inst each other or nnited against a common foe. 

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The history of Malmesbury as a village community. 427 

time by modem inquirers : it is modem, or archaic — the creation of an historical 
period, or the descendant from a far-off period — ^just bo far as it is com- 
parable to modern or archaic ittstitutions known to exist elsewhere. If its 
parallels are known to have been created in order to meet the living practical 
purposes of modem times, then we may classify its origin as appertaining to 
modern history ; if on the other hand its parallels are to be found only in those 
backward lands, or among those arrested societies which exist in the eastern 
world in great plenty, and in the western world on the borders of civilization or 
in isolation amidst and in spite of civilization, then we class it with its fellows as 
appertaining to primitive history. Guided by what we already know of the 
beginnings of the Malmesbury community at the dawn of English history, we 
purpose next to group it among its parallels either in modem or primitive history. 

We will consider the structure of the Malmesbury community under the heads 
of (1) the basis of membership ; (2) the rights of membership. 

The basis of membership has some features which are of almost unique 
importance. Oar knowledge of them is chiefly to be obtained from an account in 
the Oentleman's Magazine of 1832,' which is copied from a manuscript dated 
1685-6. What this manuscript is, and where it is, I have failed to discover, but 
that the extract I am going to use is original cannot for one moment be doubted. 

Being to mention MalmeBbury often in tlie ensuing narration, I have thought it not unfit, to 
Bay something of the policy of that anntient Corporation, which by the juatjce and clemency and 
liberality of former Kings, hath not only retained its auntieut forme of Government, but hath been 
inriched with great quantitys of land, which are disposed amongst the Freemen and Onildoners, 
by very just and pmdent methods. The Borrow of Malmesbury is situated in two parishes, tliat 
of Malmesbury properly, and that of Westport. The Commoners and Giuildeners of Malmesbury 
are divided into sixe centurys or hundreds or tribes, and every Commoner is reduced under one 
of these tribes, and inrolled in a large skin, under the name of a tribe or hundred, so that there 
are six columns of names, all which persons hare right of Common in the large portion of 
grounde called King's Heath, given to them by Charter, in reward of faithful services done to 
King Athelstan, whose monument is yet extant in Malmesbury, by that magnanimous King, but 
wisely limited, so that every Commoner hath an equal advantage by it Kow the 48 names which 
by antiquity or seniority come to be next the names of the respective centnrys or tribes, are 
termed the 48ths, and have an Addition of Land in a Common Field, belonging to that Corporation, 
as a Corporation. There is also a superiore order of 24', which are elected ever out of the 48 by 
the majori^ of the 24', who doe not always respect seniority, but the tribes of the persons. 
There is also another order, which consists of 13, who by the majority of the 13, are ever elected 
ont of the majority of the 24' onely, in which Election seniority is also not always regarded, 
• Part i. pp. 405-6. 

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428 The history of Malmeehiry as a village community. 

Three persona of tliia 13 are yearly preBented to the Commoners by the rest of the 13, wW 
choose out of them an Alderman for the ensninge yeer, which Alderman is a Justice of the 
Peace for the Borrow j and hath power to nominate a Deputy, who is to act onely when the 
Alderman is out of the Burrow. These 13 have also large Meadowes or Pastures, none lease 
than il. nor none worth more than 16L per ann. to each one, bnt under penalties of waste, so 
that these grounds are not empayred, altho they pass tiiorow many hands. 

Confining ourselves firstly to the constitution of the community, what is the 
evidence to be derived from this remarkable document? The answer is to be 
found by ascertaining the constitution of the Welsh tribal communities, which 
can readily be done by turning to Mr. Seebohm's English Village Commmiity 
(pp. 181-206). Mr. Seebohm is there treating, not of the late survivala, imper- 
fect in form and twisted from their archaic originals by the forces of modem 
politics, but of the early tribal communities as seen from the evidence of laws 
and other early authorities. And though I shall not suggest that we can 
absolutely identify the Malmeabury community, with its "hundreds or tribes" 
and its "thirteens," with the "tribes" and "thirteens" of the Welsh system, 
yet I shall urge that the archaic arithmetic of the early "Welsh tribes has un- 
questionably sumved in the curiously complicated system of the Malmesbury 
community. " Without pretending to have mastered all the details," says Mr. 
Seebohm, "of these obscure [the Welsh] tribal arrangements, the point to be 
noted is that the scattering of the tyddyns all over the country side, and the 
clustering of them by fours and siiteens, or twelves, into the group which was the 
unit paying the gwestva or tunc pound, and again into clusters of twelve or 
thirteen under a maer as the unit of civil jurisdiction were obviously distinctive 
features arising from the tribal holding of the land."' Apply this statement to the 
condition of things at Malmesbury, and what do we find ? There could be no 
very extensive " scattering of the tyddyns all over the country side," because the 
community at Malmesbury was hemmed in by the Sassenach ; but substitute for 
this a closer drawing together of the few tribal homesteads that remained when 
they again issued from their oastellum, and the rest of Mr. Seebohm's summary 
of the early Welsh tribal constitution holds good too as a summary of the late 
Malmesbury constitution. 

In the first place we have not any definite traces of a " village " at Malmes- 

* Engiifh Tillage Community, p. 205. Mr. Seebohm qnotes from the Oicentian Code, p. 375, the 
following, " there are to be thirteen trers in every maenol, and the thirteenth of these is the snper- 
Doinerary trev." 

Digitized by 


The history of Malmesbwy as a village community. 429 

bury. There is a community of independent homesteads, but not a village in the 
archaic sense. This is well illustrated by the evidence of BomesAay, which shows 
that Malmesbury was situated in two hundreds, that of Cheggelewe and Sterchelee, 
and Mr. "W. H. Jones significantly aaks " if the town of Malmesbury existed at the 
time when the hundreds were formed, is it likely that it would have been parted 
between two hundreds, especially when we bear in mind that the lordship of both 
belonged, from an early period, to the Abbot of Malmesbury ? " ' I do not follow 
Mr. Jones in hie answer to this question, but it suggests to my mind that, though 
there was a community at Malmesbury recognisable certainly as early as Bede, it 
waa baaed upon the old tribal system which we have been examining, and that 
there did not arise anything like a town until those much later years when com- 
merce had broken through the archaic network which held the community 

Of course, it is not to be expected that the structure of the com muni ty in the 
seventeenth or nineteenth centuries was exactly the same as the original from which 
it descended ; and the disturbing causes which prevented at the starting point a 
free settlement of a tribal community would introduce modifications of the 
general archaic system from the very beginning. But, considering these facts, 
the twisting which has taken place, owing to the operation of modern economic 
laws, is wonderfully small ; and I do not think we shall be overstepping the 
bounds of historical science by translating the modem title, "capital burgess," 
into the archaic " tyddyn " of the "Welsh. It is advisable to consider a little 
<jl(Miely the analogy which is here suggested ; and it appears to me to work itself 
out in a very simple way. The particular type of tribal community which 
Malmesbury most nearly parallels is that of South Wales according to the Dime- 
tian and Gwentian codes. There the free trev was the gweatva-paying unit ; and, 
according to the archaic arithmetic which governed the constitution of these 
tribal arrangements, we have the following grouping : 

12 trevs under a maer = 1 maenol with a court and unit of legal 

12 tyddyns or 4 randira = 1 trev. 
100 erws of pasture, &c. | _ , . 

4 erws of homestead \~ ^ •' ' 

' Bomeaday for Wilts, p. xzxi. 

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430 The history of Malmeshunj as a village community. 

The Malmesbury constitution may be grouped thus : 

Per Municipal Corporation Commisflion. 

Per quotation from Qentteman'a Magazine. 

280 commoners 

48 landholders 

24 aasistants 

12 capital burgesses and 

1 alderman 

The 48s. 
The 246. 

The 13s. 

It will be seen by this, that the 280 commoners are the outcome of the period 
between 1685 and 1835, and as constituent portions of the community must be 
struck out of our present consideration. But, what is much more important, we 
most strike out too the " titles " of the other bodies, and substitute for them the 
extremely archaic titles derived from the number comprising the body. There thus 
remains the three bodies of the 488, the 248, and the IBs. Now, if we eliminate 
from these the body of " twenty -fours," we are enabled to make a pretty easy 
comparison of the Malmesbury community with the South "Wales tribal system ; and 
I would suggest that we may well consider this body to have been the creation of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, just as the 280 commoners are proved to have 
been the creation of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. If this is so, we 
have left as representatives of the archaic tribal constitution of Malmesbury, the 
48s and the "thirteen" ; and my suggestion is, that in these two bodies we have 
the 12 tyddyns and 1 supernumerary tyddyn, with their corresponding 4 erws (or 
acres) each, or together, 48 erws. 

We will deal first with the 48 erws, or acres, belonging to the tyddyn, and 
endeavour to ascertain how they helped to form the group of "landholders " who 
became an integral part of the community. Mr. Seebohm points out the difficulty 
attending the curious geometrical system of the early Welsh tribes, unless we 
adopt the shifting characteristics of a pastoral people ; and he states that, long 
before the fourteenth century the households were settled in their homesteads, 
geometrical regularity had ceased, and the land was divided and subdivided into 
irregular fractions." I contend we have in Malmesbury a curious example of these 
irregular fractions. When the tyddyns lost their archaic nature, they could no 
longer keep to the old laws of succession by undivided groups, and hence at some 
period when the pressure of population began to tell, the question of the suc- 

' English Village CoTMniiuHy, p. 205. 

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The history of Malmesbury as a village community. 431 

oession to the communal property began to arise.' To meet tliis state of things 
the then possessors of the 48 erws, or acres, belonging to the tyddyns were allowed 
to keep their holdings, and in virtue of them to become the basis of a new class 
in the community, just as at later periods the same question would arise, and addi- 
tional classes such as the " assistants " and " commoners " subsequently succeeded 
to the inheritance of the once undivided households of the original tribal holdings. 

We have next to deal with the "thirteen," and I may advance the suggestion 
that the close analogy this body bears to the group of tyddyns in the old Welsh 
tribal system considerably strengthens the perhaps somewhat speculative considera- 
tions just put forward as to the origin of the other bodies. The group of tyddyns 
was made up of 12, plus one supernumerary tyddyn, making together 13. And so 
the "thirteen" at Malmesbury were composed of 12, plus one supernumerary. 
This important fact did not appear until 1876 when evidence was taken before 
the municipal commissioners." Nor is this all. It was one of the features 
of the tribal system, as we see it in Ireland, that " the families of free tribesmen 
did not always occupy the same tyddyn, but were shifted from one to another 
whenever the dying out of a family rendered needful a redistribution to ensure 
the fair and equal division of the tribal lands according to antiquity and their rank 
under the tribal rules."' The holdings of the "thirteen" at Malmesbury were 
likewise at one time, though not now, subject to a re-allotment whenever a new 
member was admitted upon the death or removal of an old member .'' 

I shall have to explain presently the difference in the extent of the land held 
by the capital burgess and the tyddyn, and in the meantime will pass on to the 
next portion of our inquiry, namely, the basis of kinship in the community. 

We have to deal with modem phraseology in considering the extent to which 
the Malmesbury community is indebted to blood relationship for its basis of 
membership ; but in spite of this we can detect, I think, the archaic original 
which preceded the record as it has come down to us. The mode by which 
persons can become free burgesses was settled in 1821, and this was preserved by 
an Act of Parliament then obtained for the enclosing of the borough lands. It is 
thus given by the commissioners of 1835 : 

* I Iiave discussed this important subject, and its bearing upon sneh a state of thin^ aa appears 
at Malmesbniy, in Archaeologia, ante, pp. 195 — 214. 

^ See Municipal Corporation CommtMum, 1876, part ii. p. 836, " there is always one capital 
bnrgess who has not a ' burgess past ' ; he is paid moaej out of what is subscribed by the other 
capital bui^rs." 

' Seebohm, Engluih Village Commutnty, p. 336. 

•• See Municipal Corporation Committion, 1876, part ii. p. 833. 
VOL. L. 3 U 

Digitized by 


432 The history of Malmeshury as a village cormmmity. 

■Every son of a free bnrgesa or commoner in his own right, he being &t the time of claiming 
admission of the age of twenty-one years and married, and also a paridiioner of one of tlie 
parishes within the borough, and likowiBe at the same time an inhabitant householder in an 
entire tenement (and not an inmate) within the borough, is entitled to be admitted a free burgess 
or commoner of this borough. Every man who has married a free bm'geeses daughter, he being 
at the time of claiming admission so married and his wife liviug (but not otherwise), he being 
also of the age of twenty-one years and a parishioner of one of the parishes within the borough, 
and an inhabitant householder in an entire tenement (and not an inmate) within the borough, is 
entitled to be admitted a firee burgess or commoner of this borough ; bnt a fne burgesses daughter 
having once married cannot communicate to a second husband a right to admission : nor will 
such subsequent marriage give to the sons or daughters of such husband by another wife any 
right to admission. No son of a free burgess bom before his &ther shall have been admitted in 
court a free burgess is entitled to be admitted a free burgess. No daughter bom before her 
father shall have been admitted in court a free burgess can communicate to or invest any husband 
with any right or title to be admitted a free burgess. 

Disqualification and causes for rejection and amoval are (1) conviction of 
felony ; (2) not being at the time of admission, or at any time after admission 
ceasing to be an inhabitant houaebolder in an entire tenement within one of the 
said parishes witbin the borough. 

Blood relationship is by this constitution absolutely the basis of the Malmes- 
bury community,' and even where it oversteps the line of male descent, it runs 
parallel to the archaic system, where, as in some tribes in the Punjab, the daughter 
may bring her husband to fill up the ranks of the community, failing through 
disease or any other calamity." "We even have preserved in this curiously con- 
structed system of municipal freedom the archaic succession of all the sons — 
*' every son " being entitled to take up his freedom upon coming of age. 

The regulation of the affairs of the community was determined by an assembly 
composed of all its members." The report of the Municipal Corporation Com- 
mission of 1835 describes the assembly at Malmesbury as follows : — " An assembly 
composed of the alderman, capital burgesses, assistant burgesses, landowners, and 
commoners, has the privilege of deciding on the title of claimants to a share in 
the Corporation lands." The commissioners of 1876 obtained the information 
that there are four courts during the year, one for the appointment of oflBcers, 

' The evidence of Mr. Player before the GommiBsion of 1876 illustrates how actual was the 
kinship basis of the Commnnity . See Qiiestion 6318 et leqq. 

*> Tapper, Punjab Giutomary Law, vol. ii. pp. 74, 75. 

' Laveleye'e Primitive Property gives parallel instances from Russia (p. 14), Switzerland 
(p. 94), Germany (p. Ill), Holland (p. 283), and it is an admitted feature of the primitive 
community wherever found. 

Digitized by 


The history of Malmesbury as a village community. _433 

one for tlie swearing in of officers, one for admission of commoners, and one for 
the turning out of commoners upon disqualification. We do not know sufficiently 
of the details of the proceedings of this assembly to pick out all the points of 
contact with the assemblies of early social groups; but Mr. Trice Martin has 
preserved in his preface to the Registrwn MaVmesburiense (vol. iii. page xliii.) an 
interesting archaism which accompanies the delivery of the allotted portions of 
land to the commoners, seizin being given by the transferring of a twig and the 
repetition of the rhyming formula — 

This laiid and twig I give to thee, 

As free as Athelstan gave it me, 

And I hope a loving brother thou wilt be. 

The appearance of the rhyme at once denotes that we are in the presence 
of archaic custom,' and the last line recalls that " common brotherhood " which 
is a typical feature of early communities, and of which we have already had 
some evidence in the kinship which underlies the constitution of the Malmes- 
bury community. Further than this is the significant practice of the delivery 
of the twig. There exists many examples of the primitive community in 
England, where the annual allotment of the land is made by means of cu- 
riously formed twigs,"" a twig being placed on each strip of land, and corres- 
ponding twigs being cast into a hat, from which the various members of the 
commimity draw. The twigs so drawn denote the piece of land which each 
drawer is to have for the coming year. With these interesting facts before us I 
suggest that in the rhyming formula still surviving at Malmesbury we have a 
relic of the periodical redistribution of land by the assembly of the commu- 

We have next to deal with the rights of the community. The rights of 
membership at Malmesbury, governed by that intricate system which has already 
been noted, are entirely of an archaic order. There is the tenement or home- 
stead. There is a right to land " in a common field," that is land held in 
common by those bundles of strips of acres or half-acres which Mr..Seebohm has 
made so familiar to us. There is the common pasture attached to the arable lots. 
In 1835 the Municipal Corporation Commission thus described this land : — 

" I have given some details of this interesting subject, rhyming formulae, in an article in the 
Antiqnary, vol. viii. pp. 12-15. 

*• Archaeologia, vol. xxivii. p. 383. On symbols of transfer generally, consult Spence's Court of 
Chancery, i. p. 22. 

3 h2 

Digitized by 


434 The history of Malmeslmry as a village community. 

The properly of the Corporation oonsiste of abont 516 acres of land, divided among the entire 
^l>ody in the following proportion: 280 commoners, abont I acre each; 48 landholders, about 1 
acre each ; 24 assistants, about 2 acres each ; the alderman and eleven [twelve] senior capital 
bnrgessee, 140 acres between them (see Report, yoI. i. p. 77).' 

but the Commissioners of 1876 obtained much more valuable information. This 
information I summarise as follows, the reference figures being the number of 
question and answer in the evidence : — 

1. The homestead, which gives in primitive times the right to land allotments 
in the common lands, is represented by thirty>nine properties, which belong to 
the alderman and capital burgesses (5487-5500). 

2. The allotment of lands. — No one can hold land unless he be a freeman of 
the borough either by right of birth or marriage (5415). This enables them to 
take up their right as commoners (6420), and they take common as a vacancy 
occurs. The commoners then succeed by rotation to a vacant acre held by the 
landholders. The mode of succession to this higher body is regulated by custom. 
The custom is, that the whole common is divided into six " hundreds," each 
hundred part having a particular name (5433-6). The commoner draws lots upon 
one or more of these six " hundreds," and enters himself as a candidate for 
vacancies as they arise (5411). He cultivates or lets his allotment, which is not 
marked out by boundaries or by fences (6531), The next grade is that of assistant 
burgess. To become a member of this grade the candidate must first give a 
" seeking feast" to the body of twenty-four (6293), and then take up his allot- 
ment upon the death of a present holder. Then from the assistant burgesses are 
elected the capital burgesses, who have each a burgess part in the lands of the 
borough (5470). 

Now this remarkably intricate custom has many features common to the 
primitive agricultural holdings, some of them of special interest. The village 
tenements, the arable allotments, the common pasture, are all characteristics that 
do not belong to modem times. Rotation by death or seniority replaces the annual 
allotment of primitive times. And this slight deviation is quite capable of 
historical explanation (see Laveleye's Primitive Property, p. 93), besides which 
we may compare this succession to long-established allotments to the Punjab 
custom of succession to ancratral shares. 

Another fact it is important to note is the use of the word acre in its archaic 
sense. Bach of the six " hundreds " has a certain portion of the common land 

* This is the same as recorded in the preamble of the local Act 1 and 2 Geo. lY. cap. 34, and 
it is important here to note this aa an instance of archaic cnstom being recorded in a modem statute. 

Digitized by 


The history of Malmeabury as a vUlage com/munity. 435 

appertaining to it. This is divided out into lots or " acres." These, it was ex- 
plained to the Commissioners of 1876 (Q. 6491), are not statute acres, some being 
half and some three-quarters of an acre, and it is these nominal acres which form 
the holding of the members of the hundreds.' 

"With reference to the curious division of the communal lands into " six 
hundreds or tribes," I am tempted much to dwell upon the archaic terminology 
here so distinctively used. But whether or not there be anything to be derived 
from this, the real point to note is, that the sirfold division does not really affect 
the constitution of the community. The "thirteens," the 488) &c., exist quite 
independently of the six hundreds, and all that this division applies to is the land. 
I think there can be little doubt that we have here the survival of an influence 
which was not Celtic in its origin. I have noted how the two races, Celtic and 
Saxon, probably met at Malmesbury on more equal terms than usual, and it may 
be that in the sixfold division we see traces of Teutonic influence. An arrange- 
ment into six fields is to be met with at Kells, co. Meath," and this, perhaps, 
may give the clue to an explanation of the Malmesbury system. Kells was over- 
run and re-settled by Danes, and there is something more than conjecture for 
referring its curious constitution to this period and people. Now Malmesbury was 
overrun by the Danes, and I throw out the conjecture for what it is worth, that 
the division into the six hundreds, perfectly independent aa it is of the rest of the 
organization, might be due to this later race-influence. 

One further note of parallels between the Welsh tribal system and Malmesbury 
must be made. Observing that in king Alfred's time, Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, 
and even parts of Wiltshire still formed what was known as " West Wales," 
Mr. Seebohm goes on to point out how that king in his will carefully abstained 
from applying the word ham to his numerous possessions in the West Welsh 
districts, but invariably used in describing his estates there the word lamd, the 
land or the landes at such and such a place." Now the use of the term Uind in this 
particular way is one of the dialect peculiarities of Wiltshire,* and particularly so 
of Malmesbury. There is first of all the specific title of " landholders " appUed 

' Thia naming of the holdings hy the term " acrea " led to a wrong statement of the area of the 
corporation property. In 1835 it was stated to be 516 acrea (aee above), but there were really 516 
loti, which represented 800 statute acres, if not more. See Commiagion of 1876, Quegtion 32,613 
et seqq. 

" 1 communicated this to the Athenaeum of 3rd March, 1883; and see Seebohm, EngUth Viltoffe 
i-ommumty, p. 227. 

" Seebobm'e EngluK Village Community, p. 254. 

•" Davis, Agriculture of Wilts. 

Digitized by 


436 The history of Mahmshwry as a village community. 

to one section of the communitj', and a section too which enters into the most 
archaic parallels with the early tribal system, and the evidence before the Com- 
missioners of 1876 clearly establishes the term " lands " as a specific phrase locally 
known to Malmesbm-y. 

"We have now gone through step by step the constitution of the Mabnesbury 
community, and alike in the basis and rights of membership we have found 
Strongly marked parallels to the basis and rights of membership in archaic society. 
There is one final, and I hold conclusive, teat by which we may prove the archaic 
nature of this commimity, and that ia by ascertaining its degree of original inde- 
pendence from the national law and the national economy. 

There was absolutely no room for the national law of England within the 
constitution of Malmesbury. Small offences being punishable by the assembly of 
the community, the whole of the criminal code is got rid of by the simple ex- 
pedient of expelling the felon from membership; an expedient which in early 
society led to the creation of " broken-men," who, fleeing from one tribe, were 
adopted by another. The law of wills can find no place, because succession to 
property is by kinship, all the sons succeeding to the rights of the father. There 
can be no alienation or gift of property, and hence no laws to govern this process. 
The position of woman requires no law to regulate it, because after she has passed 
the patrimonial rights to her husband she has no further status, and her position 
when unmarried would be that of absolute dependence upon the father. 

To show its independence of the national economy we must revert to a sub- 
ject which I mentioned just now as requiring some explanation, namely, the 
Bmallnesa of the holdings of the members of the community. 

Now, the area of land belonging to the modem corporation has admittedly 
diminished. The commissioners of 1876 obtained from one of the witnesses 
evidence to the effect that, " by reputation," they had lost some lands, and do not 
know where they have gone to, and they possessed "old deeds relating to pro- 
perty " of which they do not know the existence. If we turn to the doings of the 
abbey, as chronicled in the Registrv/m Malmesburiense, we can obtain some expla- 
nation of this. The enclosure of the common lands round Malmesbury, says 
Mr. Trice Martin in his preface to that volume, furnish the subject of many of the 
documents. Fouleswike and the Rowmerse, which are frequently mentioned in 
this connection, are probably what is now known as Bird's Marsh, about a couple 
of miles north of Chippenham, on the Malmesbury road. Portmaneshethe recalls 
the familiar Portmeadow of Oxford, and was the property of the burgesses, a& 
well aa Bamdehethe or Bumtheath, which the Malmesbury people are fond of 

Digitized by 


The history of Malmesbury as a village commimity. 437 

telling strangers was granted to their ancestors by Athelstan for help given in the 
battle against the Danes.* 

It is impossible without local knowledge to do justice to the extremely valu- 
able documents collected in this volume; and I venture to suggest that the 
Wilts Archaeological Society, to whom we already owe so much, should take up 
the subject in the same spirit that Mr. Akerman has adopted in his paper in 
Archaeohgia (vol. xxxvii.) on the possessions of the Abbey of Malmesbury, in 
North Wilts. It seems pretty certain that the tenements within the town and the 
grants without could be one and all identified. Even without this local identifi- 
cation these documents tell us the same story which we have learned from other 
parts of the history of Malmesbury. The lands are intermixed allotments in a 
common field, and held by their various owners in bundles of acres. It will be 
sufficient to quote one or two examples to prove this ; and I will select the docu- 
ments dealing with ThomhiU. This is the name of one of the six " hundreds " 
into which the lands of Malmesbury are divided ; and I think we have here not 
only evidence of the ancient mode of culture and holding, but of the once wider 
extent of these " hundreds." The first document is a grant of " tres acras terrae 
cum omnibus pertinentiis suis in campis de ThomhuUe, quarum duae acrae jacent 
juxta tenementum quondam Roberti le Charpenter versus occidentem, una dimidia 
acra extendit se versus terram Willelmi Parcarii inter terram Willelmi le Frere et 
Bicardi Finnock, et alia dimidia acra jacet in campo de Borghtone" qui vocatur le 
Ham, inter terram Roberti Woderove et terram Aliciae de la Grene.'" Here we 
we have two acres lying together, and two half -acres lying between the acre-strips 
of other holders. The next document relates to an exchange of land at Thomhill, 
consisting of " illas septem acras terrae arabilis quae jacent in campis de Bornh- 
tone et ThomhuUe,'" of which two acres and two half-acres are the same as 
described as above, and the remaining four acres are scattered in parcels, two of 
one acre each, and the remaining two acres together. The last document relating 
to this district is the grant to the abbey " totum tenementum meum et terram 
meam apud Thomhulle, cum domibus, gardinis, curtillagiis, pratis, pascuis, et 

But if we have thus been able to show that one of the " hundreds " now 

■ Begistrum Malmetbtirienie, vol. ii, p, iliii. 

" This is the hamlet allnded to above (p. 4) as the seat of the nunnery destroyed by the Saxons 
and called by the Britons Ilanborgb. 

« Beg. Malm, ii, 184. * Ibid. ii. 230. • Ibid. ii. 349. 

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438 The history of Malmeshtry as a village cormn/unity. 

belonging to the Malmesbury community once extended beyond its present area 
the remaining documents of Mahnesbury Abbey show us very clearly how the 
abbey gradually gathered iato its hands tenements in the town and large tracts of 
land without, which once no doubt belonged to the community. And when we 
come to the charters of John, which granted the town to the abbey in fee-farm, 
and gave them absolutely the castle, the Norman successor of that ancient British 
castellmn which was the source of all civil rights in Malmesbury, we know quite 
well that the stage when old communal lands were to be transformed into chiirch 
lands had been reached. 

Looking at the evidence thus, I do not think it is too much to suggest that 
the community of Malmesbury was once a community independent of the national 
economy for its support, obtaining its own food and its own clothes from the 
lands and flocks which it owned. One special illustration of this fact is the custom 
of granting land for the support of the village oflBcers. Sir Henry Maine has 
drawn significant attention to this point,' and its bearing upon the independent 
economy of each settlement. That we have a survival at Malmesbury in the 
annual grant to the alderman of a piece of land known as the " Alderman's 
kitchen " is evidence of a once existing system of economy which did not extend 
beyond the community itself. 

This concludes the evidence with reference to the archaic nature of the 
Malmesbury community, and it will be admitted, I think, that on the whole the 
twisting from the original has been singularly shght considering the lapse of time 
and the peculiar racial disturbances which attended the early settlement of the 
district. It may be that some of the customs I have enumerated are to be 
attributed to Saxon origin and not "Welsh. And certain it is that we have no 
evidence, as far as I can see, of- the old custom of food-rents so characteristic of 
the Welsh tribal system. But while on the other hand we have so near as 
Cirencester an example of what Mr. Seebohm characterises as " very much like a 
survival of the Welsh food-rents at one of the cities conquered by the Saxons in 
577,'"* so I would venture to suggest a survival at Malmesbury of the duty of the 
free tribesmen " to join the chiefs host in his enterprises," in the Domesday 
record that " when the King going on an expedition, whether by land or sea, he 
was either wont to have from this borough 20 shillings for the support of his 
sailors, or took with him one man for each honour of 5 hides." 

■ Village Communities in the East and West. 
* English VHiage Oommunit^, p. 211. 

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XXV. — Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, dated 
respectively 1245 and 1402; now, for the first tm^e, prvided, with 
an Introduction by W, Spabbow Simpson, D.D., F.8.A,, 8vh-Dean of 
8. Paul's, <md Keeper of the Records. 

Bead Marcli 24, 1887. 

Yeey manifold and multiform are the materials from which ecclesiastical 
history is compiled. Sometimes from the great chronicle of an ancient abbey, 
in whose annals the zealous scribe has set down the minutest details, from the 
erection and endowment of the sumptuous church itself to the smallest payment 
at the celebration of an obit ; sometimes from a dry catalogue of names without 
a single incident to vary the monotony ; sometimes from the Ufe of some great 
prelate, of heroic virtue and of saintly grace, towering above his fellows as Saul 
amongst the men of Israel; and sometimes from some petty quarrel about 
precedence between two officers so unimportant that the utter abolition of the 
offices which they held would seem the best and simplest settlement of the 
dispute; sometimes from manorial records, dreary and repellent at first sight, 
but full of precious information as to the history of property, the relative position 
of tenant and of lord, the value of labour and of money ; and sometimes from a 
mere inventory or catalogue of goods, a list of plate, ornaments, jewels, vestments, 
a bare document full of wearisome iteration, a collection of the driest of dry 

But even inventories have their value ; and the dry bones of the skeleton are 
necessary if the man is to stand before us in his habit as he Kved. For it is by 
. such documents that we get some glimpses of the wealth and art and skill 
lavished in such rich profusion upon the Divine Service in our stately cathedral 

VOL. L. 3 N 

Digitized by 


440 Two Inventories of the caihed/ral chwch of St. Paul, London. 

churches. Here are no vague generalities, no bird's-eye view from a great 
distance, no dismissal of the subject in a single brilliant sentence, which, with all 
its brilliancy, can leave no definite impression behind, but a careful, minute, 
and accurate examination of each object of importance, part by part, until at last 
the reader seems to walk side by side with the narrator and to see with his own 
eyes the chalice or the -vestment passed under review. The enumeration may be 
tedious, but at every step there is something to be learned, the labour will not be 
entirely wasted. 

The Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul have never yet received 
the attention which they merit. 

Sir WUliam Dugdale in bis Monasticon^ printed the very important Inventory 
of 1295, and Sir Henry Ellis in his valuable . edition of Dugdale's History of St. 
Paul's Cathedral " reprinted the same document, but in each case no note or 
comment of any kind appears, and the errors which occur in the Monasticon are 
for the most part retained in the Sistory. Notes are essential to the right under- 
standing of an inventory. Even such simple notes as busy themselves with the 
names, dates, and titles of the donors of sacred vessels or of vestments have their 
obvious value ; to say nothing of the more generally useful exposition of terms 
that have grown obsolete. 

In the Appendix to the present paper two Inventories are, for the first time, 
printed: the first, taken in 1245, fifty years earlier than that which Dugdale 
published in his Monasticon; the second, taken in 1402, rather more than a 
century later.' The latter inventory was discovered, only a few months since, in 
a closet at the chapter house together with other documents of no little interest. 

The early date of the first of these Inventories gives it special importance. It 
was written in 1245, only thirty years after the granting of Magna Carta. The 
king, Henry III., was ravaging "Wales, whilst the treasurer and his staff were 
calmly and leisurely making their catalogue of the treasures of their church. 
The king returned to England in October ; the inventory was made " in craatino 
Sancti Bartholomitei." (St. Bartholomew's day is August 24.) 

The famous York Inventory, which fills nearly fifteen columns of Dugdale's 

■ Volamen tertinm et altimam, folio. In the Savoy, 1673, p. 309 et seqq. 
*> The third edition, folio. London, 1818, pp. 310-335. 

' A very carefnl transcript of both these docnmentB bas been made for mo by Mr. R. B. G, 
Eirk, to ^bose minute accoracy I am much indebted. 

Digitized by 


TiDo Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paitl, London. 441 

Monasticon (edition 1830, vol. vi. pp. 1202-10), seemeto have been taken about 
the year 1510 (p. 1203, col. i.) : and the great Lincoln Inventory, occupying" 
nearly sixteen columns of Dugdale (vol. vi. pp. 1278-86), is still later, not having 
been compiled till 1536. Full of interest as it is,, it ia very melancholy reading, for 
it was followed almost immediately by a peremptory letter from that remarkably 
disinterested monarch Henry VIII., in which the king, exceedingly jealous for 
the well-being of his subjects, orders the removal of the great ahrine and of 
" superstitious relics, as superfluous jewels, plates, copes, and other such like." 
They were so dangerous to the souls of his people these jewels, and the like, that 
they must be guarded with the strictest care. As he is careful to direct : for 
they are to be conveyed to " Our Tower of London, into our Jewel House there, 
charging the Master of our jewels with the same." The catalogue is very fuU — 
the English in which it is written sufficiently quaint — some of the articles 
enumerated are of peculiar interest (as, for example, that pix containing " the 
- chain with which St. Katherine bound the devil"),* — ^but the reader feels as he 
peruses the Inventory as one who is reading a list of the names of men who are 
to be executed to-morrow. All these precious jewels, vestments, ornaments, 
were to be swept at once into the huge drag-net which was being drawn over 
England. The Inventory was compiled in the 28th year of Henry VIII., IJhe 
king's imperative letter was written four years after. 

The Pauline Inventory dates nearly three centuries earlier. 

The Inventory of 1245 occurs on the fly-leaves at the commencement of a 
noble volume, preserved amongst the archives, known as the Statuta Majora, 
On the last cover is a horn plate, secured by small nails to the board of which 
the cover is composed, and beneath the plate is an inscription Statuta Majora 
Ecclesiae Sancti Pauli. It is called the Statuta Majora,^ to distinguish it from 
another volume entitled the Statuta Minora." The Statnta Majora contains 
fewer statutes than the Statuta Minora, but is written in a far finer and bolder 
hand.^ The Inventory commences on folio 5. b, and ends abruptly at the foot of 
folio 8 b, filling twelve columns and a half, in so small a hand that no less than 
seventy-four lines are contained in a single column. 

' Dngdale, Moncuticon, vol. vi. p. 1279, col, 2. 

» It is a folio Tolame, about fonrteea inches in height bf nine tund a half in width, bound in 
wooden boards (very muoh decayed), covered with a roagh skin of leather. 

' Nearly ten and a half inches in height by >boat six inches in -width. 

" The statutes are printed in my BegUtrum Statutorum et Contnetitdinmn Bcclenae Cathedralii 
8. Pauli Londinentw. 


Digitized by 


442 Two Inventories of the caGtedjral church of St. Paul, London. 

The Inventory of 1402 is a thin Telluin book of twenty leaves, if the two 
leaves which form the cover are to he counted.' ■ The actual Inventory does not 
commence till page 9, hut on the previous pages other entries of a like nature 
have been made at a later period. In the present transcript these entries are 
printed at the end so as to exhibit them in their true chronological order. On the 
outside cover is written 

' . "Inventarium Anno Domini 1402" 

the date being in Arabic figures.'' 

It may be convenient to pass the first of these Inventories under somewhat 
detailed examination, though only those items can be selected which seem worthy 
of especial and separate notice. 

First in the enumeration are sixteen chalieest five of gold, the rest of silver-gilt. 
One had belonged to Alardus de Bumham, dean, who died in 1216 ; on the paten 
was engraved the representation of the Majesty, and the foot of the chalice was 
set with amethysts. The hand of the Lord in benediction was a frequent subject 
for the ornamentation of the patens. Another chalice bore upon its foot, in incised 
letters, the donor's name. A fig^e of the Holy Trinity enthroned upon the rain- 
bow is seen on two other patens. The chalice belonging to St. Radegund's altar 
had been stolen, but the offerings at the altar had sufficed to purchase another, 
bearing the scallop-shells of St. James upon the foot and the Agnus Dei upon the 
paten. A chalice of Greek work had lost its paten but retained its reed, calamus; 
a relic of the time when, as Dr. Rock says, the deacon carried the chalice down 
from the altar to the people, and " each one drank of its hallowed contents through 
a long narrow pipe or hollow reed, made of gold, silver, or ivory, which was often, 
though not always, fastened on a pivot to the lower inside part of the sacred 
vessel. The golden reed is used to this day by the pope whenever he solemnly 
pontificates, and by the cardinals who serve him as deacon and subdeacon, both 
of whom communicate with the supreme pontiff under the two kinds."" Three 
such reeds are figured by Dr. Bock, In a later Inventory at St. Paul's, a chalice, 
apparently the same, is described as having two reeds of silver-gilt. The golden 

* Twelve and a half inches in height by fonr and a half in breadth. 

" Below this inBcription is written in characlera, bo faint that they oan with difficnlty be 
deciphered, " De pecania et argento fracto nota fo. 4*°." 
' Church of Our Fathert, i. 165-7. 

Digitized by 


T7C0 Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 443 

chalice of bishop Henry de Wingham, adorned with' enamels and with its knot 
set with pearls, completes the list. One of the chalices had belonged to a prior of 
the hospital of St. Thomas of Aeon, who died suddenly in the prebend of Holbom, 
bnt whose name has not been recorded. 

Of phialae, or cruets, of silver, there are seven pairs, beside one, old and 
broken, which has lost its companion. Two of these cruets, which had belonged 
to bishop Eustace de Fauconberge, had been delivered to "William the chaplain, 
and had been stolen, wherefore they should not be included in the Hst. 

Nine censers, some enriched with figures of angels, of silver ; two navieulae, or 
incense-boats, one of silver-gilt, the other with its coclear or spoon ; a silver discus 
or dish, in the form of a salt-cellar, but intended to serve aa an incense-plate ; 
three silver ampullae for oil and chrism, and two ampullae portatiUs, also of silver, 
with chains of the same metal; three poma, or metal balls, one of silver and white 
metal, another of silver-gilt, the first adorned with figures of animals, the third 
with representations of the months; and two crismatorta complete the next section 
of the Inventory. These poma were hollow metal balls so contrived as to be filled 
with burning charcoal or hot water, so that the bishop during the intervals of 
service might warm his hands, and thus the more readily hold the sacred vessels.* 
This convenient instrument was also called calefactorium, calepungnus, and scutum. 
One of these poma had belonged to bishop Eustace de Fauconberge, another to 
Fulke Basset, the bishop then presiding over the see of London, whilst the third 
had belonged to a canon of the church. 

The section headed De Candelabris is, like the last, somewhat miscellaneous. 
It commMices with a pair of portable candelabra of silver, and of ancient work, 
the feet representing dragons ; another pair is ornamented with figures of men 
riding upon lions ; a third pair, smaller, of enameled silver with copper feet, 
serves for the boys at the high altar ; and there is besides a single candelabrum 
of copper covered with silver. A silver pix, for the Holy Eucharist, which foimerly 
hung " ultra majus Altare " ; a silver comb, partly gilt; a silver-gilt cup which 
king Henry had given for the Eucharist, adorned with lions and leopards; a silver 
vase for holy water, of Greek fabric, probably the gift of bishop Richard de 
Belmeis I. ; and a small silver vessel to contain the salt used in baptism and at 

Six pairs of silver badni, basons or dishes, follow. Two are adorned with dragons 
and lions, two with images of St. Peter and St. Paul, one with the figure of a man 

» Dr. Bock, ii. 163. 

Digitized by 


444 Tiw Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Pcml, London. 

holding a book in his hand (possibly an evangelist), another with the effigy of a 
man fighting with a lion (probably Samson), whilst another is gilt within "in 
modnm crucis." 

The following section is of greater interest, as it deals with shrines and relics 
and their cases. First, of course, is the shrine of St. Brkenwald, the sainted 
bishop. It is of wood, covered with plates of silver enriched with imc^es and 
precious stones : of the latter, *' it is said," so the scribe puts it (it is to be 
supposed that the time did not allow of their being counted), there are no less 
than one hundred and thirty. A former dean had fastened to the shrine his gold 
ring, set with a sapphire. It was an example to be largely followed. "Walter de 
Thorp, a canon, gave, in 1319, all his gold rings and jewels, of what sort soever, 
to the shrine ;' king John of France made an oblation of twelve nobles ; and in 
15 Richard II. Richard de Preston, citizen and grocer, presented his famous 
sapphire, of singular virtue for the healing of diseases of the eyes. Special 
indulgences were granted to those who visited the shrine.'" On the two feasts of 
St. Brkenwald, bishop Braybrooke ordered that all the clergy of the diocese vested 
in their copes should repair thither. It was, in fact, the chief place of pilgrimage 
in the cathedral chmvh. 

If of secondary importance, yet still of great interest, was the shrine of 
Mellitus, the companion of St. Augustine and first bishop of London. This also 
was of wood, covered, on the front side only, with plates of silver and with images, 
over which stood an angel of copper-gilt. 

The shrine of St. Erkenwald and that of St. MelUtus stood side by side, 
probably on the beam above the high altar.' It must therefore be concluded 
that the shrine of St. Erkenwald, here described, was not the large structure of 
later years, on which in the reign of Edward III. three goldsmiths laboured for 
a whole year,* but a lesser and portable shrine. Of St. Erkenwald the church 
possessed the entire remains, which were translated in 1148 from the nave to 
*' the east side of the wall above the high altar," to use Dugdale's own words. 
He describes the shrine, and the iron gate which enclosed it. 

A third shrine " supra magnum altare," an ancient shrine, of wood covered 
with silver, contained divers relics, " collectae in diversis collectionibus." 

» Dngdale, 8. Pattl'$, 15. edit. 1818. 
" Dngdale gives copious details abont the slu-itie. 
* " Haec duo sunt collateralia in magno altari." 
' Dngdale, 15. . 

Digitized by 


Ttoo Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 445 

A fourtli, of wood covered with silver-gilt plates, contained a smaller shrine 
of crystal, and within it two ribs of St. Laurence. It cost fifty marcs. 

A fifth shrine, that of bishop Richard, third of that name {Richard de Ely, 
sumamed Fitz Neale), was of wood covered with silver plates well gilt and 
adorned with imitations of carbuncles and sapphires. It is called the shrine of 
the Blessed Virgin, for it contains some of her hair ; and, also, in a little capsole, 
a tooth of St. Vincent. 

The sixth shrine is that of the royal Bthelbert. It is of wood covered with 
silver plates and set with one hundred and thirty precious stones; " so it is said," 
observes the scribe, for, in this case also, he has not ttiken the trouble to count 
them. King Bthelbert was a generous donor to the cathedral church, no less 
than to the Church at large. St. Paul's still holds the manor of Tillingham, 
with which it was endowed by the royal benefactor. 

The seventh shrine, that of bishop William, was entirely of silver, richly gilt, 
with figures in high relief and very beautiful. 

Two large ivory coffers, standing upon the high altar, contain various relics, 
in separate cases ; a third (black) coffer is similarly furnished. 

Of reUcs suflBciently important to be separately specified, there are the arm 
of St. Oswald, covered with silver plates ; an arm of St. Mellitus, also adorned with 
silver plates set with sixteen crystals, and with one stone curiously carved, it was 
probably an antique gem, together with four greater and six lesser stones ; ' an 
arm of St. Osyth, virgin and martyr, holding her head in her hand, the reliquary 
adorned with twenty-two stones and with enamels and pearls ; other bones from 
the arm of St. MeUitus, particularly one which the monks of St. Augustine's abbey 
had presented to bishop Eustace; an ivory pix containing a finger-bone of 
St. Oswald ; a pillow which had belonged to St. Edith ; a staff, perhaps a pastoral 
staff, and a comb, relics of St. Thomas k Becket ; two crosses of crystal ; a 
graceful (gracilis) cross, with the image wholly gilt, adorned with a stone carved 
with the figure of a man, the arms of the cross bearing two amethysts ; a larger 
cross of wood covered with silver plates, ornamented with the not very usual 
subject of the resurrection of Adam ; a small pectoral cross ; two processional 
crosses ; a silver-gilt cross in which are preserved certain relics of the true cross ; 
and ten combs, bring this important section to a close. 

The next division treats of episcopal staves and ornaments mainly. The staff 
of bishop Richard Fitz Neale, enriched with massive silver figures of St. Peter 

' AccoDQt anpplemented from Inventory of 129S. 

Digitized by 


446 Tiffo Inventmies of the cathedral chv/rch of St. Paul, London. 

and St. Paul, and set with amethysts. This staff was at the moment in the hands 
of Thomas of St. Sepulchre's, who waa replacing the wooden portion of the staff, 
which was decayed or broken. Another staff of the same bishop, with a crook 
of horn terminating in a dragon's head, from whose mouth issued a vine 
surrounding the figure of a lion ; the metal here employed was copper-gilt. A 
third staff, which had belonged to bishop William, and which bishop Fulke 
Basset was then using, was of great beauty; it was made of silver and richly 
adorned with figures of the Apostles, of St. Peter and St. Paul, and of the Blessed 
Virgin with bishop William himself kneeling before her. 

Two other staves call for special remark ; the first is the precentor's staff of 
ivory with silver-gilt enrichments, adorned with crystal and with precious stones. 
The second is the haculvs stultorvm. The subject of the Feast of Fools is large 
enough to demand a separate essay ; it must suffice here to refer to a very 
important article on the subject in Henschel's edition of Ducange.* 

Of mitres there are four. The first of white embroidered in purple, 
ornamented both in front and behind with stars and crescents ; in each star is 
a topaz or an almandine, whilst in the circle surrounding the head are golden 
plates pierced with trefoils set with peridots, and tau crosses adorned with gems. 
The mitre was at the time in use by bishop Basset ; it had belonged in time past 
to bishop Eustace, and was enriched with seed-pearls and with larger pearls. 
To these must be added a mitre for the boy bishop, of small value. 

It is a little remarkable that the boy bishop's mitre should have been nullivs 
pretii, for the city of London was specially devoted to the ceremonial of which he 
formed a part. The small parish of St. Peter Cheap had, in 1431, "ij cluldes 
copes for S. Nicholas w* j myter, j tonycle, j cheseble, and iij feble aubes for 
childer, and a crose for the bysshope, p's xl.s." 

At St. Paul's in 1263, the dean, Geoffrey de Feringes, found it necessary to 
pass a statute, regulating in a very minute way the observance of the ancient 
custom.'' He recognises the significance of the rite : " innocens puer Praesulatus 
officio fungeretur, ut sic puer pueris pre-esset, et innocens innocentibus imperaret, 
illius tipum teuens in ecclesia, quem sequuntur innocentes, quooumque ierit." 
But liberty must not degenerate into license. Great irreverence had been caused 

* Under tbe word Kaletidae. 

*> See Part vi. cap. 9, of the etatntes as incorporated by bishop Baldock and dean Lisieox in 
mv SegUtrum Statutonim, Ac. See, especially, the Btatate De Officio Pverarum in Feelo Sajictorvm 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 447 

" propter insolenciam effrenatae multltudinis subsequentes eimdern, et affluentis 
improbonmi turbae pacem Praesulis esturbantis." Care must be taken that the 
higher dignitaries of the church be not brought into ridicule ; the boy bishop must 
not, in future, select his ministers from the canons, major or minor, but only from 
those who sit upon the second or third form. The election of the boy bishop 
takes place on December 5, the eve of St. Nicholas' day. He has two attendant 
chaplains, two taper-bearers, five clerks, and two of the servants of the church 
precede him with their virgae. He sups, after the vespers of St. John, at the 
house of the canon in residence, in whose absence the dean entertains him. If the 
boy bishop goes to the deanery he may take with hioa fifteen companions. Other 
dignitaries entertain other of the choristers in small companies, each not exceeding 
four in number. The dean provides a horse on which the boy bishop rides forth 
to give his benediction to the people ; and each residentiary provides a horse for 
some person who takes part in the procession. They assemble in atrio, and there 
take horse. 

The strange and profane travesty of holy rites which followed need not here 
be detailed ; but at St. Paul's, as elsewhere, the sermon was a great feature in the 
proceedings. So grave and learned a man as dean Colet ordained, in the statutes 
of St. Paul's school, that " all these children shall every Childremas daye come to 
Paulls Churche, and hear the Childe Bishoppes sermon, and after be at highe 
masse, so each of them offre a j ' to the Childe Bishopp, and with the Maisters 
and Surveyours of the Scoole." Erasmus, himself, composed a sermon for the 
boy bishop to deliver. 

The procession was discontinued by proclamation, 25 July, 1542;' but the 
citizens of London did not relinquish it till some years later, and it lingered on in 
country parishes till the reign of Elizabeth. 

But to return to the Inventory. The episcopal sandals and stockings are well 
worthy of notice." One pair of sandals was of red samite, embroidered with 
flowers, whilst the stockings are embroidered with circles containing eagles and 
dragons. Another pair of sandals was of blue samite, and the stockings were 
embroidered with the scallop-shells of St. James and with lions. Pour pairs of 
gloves, of old workmanship, adorned with golden circles, are also enumerated. 

The scribe next takes account De cathed^ et pulvinaribus. Nine chairs are 

' See BrtmA, Popular Antiquities. Bobn's edition, i. 428. 
" Br. Book, ii. 249, 250, figures & good example of each. 
VOL. L. 3 

Digitized by 


448 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

set down. Four of wood, and a fifth of the same material which had belonged to 
the sainted bishop Roger Niger ; three of iron, and one of iron plated with 
silver, and gilded and adorned with human heads, which bishop Baaset, no mean 
judge in such matters, it would seem, was using for himself. In 1295 an iron 
chair with gilded heads and balls was set apart for the precentor's use. A single 
pulmrtar, or cushion, may be noticed, and this only for its use, " ad portandum 

The next section is of very great importance, for it describes, one by one, the 
more valuable copes, of which there are no less than thirty-seven. A few speci- 
mens must be selected. The cope of Alardus the dean, of purple samite (in 1295 
it is said to be of black samite. Had the London atmosphere and forty years of 
time made it become dingy?), embroidered with roses, stars, gladeolis {are these 
the sword of St. Paul?), and crescents, cum taseellis, on which were embroidered St, 
Peter and St. Paul : the morse was of gold. These tasselli ' were sometimes thin 
plates of gold or silver attached to the cope or chasuble, occasionally set with 
sparkling gems. The cope of Richard of Ely was of purple samite, embroidered 
with leopards and flowers interlaced : the morse of silver with massive figures of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, and four angels in the corners. The cope of Peter the 
archdeacon possessed a hood sewn with pearls, on which was inscribed the name 
of the archdeacon : its silver morse, set with precious stones, and in the midst an 
engraved cornelian, whilst the silver-gilt crest of the morse was adorned with 
engraved sapphires. Amongst the precious stones plentifully adorning other 
copes may be mentioned a kamaeu, or sardonyx, engraved with a woman's head; 
lapis qui didtwr presme ; a counterfeit sapphire ; a topaz ; a counterfeit 
presme ; cornelians, onyx, amethyste. The cope of Richard de "Windesore bore 
upon one of its *' tassels " a representation of Windsor castle, and upon the other 
the figure of Richard himself standing at an eagle lectern and reading the gospel 
before a bishop. Upon the "tassels" of the cope of Richard Ruffus were 
depicted the martyrdoms of St. Stephen and St. Thomas. Other subjects are the 
Jesse tree and the scallops of St. James. The colours of the copes are generally 
indicated : of these fifteen are red, eight purple, five black, two white, one green, 
and one yellow. 

Of less precious copes there are forty-four, besides twenty-eight for the boy 
bishop and his train, and for the Feast of Fools, but these are " debiles et con- 

■ Dr. Rock, it 33. " The omanleDte' on the backa of episcopal gloyes, when not done in 
embroidery, bnt made of silver or gold plate, are likewise called tasselli." 

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Two Invmiories of the cathedral chwrch of 8t. Paul, London. 449 

tritae." The colours are not always stated ; so far as they are indicated eleven 
are red, four purple, three black, eight white, four green, and three yellow. 

The morses of the copes next claim attention. That of Alardus the dean was 
of pure gold with an amethyst in the centre, a sapphire and a cornelian on either 
side, together with other stones large and small. The morse of WiUiam the 
bishop was of the same precious metal, set with a sapphire and two cornelians, 
with other sapphires and precious stones. The remaining morses are of silver- 
gilt, and exhibit great variety in design and ornamentation. Two of the simpler 
ones are formed of silver plates upon a wooden core. 

Thirty-four chaavi>le3 are thought worthy of particular description. Their 
special parte are, in some cases, minutely indicated: thus we have the intei- 
hwmerale, the pare anterior, and the pars doraalis, besides the orphreys and the 
tasselli. The embroideries include birds and flowers, the Agnus Dei, swords, lions 
and birds, a tree with branches, SS. Peter, Paul, and Michael. The chasuble of 
Roger the chaplain had an orphrey in the form of the archiepiscopal pall ; that 
of Peter of Blois had the words arckidiacomis London, inscribed upon the tassels ; 
that of bishop Maurice (1086-7 to 1107) had the words Mauritius me fecit frater 
episcopus ; whilst the ornamentation of the chasuble presented by Otho the legate 
had been transferred to a new " foundation." The colours here are in nine cases 
red, in five purple, in two black, in three white, in two green, in three yellow, in 
one blood colour, in two nigra purpurea quasi marmorea, and in one plus croceo 
quam viridi. It may be noted that the pall-shaped orphrey is seen on the back 
of the chasuble of St. Thomas of Canterbury preserved in the cathedral church 
at Sens, figured by Dr. Rock;' and a very similar arrangement appears on 
that of St. Regnobert at Bayeux. 

The following table will show the distribution of colours amongst these 
vestments : 


Ordinuy Copes. 






Purple (indioi colons) 




















Nigra purpurea quasi marmorea 



Plus croceo quam viridi 




Blood colour 




• Oh«rch of Our Falhm, i. 322, 

and fiontispieoe. 


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450 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. PoaiI, London. 

The marble silk mentioned above "had a weft of seTeral colours so woven as 
to make the whole web look like marble stained with a variety of tinta. During 
full three centuries this marble silk found great favour amongst us ; for Henry 
Maohyn in his curious diary tells us how ' the old qwyne of Schottes rod thnight 
London,' and how 'then came the lord tresorer with a 0. gret horsse and ther 
cotes of marbull ' to meet her the 6th of November, 1551." * 

The numerous tunicUs and dalrtiatics scarcely demand separate notice, but the 
vestimenta et eorum pertinentia form a section of considerable import-ance. Some 
of these were evidently of great magnificence, aa, for example, the first enumerated ; 
the vestment of bishop GKlbert embroidered with stars and crescents, on the ends 
of the stole the figures of Abraham and Melchisedek, on the fanon Jacob, on 
the amice the Twelve Apostles. The vestment of bishop Richard was embroidered 
with lions passant and with flowers interlaced, the amice ornamented with rows 
of pearls ; a second vestment of the same prelate was still richer : the Apostles 
(the name of each placed below the figure) appeared in the appcureU, on the stole 
, and maniple similar figures with white faces, at the extremities of the stole 
St. Nicholas and St. Oswald, of the amice St. Erkenwald and St. Edmund, whilst 
the midst of the amice was enriched with pearls and grains of gold. The vestment 
of canon H. de Norhampton was embroidered with lions, flying serpents, eagles, 
and fishes, and the stole with angelic figures, Uriel and Barathiel. On other 
vestments are to be found figures of St. Thomas and St. Paul, St. Erkenwald and 
bishop Richard ; St. Gabriel, St. Michael, Oherubin and Seraphin ; dean Alard'e 
vestment bore the favourite subject of .the Majesty and the Apostles, the stole and 
fanon having similar subjects, and, at the extremities, angels with Httle silver 
bells. These bells"* were, it is probable, not mere representations of bells, but real 
silver bells, like the golden bells on Aaron's robe." On the vestment of "William 
the Hermit appeared the Three Kings, the Blessed Virgin, the Angel, and the 
Shepherds ; and on the amice the Blessed Virgin, St. Peter, and St. Paul. The 
vestment of Geoffrey de Lucy, dean, exhibited in the apparels the figures of two 
bishops and that of St. Paul, whilst the amice bore the less usual subjects of the 
Resurrection and the descent into Hades. 

Of baudekin and silken stufEs there was rich store. The king and queen 
were bountiful givers ; other donors were Thomas of Savoy, count of Flanders, 

• Rock, TexHU Walrict, 76, 77. 

" Dr. Rock, Ckwck of ow FatlivrB, i. 415. 

* Exodna, xxviii. 33. 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paid, London. 451 

who visited London in 1240, Beatrice, countess of Provence, and bishop Fulke 
Basset. One piece had been presented at the funeral of bishop Roger, another 
by the king at the funeral of Alexander Swerford, treasurer, and a third at the 
obsequies of William Joynier, mayor of London in 1239. William Longesp^, 
earl of Salisbury, on his return from the Holy liand in 1242, presented a piece of 
pa/n/rms de areata of red colour embroidered with yellow parrots and trees, and 
queen Eleanor had presented two pieces pro fiXio el filia, probably her eldest son 
and eldest daughter. 

Of cughions and hangings for the choir, of tapestries and veils, there is no need 
to speak in detail ; the velv/m quadragesimale and the velum quod est aide Magnam 
Grucemf that is, the great rood in the nave, alone require special remark. 

The Inventory concludes with a goodly array of hooka. 

A Bible, written in the old English character (veteris Anglicae litterae) 
extending to the prophet Zachariah. On the cover is inscribed the Hebrew 
alphabet and the Greek. 

A second Bible, of similar character but finer, ending with the Book of Job. 
It contained in its first cover the relics which bishop Theodore (that is, in aU 
probability, archbishop Theodore, consecrated in 668) had presented to the 

Another Bible in two volumes (peroptimae litterae) comprised the whole of the 
sacred Scriptures to the end of the Epistle of St. Jude. This is the copy actually 
used in church all the year round. On one of its covers was a record of the 
consecration of Richard de Belmeis as bishop of London by St. Anselm, 26th July, 

A Passionarivm, called Pilosvm from its hairy cover, a book of Homilies, also 
called Pilosimif another book of Homilies called Parvum, a Passionate (de Scotica 
littera), a Benedictionale of bishop William, three books which had belonged to 
Ralph de Diceto, historian and dean, de peroptima littera or de grossiori littera 
(and it is well-known what grand volumes the scriptorium of St. Paul could pro- 
duce), a Benedictionale of bishop Eustace (then in the hands of bishop Basset); 
a Missale of David the chaplain with its noble initial letter, a king seated with a 
diadem upon his head, his vesture of ruby and of azure (probably a figure of king 
David, in allusion to the donor's name) ; a Breviariwm of Henry de Norhampton, 
with a noted antiphonary, magnum et honae litterae, having an initial letter of gold 
with a field of ruby on which is depicted a bearded man bearing a roll, the 

Digitized by 


452 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

prophet Isaiah ; these stand out conspicuously amongst the other ritual books 
-which compose a list of most singular and varied interest. 

They are scattered and dispersed, many destroyed, some no doubt still extant. 
In the cathedral library to-day only one ritual book, a portion of a breviary, 
can with certainty be identified as belonging to the ancient church. There is a 
missal in the British Museum, — and another fine book (not ritual) in the Lambeth 
Library, — both of which should be at St. Paul's, but which, alas, have strayed. In 
Documents illustrating the History of Old 8. Paul's (Camden Society), an attempt 
has been made to exhibit the ancient offices of St. Erkenwald and St. Paul as used 
of old in the cathedral church, but the originals of these have perished, and the 
offices there set forth are taken from a transcript. 

No one can say with any certainty what was the ancient Use of 8. Paul's 
before bishop Clifford issued his mandate directing, with the consent of the dean 
and chapter, that, from the first day of December, 1414, the Divine Office in 
St. Paul's should henceforth be conformable to that of the church of Salisbury for 
all canonical hours both night and day.' Nor can any determine, with precision, 
what was the exact effect of bishop Clifford's mandate. LiturgioHsta have 
laboured, with admirable success, upon the ritual books of Sarum, York, Here- 
ford, Exeter, but the materials seem wanting for similar labours at St. Paul's. 

We do not find in this Inventory, as we do in the later Inventory of 1295, the 
ivory horns mounted in silver-gilt and studded with precious stones,'' like the 
grand horn which once belonged to Charlemagne preserved in the treasury at 
Aix-la-Chapelle : nor an Osculatoriwm nor a Flabellum, although these were to be 
seen in 1298 in the church of St. Faith in the crypt : 

Item iij superaltaria benedicta, vij Osculatoria, et j Muscatorium de pennis 
pavonum " 

A fan of peacocks' feathers would seem more suitable for the sunny south than for 
the colder regions of England,'* and the crypt of the cathedral church seems the 
most unlikely place in which to find it. These super-altars, too, might well have 
been described somewhat fully. It is known that one was of jasper " omatum capsa 
argentea deaurata,"* and that this was dedicated in honour of the Blessed Virgin 

' Dngdftle, 16. » Dugdale, 315. « Dngdale, 336. 

' Dr. Bock fignres sach a flabellum, iii. part 2, 198. 
■ Dngdale, 315, Inventory of 1295. 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 453 

and of all TirginB : whilst anotlier,^ also of jasper enclosed in plates of silver-gilt, 
contained relics of St. Andrew and St. Philip the Apostles, St. Dionysius and St, 
Blaise, martyrs, and a piece of the cross of St. Andrew. St. George's chapel, 
"Windsor castle, was rich in these super-altars, having no less than six — one of 
jasper, one of alabaster, and four of marble. Dr. Bock figures a fine example of 
a super-altar in oriental jasper framed in oak set in silver ; '' though even this 
was less magnificent than the super-altar set in gold amongst the treasures 
of Salisbury cathedral church in 1222. Jet was occaaionally employed in the con- 
struction of sup 
preferred to auj 
Apocalypse, em 
poisons and so 
derives its nam< 
spots in it are 1 
and so on, with 
curious mystica 
It is to be r 
to have visited 

bottom of the page. 

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454 Tujo Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

The foUowmg table will show the distribution of colours amongst 
vestments : — 


























. 27 



Bed mixed with blue 




Diversi coloris 




Colour not named 





Two queens have contributed to this rich collection. Anne of Bohemia pre- 
sented six copes embroidered with golden falcons and with her arms ; and 
Isabella, queen of Richard IT., gave two copes, a chasuble, and two tunicles, of 
red velvet studded with golden angels and her arms. Specially worthy of notice 
must have been a cope powdered with golden letters (videlicet, M) and angels; 
and a chasuble and two tunicles sem^es with the Holy Name Jhesu. But the 
rich gifts of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, take precedence of all othera. 
First come some precious copes of cloth of gold, ornamented with flowers and 
golden crowns, together with a chasuble and two tunicles of the same set ; two 
copes of cloth of gold and red velvet adorned with lions and collars, with a stag 
lying in each collar, the chasuble taid two tunicles of the set are powdered with 
golden leopards ; besides these are two copes and two tunicles of cloth of gold, 
of blue colour sem^es with golden roses and white ostrich feathers ; there are 
fifteen other copes, one chasuble, and two tunicles of the same set, a princely 
gift indeed. John Lynton, formerly chMnberlain, had presented two processional 
banners of silken cloth, of green colour, for Easter, and William of Cologne had 
given a third. • 

Next in order, in the treasury, are arranged the albs, amices, stoles, and fanons, 
some of them folded in covers of canvas. The embroidery is well worth a 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St, Ptml, London. 455 

record. In one case the apparels of the amice exhibit the history of St. Thomas 

Digitized by 


456 Two Inventories of the cafhe&ral church of St. Paul, London. 

with a figure of the Crucified, with St. Mary and St. John, with divers reKcs of 
the Holy Cross ; a cross of crystal for use on Corpus Christi day and for Easter ; 
are all objects of more than usual interest. 

Amongst the mitres that of Simon of Sudbury stands conspicuous, with its 
pearls and precious stones ; nor are gloves and pastoral staves wanting, amongst 
them the precentor's staff of ivory and two little staves for the boy bishop, of 
moderate value. A banner of green silk for the great rood in the Paschal season 
exhibits figures of St. Peter and St. Paul. Then follow pieces of gold cloth laid 
up for future use in chests. It is thought worthy of notice that fifteen pieces of 
gold cloth of Rakemask were divided amongst the dean and four of the canons 
on the 24th of February, 1404, each person having three pieces, and that other 
pieces were laid aside to make chasubles for divere altars in the church. 

Two interesting notes are added : 

After the battle of Shrewsbury, 23rd July, 1403, in which Henry Percy was 
killed, queen Joan of Navarre, the second queen of Henry IV., presented two 
pieces of cloth of gold " sufficientes et boni valoris." Later still, on the death of 
his father, Henry IV. (20 March, 1412-3), his son and successor, Henry V., at the 
funeral presented six cloths of gold of red ground ornamented with golden 

Here ends the second Inventory. The blank leaves of vellum which the 
original scribe had left at the beginning of his work presented a great attraction 
to other writers, and in 1445 two additional Inventories are inserted. 

The first of these is very brief, and relates chiefly to certain altars in the 
church, the most noticeable of which are : the altar at the shrine of St. Erkenwald 
and the altar at the famous crucifix at the north door, the oblations at which in 
two years near the middle of the fourteenth century amounted to 647^. &s. 7d,, 
besides forty-one and a-half florins in gold. The magnificent cross presented by 
cardinal Beaufort, son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, to the chantry 
endowed in his father's memory, receives a brief and passing notice. An extended 
contemporary account of this crucifix, from another manuscript preserved amongst 
the archives, is added at the end of the Inventory. It must have been a superb 
example of the silversmith's art. The purses and money-boxes are esamined, 
and, though not rich in their contents, present several features of interest ; the 
phrases employed, peeunia deaurata, argentum fractum, annuH moniles, have each 
of them their story to tell in reference to the money of the day, Another case 
contained pontifical rings, together with thirteen rings of pure gold, two irwnilia 
of pure gold, and a spoon of jasper with a silver-gilt handle. 

Digitized by 


Tico Lii-entories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. . 457 

The second brief Inventory, taken 7th July, 1445, relates to the Lady chapel. 
Each chapel in tlie cathedral cliurcli had its own furniture, as may be seen more 
fully in the Inventory of 1295 : and probably the richest of these would be the Jjady 
chapel. A few of the most important objects only shall be noted. A round 
crystal colunm containing divers relics, and surmounted by a cross adorned with 
coral ; a pax, una pulcra tabula it is called, for the kiss of peace, set with rubies 
and other stones, and adorned with a figure of the Blessed Virgin seated, holding 
the Holy Child in her left hand and a globe (pomum) in her right ; a little image 
of the Blessed Virgin in ivory, sitting under an ivory tabernacle ; various can- 
delabra and a " Kandilsfcikk " ; an ancient pax of gilt tin, with an image of the 
Crucified with St. Mary and St. John ; another pax of copper-gilt, with a cross 
without a figure in the midst; various vestments, and especially an ancient 
chasuble with a silver cross in the midst, and lions on the one side and " fiowrde- 
lice " on the other ; pulpit-cloths of divers colours. 

The books with which the Inventory draws to a close may not be dismissed 
without a few words : for in addition to the usual missal, gospel and epistle 
books, and the like, are a series of volumes relating to the music of the church. 
There is a roll cum diversis caniicis notatis, two beautiful books (each is described 
as liber pulcker) de organico cantu ; three books de piano cantu; another book de 
cantii organico ; seven books, each described as quatemus, also de organico cantu; 
and another quatemus pro organis ; and two others de plaiw cantu. 

These music-books have the greater interest, because very little is known 
about the early music of the cathedral. In the large volume of the Statutes of 
St. Paul's the organ is mentioned only twice, in 1533-4, and in 1598 : whilst in 
Dugdale's St. Paul's (so far as the index is to be trusted) there is but one solitary 
reference to the instrument,' and [that only to the organ in the modem church. 
The organist was not a statutable officer, and in all probability the singers 
attached to the choir took their places in turn at the organ. This was certainly 
the arrangement in the earl of Northumberland's chapel in the reign of Edward 

The term de piano cantu needs no explanation. It refers, of course, to the 
ancient church music introduced into England by St. Augustine, who had learned 
it from St. Gregory himseU.' Gantus organicus is a more difficult expression. 

» Dngdale, 183. 

" Dr. Rimbftnlt, Old Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal. Introd. iv. 

" For full details, see an article on Plain Soag in Sir George Grove's Viciimary of 
W. S. Rockatro. 


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458 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. JPaul, London. 

Dr. Stainer, the accomplished organist of St. Paul's, supplies a curious example 
of this kind of musical treatment together with a clear definition of it : — 

" Cantus organicus signifies the singing of the Organum, called also Dlaphonia 
and Symphonia. Diaphony was the result of the earhest attempts at harmonizing 
a given melody. It was explained by the monk Hucbald in the tenth century in 
his Musica Enchiriadis. (Gerbertus, Script. Ant.) Guido d'Arezzo in the eleventh 
century gave an account of it, and of the laws which governed it, in his Microhgus, 
defining it aa " vocum disjunctionem quam nos organum vocamus, cum disjunctae 
ab invicem voces et concorditer dissonant et dissonantes concordant." It con- 
sisted of adding a part above a given melody at the interval of a fifth, and another 
below it at the interval of a fourth. The relation of the parts to the melody 
being strictly adhered to, as the melody proceeded there resulted a succession of 
parallel quarts, quints, and octaves, which would be intolerable to modem ears. 
The following is part of an example from Gerbertus, altered to modem notation. 
The middle part is the melody, and was probably sung louder than the parts 
above and below it, which form the whole into an organum." 



-p J- .,3- p — p> -^ ^ 

Singularly harsh and unpleasant as these harmonies are, according to modem 
ideas, they were familiar enough to the worshippers at St. Paul's in the early part 
of the fifteenth century. 

The rich store of vestments recorded in the inventories now for the first time 
printed, when supplemented by those which are enumerated in the inventory of 
1295 (which is somewhat fuller throughout, and much more full in its enumeration 
of the treasures of the separate chapels), sets before the reader a clear and definite 
view of the wealth contained in. the treasury of a great cathedral church in the 
middle of the thirteenth century, and at its close, and at the commencement of the 
fifteenth. It is specially observable that many of the ornaments and vestments 
were, as were also many of the chantries, the gift of the clergy of the church. 
It is easy for ignorant and vulgar minds to speak of the clergy of the time as 
extorting from the laity, under the dread of mysterious penalties, the precious 
gifts and endowments which were so freely given, but at least it must be 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral cMirch nf St. Paul, London. 459 

remembered that the clergy themselves were generous giyers, and the records of 
the treasuries of the cathedral churches may be put in evidence. 

It is possible, after the perusal of such Inventories, to realise such a scene as 
Fox the martyrologist describes, on occasion of the thanksgiving in London for 
the restoration to health of the king of France in 1536.' There was a grand 
procession : the waits and children of grammar schools, with their masters and 
ushers ; the friars and priors with their copes and crosses ; the clerks and priests 
of London in their copes; the monks of Westminster, the canons and clergy of St. 
Paul's, the choir of the cathedral church, the bishop, and the abbots. He estimated 
the number of " gay copes " at seven hundred and fourteen. In a like procession, 
on the feast of the conversion of St. Paul, in 1555, "there were fourscore and ten 
crosses, one hundred and sixty priests and clerkes who had everie one of them 
copes upon their backs." It has been seen already that in 1402 St. Paul's could 
have suppUed 179 copes of its own, if those of different colours could have been 
worn together. 

Or the picture found in The Sguire of Low Degree,^ may be accurately realised : 


vast I 
the e 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 


Whilst preparing this paper for the press, the writer has very carefully collated 
the Inventory of 1295, printed in Dugdale's History of St. Paul's (edit, 1818, pp. 
310-336) with the original manuscript.' It appears in Dugdale's first edition,'' 
but the source from which it is derived is not there stated. In the Monasticon" 
it is said to be taken "Ex cod. MS. penfcs praef. D. et Cap. (B) fol. 42. b." It 
is to be found in Liber. I. preserved amongst the archives of the dean and chapter 
of St. Paul's, where it fills folios 6. fe-23. A portion of the same Inventory is to be 
found in a small quarto volume of twelve leaves, but this transcript ends abruptly 
at the third article under the heading of Troperia.^ 

From the former of these two manuscripts Dugdale printed the copy which 
appears in his first edition of the History; and Sir Henry Ellis in his edition of 
the same work appears to have contented himself with reprinting the Inventory as 
it stood in the first edition without com^paring it with the original. This may 
fairly be inferred from the fact that there are numerous errors common to the 
two copies. A minute and careful collation has now been made between the 
original manuscript and the Inventory as printed in the third edition of Dugdale's 
History, and it may be desirable to place on record some of the more important 
results of that collation. The copyist who made the transcript for the press wa& 
quite indifferent as to the use of mmierals or of the Latin words by which the 
figures are expressed : he writes duo where the MS. has ij, and even in the same 
sentence ij where the MS. has duo. Had he limited himself to such minute 
variations little criticism need be bestowed upon his labours : but there are 
omissions and commissions far more important. A few of these will now be noted* 
p. 310, heading.' 

For in Thesaora S. read in Thesauria Sauncti. 

' I gladly acknowledge the valnabie ftid which, I have received in this collation from my younger 
son, C. Sparrow Simpson, Trin, Coll. Camb, 

■• Folio, Loudon, 1658, The writer is so fortimate as to possess Sir Christopher Wren's own copy 
with his antograph signature. 

• Monastid Angliami volumen tertium ei ultimum. Savoy. 1673. 

• The present press-mark of Liber I. is W.D. 16 ; that of the small quarto MS. is W.D. 3. 

• The references are to Dugdale, Sistary of St. Paul's, edit. Sir H. Ellis. 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 461 

P. 310, col. 2, 1. 8 from bottmn, 

Read Morsus Radulfi de Douniouij argenteus esterius deauratus cum 
lapillis insitis in limbo et quodam castro continente duaa ymagines ponderis 
P. 311, col. 1, 1. 25. Sere insert 

Item duo candelabra cristallina parvula cmn apparatu partim argenteo de 
dono Thome de Bsshewy 
P. 311, col. 1, 1. 7 from bottom. 

For turribus read turril' ; taith which compare thurellis in the following entry. 
P. 311, col. 2, 1. 2, 

For Episcopi read cujuadam Epiacopi. 
P. 312, col. 1, I. 9 from bott&tn. 

For Angeli evenientis read Angeli ©jicientis. 
P. 313, col. 2, 1. 28, 

Bead Lucao . . . omatua in anteriori parte continente ymaginem Majestatis 
et quatuor BvangeUstas de opere piano nigeUato. 
-P. 314, col. 2, after 1. 8 insert . 

Item Brachium Sancti Melliti magnum ornatum platiB et-eexdecem cristalliB 
et anterius continet circuliun tripboriatum et deauratum, qui continet unum 
lapidem sculptum et quatuor alios majorea et vj minorea, et deficiunt quinque. 
P. 317, col. 1, 1. 19, read 

Item capa Magistri Eicardi Ruffi de^ rubeo sameto breudato sagittariia et 

Item iiij capae quae fuerunt Radulpbi de Diceto de rubeo aameto cum 
rotundia pectoraUbus aurifrigiis. 
P. 317 -' ^ ' "^ 

P. 318 

P. 321; 

. . ad mortuoa vetua et auspensum ; assignatur ad reparanda alia. 
P. 321, col. 2, 1. 8, add 

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462 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

P. 323. col. 2, 1. 5. 

For Bradlyng read Braghyngs. 
P. 323, col. 2. 1. 7, 

Bead liberator ad altare Sancti Johannis Bvangelistae, 
P. 324, col. 1, 1. 23 /rom hotUm, 

Read London sicut Rubrica tesfcatur, 
P. 324, col. 1, 1. 20 /ro«i hottmi, 

. . nomine. In primo incipit folio. Domino eancto, est de Romana transla- 
P. 326, col. 2, 1. 13, 

Item Gradale unum bonum, incipit a mbrica . , . 
P. 326, col. 2, 1. 20 from bottom, 

Ortwm prodest, in penultimo folio. 
P. 326, col. 2, 1. nfrombotUm, 

in antepenultimo folio. 
P. 326, col. 2. 1. 11 from bottom, 

Omit Organ, and in jtext line but one read . . . Liber Organorom perpnl- 
clierrimum . . . 
P. 327, col. 2, 1. 15, 

For S. Vitha read Sanota Ositha. 
P. 328. col. 2, 1. 10, 

. . scribitur in oustodia prima . . 
P. 328, col. 2, 1. 5 from bottom, 

. . de dono F. Lovell.' Consumitur similia. 
P. 329. col. 1. 1. 2, 

. . Bdmundi fratris Regis B. 
P. 329, col. 2, 1. 7, 

. . Passemer. de hiis duobus pannis factae snnt duae caps©. 

In the margin of articles 6 to 9 is lontten assignantur ad capas. 
P. 329, col. 2, 1. 20 

. . junioris. de hiis pannis factae smit xj capae. 
P. 330, col. 2, 1. 2, 

For Petri gestantibus read Petri gestantis. 

" That is, Folk Lovell (not C. Lovell, as in Dngdale's text), archdeacon of Colchester, who was 
elected bishop of London on the death of bishop Chishall in 1279-80, but declined to be consecrated. 

Digitized by 


TW Inventoriee of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 463 

P. 332, col. 1, 1. 14, from bottom, 

. . non regulata. Et deficit secundum vestimentum restituendum, ut 
dicituFj per Alexandrum le Porter. 
P. 332, col. 2, 1. 12 from bottwn* 

. . marcae, quaa dictus Kobertus de Dodyngton percipit per manus Decani 
qui pro tempore fuerit. 
P. 333, col. 2, 1. .12/roOT bottom. 

For oblationes read oblatas. 
P. 334, col. 2, 1. 10 from bottom. 

For Fauconbridge read Faucumberge. 

P. 336. At tbe end of this page might ^ 

in the original manuBcript,' which n 

ceded it. S. Gregory's church tone 

abutting against the south aisle of tl 

Inventarinm Omamentonun in ecclesia 

Jovis proximo post festmn purificationis beatae Virginis anno domini millesimo 
cc° nonagesimo octavo. 

j. calix argenteus cum patena intns deauratus et in parte extra ponderia x eol. 
Item j. cuppa de cupro deauratus in qua ponitur eukaristia in bursa de serico 

Item j. crismatorium cum distinctis subseparalibus. 
Item ij. phialae stagneae. Item j. pelvis cuprea de amal et j. pixis lignea ad 

Item j. thup 
Item j. crux 
Item duae c. 
Item iij. osc 
Item j. vas' 

Item iij. paUae benedictae quarum duae cum pamris et j. manutergium ad 


Digitized by 


464 Two Inventories of ike cathedral church of St. PoaiI, London. 

Item duo frontalia ad majuB altare de pal vetusto. 

Item imum vestimentum principale cum paruris de pal et amictis cum paruris 

breudatis cum avibus et leonibus in rotellis cum stola et manipula de pal et 

cafiula de rubea sameto aurifrig. 
Item aliud veatimentum dominicale cum casula et parura et stola et mtmipula 

de pal. 
Item una alba cum parurb de pal et amictus cum paruria de pal cum stola et 

manipula de file contezta. 
Item ij corporalia in duabus capsis de pal. Item tunica et dalmatica de pal. 
Item unum missale vetus de veteri nota. Item manuale bonum et plenare. 
Item unum antiplionarium cum psalterio capitulario collectario et ympnario plenare 

Item aliud antiplionarium cum psalterio veteri. Item ij. legendae distinctae et 

temporale et commune Sanctorum. 
Item j. graduale bonum cum tropario bene notatum. Item aliud graduale oum 

troperio veteri. 
Item ij. cistae cum seruris. Item ij tintinabola ad elevationem corporis Christi. 
Item leotrina et sedilia sufficientia in Cancello. 


Bescrvptio vaaorwm wu/reorum et argenteorvm, Librorum, Caparum, Tvmccvnum, Dalma- 
ticarvmi, vestvmentorum, Pannorum de serico Theeamrariae ecdesiae Sa/ncU Pcmli 
London', facta in CTOstino sancti Bartholomaei Apostoli, cmno graMae M^GCzl, 
Qitinto, per Henricwm de Gomhille, Decanvm ; Tunc ibi prmentihm Alexandra 
Thesawario, Magistro Boberto de Barton, Johanne de Bulemere, Ganonids.^ 

Et primo De vasis awreis et argenteis. 

Calix de auro qui fuit ut dicitur Alardi Decani," ponderat cum patena xxxv. 
Bol. z.d. In patena sculpta est ymago Majestatis, et in pede calicis apponuntur 

» Henry de Comhill, dean, 1243-54 ; Alexander, probably S-werford, be died in 1246; Robert de 
Barton, prebendary of Willesdon, precentor 1246, dean 1256-9 ; J. de Bulemere, prebendary of 

" Alard de Bnmbam sacueeded Ralph de Diceto as dean. He died in 1216. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 465 

Oalix de auro, qui fait ut dicitur Robert! de Clifford:,' ponderat ciim patena 
xxv. sol. iiij. d. Planus est undique, et sine opere trifuriali. In patena manus 
Domini benedicentis est insculpta. 

Caliz tercius de auro ponderat cum patena xlij. sol. & j. d. In patena sculpta 
est manus benedicentis, campo undique circa manum minutis stellis stellate. 

Oalix de auro, quern dedit "Willelmus de Briwera," ponderat cum patena Ixvj. 
sol. viij. d. Planus est undique, et sine opere trifario. In ejus pede inscisis litteris 
scribitnr nomen donatoris. In patena sculpitur manus benedicentis, ex uno latere 
Stella, ex altero luna. 

Oalix argenti deauratus, qui fuit ut dicitur Magiatri Roberti Capellani, ponderat 
cum patena Uj. sol. ix. d. In oujus pede levantur opere levato fiores glageoli.' 
In patena sculpitur jmago Trinitatis Integra. In uno latere capitis Stella, in 
altero luna. 

Calix argenti deauratus, qui dicitur fuisse Magistri Heurici de Norhamton',^ 
ponderat cum patena 1. sol. Pes ejus fiorigeratur quadam gravatura. In patena 
sculpitiir ymago Trinitatis Integra sedens super archum. 

Calix argenteus intus et extra deauratus, planus undique, et sine onmi grava- 
tura vel sculptura in patena, ponderat cum patena xxvij a. ij. d. 

Calix bene deauratus interius et exterius, in cujus pede et nodo sunt gravaturae, 
et in patena in limbis florata sculpitur ymago super archtmi sedens, ponderat cam 
patena xxvj. sol. viij. d. 

Calix argenteus parvus deauratus intus et extra undique planus, in cujus P. 6, col, 1. 
patena sculpitur manus benedicentis, ponderat cum patena xviij. sol. 

Digitized by 


466 Two Inventories of ike cathedral chm'ch of St. Pwal, London. 

Calix magnus et undique deauratus quo deserviebatur in altari Sanotae 
Radegundae, ponderabat liij. sol. Tj. d. Furatus fuit ibidem, et de bonis habentis 
illud altare inventis fuit emptus calix ponderis xx. sol. iiij. d., in cujos pede sculp- 
untur scalopae Sanoti Jacobi et in patena Agnus Dei. Liberatur ad illud altare 

Caliz Graecus sine patena et de G-raeco trifurio, ponderat cum calamo vj. li. 

Calix argenteus undique deauratus, quem dedit Bicardus yicarius de Bello 
Campo ; planus est undique ; habet patenam deauratam tenuem cum Agno Dei 
insculptam ; ponderat xx. s. T. d. 

Calix planus deauratus undique, et nodo piano, cum manu benedicentis in 
patena, ponderat xxv. solid, d. [sic]. 

Calix auri, qui fuit H. de Wyngam, episcopi,' ponderat xlviij. sol. & iiij. d., 
omatus est cum aymalo '' et cum margaritis in pomello. 

De Phialis argenteis. 

Phialae duae argenteae albae ponderant xv.s. vj.d., quarum una habet circulum 
deauratum in medio vineatum. 

Phialae duae, quae fuerunt Roberti de Clifford, ponderant xiij. sol. & iiij.d., 
quarum una est tota deaurata et veteris operis sculpta ymaginibus, alia [sic J. 

Phialae duae Alardi Decani ponderant xix. sol. vj. d., quarum una est tota 
deaurata, altera alba. 

Phialae quatuor novae et de novo factae per "W. Heremitam ° de quibusdam 
aliis veteribus, quae oonsueverunt computari in compotis precedentibus ; albae 
sunt, et sine cooperoulis; ponderant xxvj. s. ij. d. 

Phiala una, sine pari, vetus et oonfracta, ponderat vj. s. 

Phialae duae quae fuerunt Eustachii Bpiscopi,* quarum una alba, altera tota 
deaurata; ponderabant viij. s. ; traditae fuerunt Willelmo Capellano, et furatae, 
unde non computantur in Thesauraria. 

Phialae duae Willielmi Episcopi,* quarum una est deaurata, tota altera alba ; 
ponderaut xj. solid, viij. d. 

' Henry de Wingbam, chancellor of Englaad, bishop of London 1259-60 to 1262. I am unable 
to explain the fact of his being styled Bishop in this document. 

'' Aymalo, enamel. 

* William the Hermit, or Eremita, was prebendary of Portpoole in 1226 and 1267. Le Neve. 

'' Enstace de Fanconberge, treasurer of the Exchequer, bishop of London, 1221-8. 

" Probably William of St. Mary's chnrch, snccessively dean of St. Martin's, dean of St. Paul'fi, 
and bishop of London 1199-1221. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 467 

De Thuribulis et Pomis argenteis, Naviculis, Ampullis ad Oleum et Criema. 

Thuribulum magnum album argenteum augelis levatiB iusculptum, cum 
scutella aeris imposita, ponderat c. solid. 

Thuribulum aliud magnum argenteum et album conaimile alteri in opere et 
forma, ponderat cum scutella sua iiij. lb. xiij. a. & iiij. d. 

Thuribulum quod dicitur 0. de Camera,* album, sed in limbie deauratum cum 
casitis desuper deauratis, ponderat per ee sine scutella xxxviij. sol. 

Thuribulum, cujos coopertorium angeUs sculpitur album, ponderat cum scu- 
tella aeris iiij" mar.' iij. sol. iiij. d. 

Thuribulum parvum deauratum totum, quod fuit Badulfi de Sancto Benedicto 
ponderat sine scutella xxiiij. s. 

Thuribuliun deauratum cum coopertorio trifuriato opere, ponderat Iiij. sohd. 
iiij. d. cum scutella cupri. 

Thuribulum Eustachii episcopi, ponderat ixvj. sol. yiij. d. Rogerus Episcopus 
habuit. Modo. F. Episcopo.'' [Modo Philippus frater suus.] " 

Navicula'' alba argentea in limbis deaurata a 

Navicula alia, quae fuit Eustachii Episcopi, c 

Discus argenteuB, ad modum salsarii, deputat 
X. B. & TJ. d. 

Pomum, quod fuit Johannis de Sancto Laurentio, argenteum et album, cum 
scutella, ponderat xiij. sol. & x. d. 

Pomum, quod fuit Eustachii episcopi, argenteum deauratum omn botris' 
rotundis fabricatum bestiis in eisdem soulptis, ponderat cum scutella xtj, sol. 
viii. d. 

Digitized by 


468 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

• Thuribulum magnum, de dono Hemrioi Capellani, ponderat c. sol. 

• Turribulum Bpiscopi H. de "Wyngam" totum deauratum ponderat c. ij. sol. 

• Pomum Domini F. episcopi," inscultum menBibus anni deauratis, ponderat 
zij. sol. 

Crismatorium Gilberti episcopi" interius ligneum est coopertum exterius foliis 
argenteis cum ymagiuibuB elevatis. 

Criamatoriimi Bustachii episcopi'' argenteum ponderat xviij. sol. Bpiscopus 
F. habet." 

Be Gandelahris. 

Candelabra duo portabilia argentea antiqua, pedibus draconibus insculptis 
triforiatis, ponderant vij. lb. 

Candelabra duo, quae fuerunt Magistri R. de Storteford,' opere triforia, 
operata Bunt cum hominibus leones equitantibus ; ponderant iiij. lb. xiij. b. iiij. d. 

Candelabra duo curtioria argentea undique neelata' cum pedibus planis cupro 
pedibuB inclavato ad efForciandum, ponderant cum cupro o. b. Hiis deservitur ad 
altare majus a pueriB. 

Candelabrum unum cuprinum particulariter argento coopertum. 

Fixis argentea cocleareata ad Bucharistiam, aliquando Buspensa ultra majus 
altare, ponderant ij. mar. & t. d. cum nodis neelatis. Ft alia quaedam argentea 
ponderat ixxyij. s. ij. d. 

Pecten argenteus'' in medio deauratus cum gravatura dentibuB albis, ponderat 
ix. B. 

Cuppa argentea deaurata imdique, quam dedit Rex Henricus' ad euchariatiam, 
cum leonibuB et leopardis, node et pomello bene operate, cum cathena argentea, 
ponderat o. iij. sol. & x. d. ; [et tercia argentea ciun Uteris in coopertorio, ponderat 
xiiij. 8.] ^ 

• These entries are made by another hand at the foot of a column. 

» Henry de Wingham, vt supra. ^ Fnlke Bassett, t(t tupra. 

■ Gilbert Foliot, bishop of London, 1163-II67, 8. ' Enstace de Fanconberge. ■ Fnlke Baesett. 
' Richard de Stortford appears as chancellor of St. Paul's in 1184. He held the pi-ebend of 

• Neelata, ornamented with niello. 

" Inter ministeria sacra recensetnr qno scilicet Sacerdotes ac Glerici anteqoam in Ecclesiam 
pFooederent, crines pecterent. Dncange. 

' Perhaps Henry III., who was in the 29th year of his reign when this Inventory was taken. 
J The words within brackets are added by anothei- hand. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral chwck of St. Pavl, London. 469 

Vas ad aquam benedictam cum ansa est argenteiun totum opere Graeco fabrica- 
tum cum' ymaginibuB et litteris designantibus soulpturam; ponderat viij.mar. 
iiij. 8. ; ut dicitur, de dono Ricardi Bpiscopi." 

• Parvum vas argenteum ad eal benedicendum, ponderat v. 8. 

De Bacinis argenteis. 

Bacini duo albi et magui circulo fundi deaurato draconibus et leonibus connexis 
insculptis, ponderant vij. mar. & iij. s. iiij. d, 

Bacini duo albi similiter cum argento apposito de novo facti, ponderant xlij. s. 
vj. d. ; efc in fundo insculpuntur janaginea beati Petri et Pauli. 

Bacini J. de Sancto Laurentio"" albi e 
uno sculpitur homo tenens librum in man' 

Bacini dao albi cum limbis deauratis, 
Cycestrensis Episcopus, ponderant Ixsviij 

• Bacini ij" A. Tesaurarii" cum p. et p. ^ _,.^. -_j- _- 

• Bacini ii" episcopi F./ intus deaurati in modum crucis, ponderant iiij. librae 
iiij. 8. iiij. d. 

De Feretris, Brachiis, Philateriis,' el Thecis, argenteis et ebumeis. 
Feretrum beati Brkenwaldi' est interius Hgneum extra coopertum platis 
argenteis cum ymaginibus et lapidibus. Est autem summa lapidum, ut dicitur, 
0. et XXX. Postmodum inclavavit in eo G-. Decanua' anulum aureum cum aaphyro.'' 
Ad duo capita feretri ejusdem apponuntur duo angeli argentei cum brochis ferreis ; 
ponderant Ix. solid. 

Digitized by 


470 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

Feretrum quod dicitur Sancti Melliti * totum ligneum, fronte solum cooperto 
platis argenteis et ymaginibus, cui impoiiitur angelus de cupro totus deauratus, et 
haec duo sunt collateralia in magno altari. 

Feretrum supra magnum altare ligneum est et vetus, et coopertum albo argento 
undique, in quo sunt diversae reliquae collectae ex diversis coUectionibus. 

Feretrum Sancti Laurentii portatile est et ligneum, coopertum undique platis 
argenteis bene deauratis cum ymaginibus levati operis, cujus pomelli sunt ad modum 
pomorum pinei superius florigerati. In eo continetnr feretrum totum cristallinum 
bene preparatum creata argentea et angularibus argenteis bene deauratis, inpositis 
lapidibus preciosis scnlptis ; in quo reponuntur duae costae Sancti Laurentii ; quod 
quidem feretrum comparavit 0. de Wesliam pro 1. mar. 

Feretrum Ricta^ Episcopi tereii" ligneum est et coopertum platis argenteis bene 
deauratis, et addubbatum' lapidibus contrafactis ad similitudinem carbunculorum 
et sapbyrorum ; et dicitur feretum Beatae "Virginis propter capiUos ejusdem in eo 
repositos. In eodem reponitur parvissima capsula auri, in qua reponitur dens 
Sancti Yincentii. Est autem capsula longitudinis pollicis et dimidii. 

Feretrum Sancti Bthelberti^ ligneum totum platis argenteis coopertum cum 
lapidibus preciosis, capsulis, lapidibus deauratis ; dicitur habere c. et xxx. lapides. 

Feretrum WiUielmi Episcopi totum est argenteum massicum sine ligno,' exterius 
bene deauratum cmn ymaginibus bene levatis ; perpulcbrum est. 

Cofri duo ebumei magni et lati stantea supra magni altare, in quibus reponuntur 
reliquiae cum parrulis tbecis in illis contends. 

Cofnim nigrum, quod dicitur fuisae Gilberti episcopi, in quo similiter reponim- 
tur reliquiae. 

Brachium Sancti Oswaldi coopertum foliia argenteis, praeter mannm. 

Brachium Sancti Melliti coopertum similiter foliis argenteis. 

* Mellitas, the companion of St. Angnetine and first bishop of London. 

" Ricardi Episcopi ten;ii. Richard de Ely, anmamed FitzNeale, bishop of London 1189-1198. 

<= Addnbbatnm: » vevj favourite "word 'with this scribe. Cf. addonbed, armed or acoontred. 
Adonber, old French. See Naree, who qnotee an illnstratiTe passage from Sidn^'s Arcadia. See 
also Halliwell. 

' King Ethelbert was a great benefactor to the cathedral church. He gave to it the manor of 
Tillingham, which is still in the hands of the dean and chapter. 

■ Bishop William, the king's chaplain was consecrated in lOftl ; was present at the Council of 
London in 1075 ; and, djing shortly afterwards, was buried in the cathedral chnrch. Probably he 
is the bishop whose shrine is here described. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8i. Paul, London. 471 

Brachiam Sanctae Osithae, cujus nmnus tenet caput virginis, conaimiliter foliis 
argenteis coopertum. 

Item brachium Sancti Melliti parvum, quod dedit Bustachius episcopus, con- 
similiter argento coopertum. In quo reposuit os de brachio Sancti Melliti, quod 
ei dederunt Monachi Sancti Augustini. 

Pixis ebumea aliquantulmn magna, in qua reponitur os digiti Sancti Oswaldi, 
et alia parvula, in qua nichil reponitur. 

Cruces duae criatallinae, quarum una ponitur aliquando super feretrom Sancti 
Erkenwaldi, alia in quodam armariolo. 

Auricularium ' Sam 


Crux gracilis, quae 
cum yconia tota deau 
aculpitur ymago bomin 
duo bracbia duo amatis 
circulate lapidibus. 

Crux major ligne 
yconia. In cujus patil 
Adam surgens a sepu 
et comeliniis. Parva i 
suspensibilis ad collum 

Cruces duae portati 
bus argenteis ante et r< 

Item crux argentea deaurata undique in qua reponuntur reliquiae crucis, et 
omatur lapidibus minutis, et v. grossioribus, per iiij'"' partes crucis, et alamandina * 

Digitized by 


472 Ihoo Inventories of the cathedral chirch of St. Paul, London. 

Memorandum, qaod omnia philateria et bursae, in quibus olim dependebaut 
reliquiae, reponuntur in tliecis et consignantur. 

Sei peotines ebumei, tres spiasi et magni, tres tenues et uauales, et quatuor 
pectines de novo. 

De Baatlis et Omamentis Episcopalihus, 

Baculus' Ricardi Bpiscopi tercii, cujus cambuca" de argento massitio,' bene 
deauratuB, oujus revolutio termiuatur in angelum. In medio sculpuntur ymagines 
maesitiae apostolonim Petri et Pauli. Pomellum bene sculpitur cum fioribua 
consolide minoribus et cimi lapidibus amatistis. Baculos fuit per peoiaa cum 
circulis deauratis. Modo habet Tbomas de Sanoto Sepulobro ad apponendum 
novum lignum integrum. 

BaculuB alius ejuadem, cujus cambuca est de comu, revolutione tenninante in 
caput draconis, a quo exit vinea cirouens leonem. Flos totus deauratus, et vinea 
est de cupro. Pomellum de oupro bene incisum et deauratum, sub quo est quaedam 
indentura de comu et de cupro. 

Baculus, cujus cambuca tota est de cupro cum pomello bene operate grosso 
opere leonum et serpentium. 

Baculus, cujus cambuca est de comu veteri, oujus revoculo " terminatur in 
capud draconis, a quo ezit vinea deaurata spissa et massitia cum ymaginibus 
hominum. Pomellum de cupro bene incisum. 

Baculi duo, quorum cambucae sunt de ebore, et pomellum. 

Baculus stultorum * est de ebore et sine cambuca, cum pomello de ebore subtus 
indentatus ebore et comu. 

^ [Hie Ba]cnliisacomo[daT]it abba[tis8a] Romeeseye [et te]net earn. Sed .... Badnlfna 
de . . . ho pronuBit . . . de Temm , , . nr. Et ia . . . lo. This note is by a later hand. 

i> Cambnca, or cambnta : bacalna mcnrratas, vii^ pastoralis Episcopomm. Dooange. 

< Maasitio ; probably the same as macisene, solidng. lb. 

^ Bevocalo s probably an error for rwolulio. 

* BacnloB Staltomm : 

An important article on the Episct^og Staltomm will be found in Dacang^ (Honschel'a 
edition) under the word Kalendae. "Festnm Hypodiaoonomm, quod vocamas Stnltomm, a qnibnsdam 
perficitnr in Gircnmcisione, a qnibnsdam veio in Epiphania vol in ejne octavia. linnt antem 
qoatnor tripndia post Katiritatem Domini in Eoolesia, Levit^oim scilicet, Sacerdotnm, Pn^«mm, 
id est, minomm aetate et ordine, et Hjpodiaoonomm, qni ordo incertns est." For centuries the dis- 
jrepntable rites of the feast, in which the holiest offices and orders were made matters of the lififhteet 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral ckv/rch of St, Pa/ul, London. 473 

Baculus cantoriB ' est totus de peoiis ebomeis, omn oirculis argenteis deauratis, 
et cum pomello argenteo deaurato, et ornato omn lapidibus. Podimn est de 
oristallo cum lapidibus.*" 

Baculus Episcopi Willelmi totus de argento omn nodo concavo oum ymaginibus 
apostolorum in cambuca, ymaginibus Petri et Pauli ex altera partem ymagine 
Beate Virginis, genu flectente episoopo. Episcopus F. babet. 

Mitra de alba purpura breudata stellis et lunulis ante et retro. In Btelbs 
utrinque sunt topatii et almandine. In circulo inleriori sunt quasi bisantii tri- 
phuriati cum lapidibus peridotis," et similiter thau oum lapidibus. 

Mitra alia nova alba addubbata aurifrigio, plana est; quam dedit J. Belemains'' 
episcopo innocentum.' 

Mitra Eustaohii episoopi bene addubbata, acommodata Episcopo F. ; et est de 
perulis et margaritis albis.' 

jesting, found farour with all sorts and conditions of men ; and it was not abolished until after long 
and strennoDs efforts had been made for its sappression. 

In the Abb^ Migne's Diotionnaire de» Mytteres (F£te des Fons), an aoconnt is given of the 
establishment of a sort of FSte des Fons at St. Sophia by " Thtophylacte fils de I'empereiir, nomm^ 
patriarche de Sainte- Sophie k peine encore &g6 de seize ans : — 

" C'est k ce patriarche, dit C4dr4nitB, qne r 
sabstitner dans les pins grandes f^tes et les pine 
Tontrage de chansons ind4ceates, de rires et de c 
offrir k Diea ponr notre saint. Ce pontife n 
Eathj-mios & lenr tdte, fit de cet homme le gardii 
danses diaboliqnes, des cris infemanx et dee cham 

Some remains 
actn&llf a law-enit ' 
the fSte. The offid 

Dncange does I 
snb-deacons only ti 
ad literam, ni^urt X 

• The precento 
Dr. Lee's Olosiary t 

>> . . . d's Dun 
note i-^ -'-*—•- — 

of hi 
note t 

Digitized by 


474 . Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Pa/ul, London. 

Mitra episcopi innocentum, nullius precii. 

Mitra alba cum aurifrigio Tineato et floribus lappanim." 

Sandalia et caligae de rubeo samito satis bono et novo, cujua caligae sunt breu- 
datae circuliB interins continentes aquilas et dracones interius forratae croceali 
Tiridi sendato. Sandalia sunt breudata aliis floribus furrata indico sendato cum 
semellis'' de coreo. 

Sandalia alia de indico samito, cujus caligse sunt breudatae scalopis S^icti 
Jacobi et leonibus, furratae rubeo sendato, et omatae aurifrigio. Sotulares" breu- 
da'.ae sine semellis* floribus sine semellis. 

Sandalia, duo sine caligis furrata rubeo sendato, et breudata lunulis et vineia. 

Quatuor paria cyrotecarum antiquarum addubbata ciroulis deauratis. 

Supra continentur Calices aurei et argentei cum patenis, Phialae argenteae, 
Thuribula argentea, Poma, Naviculae, Ampullae argenteae, Crismatoria, Candelebra, 
Bacini argentei, Feretra, Bracbia, Philateria, Theeae argenteae et ebumeae, Cofri, 
Cruces, Pectines, Baculi, et Omamenta Episcopalia. [Sed aliapostmodum inventa 
de consimilibus scribuntur in ultimo folio.'] 

De Cathedria et Pulvvnaribm.^ 

Quatuor cathedrae bgneae depictae, quintaferrea, quae est apud Sanctam Rade- 

Duae ferreae de dono G. de Lucy,'' Decani, et ima lignea, quae fuit episcopi 

Item, una ferrea deargentata cum capitibus humanis et deauratis, quam epis- 
copus F. habet. 

Pulvinar ad textum portandum de opere sartacinito aUquantulnm vetus in quo 
Bcribuntur WUlelmus et Albreda. 

Pulvinar novum, totum consutum nodis de serico, quod fuit Mauricii de 

* Lappa; cardni speoiee, a thistle. DunAttge, > Semella, the sole. Fr. Semelle. 

" Sotnlares, sabtalarea, shoes, Fr. 8<mliers. ' The dotted words were intended to be omitted. 
" The words within brackets are added by ajiotber band. ' Pnlvinar, a cnshion or pillow. 
' That is, in the chapel of St. RadE^nnd. 

'' Geoffrey de Lncy, dean of St. Panl's, died 1241. ' Roger Niger, bishop. 

' Maurice de Herlawe, or Herla, prebendary of Twyford in 1216. His obit was observed on 
Angnst 17. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the eathsdral church of St. Paul, Londo7i. 475 

Quatuor pulvinaria cooperta panno serico satis adhuc utilia. 

Falvinar immu de sendato exterius cooperttuu panno lineo perforato. 

Tria alia uno et eodem pallio cooperta, inveterata, et necessario emendanda. 

Duo meliora confracta et similiter emendanda. 

Pulvinar magnum de samite rubeo, quod fuit beati Hugonis, satis novum. 

Duo aUa inveterata ad ponendum super sedilia, cooperta veteri panno de serico; 
unum coopertum panno Katalonico. 

Item unum pulvinar de dono G. de Lucy, Decani, sed coopertum panno serico, 
quern dedit Lodowicus. 

Item aliud quondam Rogeri Bpiscopi, cum aquilis expansis. 

De Capis aericis magis preciosis. 

Capa, qiiae dicitur Alardi Decani,' est 
stellis, et gladeolis, et lunulis, cum tassellis, i 
et Sanctus Paulus. Ad banc capam pertinet 

Capa ejiisdem alia de rubeo samito, p' 

Capa, quae dicitur Ricardi 
leopardis et floribus intemodatis 
ymaginibus Petri et Pauli massi' 

Capa Magistri Ricardi de 
grifEonibus, et volucribus, cum t 

Capa ejusdem altera de rub 



Digitized by 


476 Two Inventories of the cathedral cliv/rch of St. Pa/ul, London. 

Capa quae dicitur Q-. Decaui, purpurea, cum prophetis et lutiis et vineis bene 
breudata. Habet moreum, ut dicetur inferius. 

CapaG. de "Weseham' de rubeo eamito, bene breudata Jesse et stirpe per 
totum, et Apostolis in anteriori parte, et Crucifixo, [cum morso affixo.]** 

Capa, quae dicitur Magistri H. de Norhampton'," est de rubeo eamito, breudata 
scalopis Sancti Jacobi, cum morsu sibi coliaerente argenteo, in quo est lapis qui 
dicitur Kamacu,'' in quo inciditur capud mulieris. 

Capa, quae dicitur Roberti de Clifford,* est de spisso panno cum tassellis breu- 
datis et morsu cohaerente trifuriato, in quo est lapis qui dicitur Presme/ 

Capa de rubeo saniito, breudata cum bisantiis et gladeolis, cum morsu argenteo 
oblongo deaurato, duabus suagiis concavis non deauratis collateralibus. 

Capa, quae dicitur [sic] de purpura plana, breudata cum angelis portantibus 
thuribula et prophetis, cum morsu argenteo connexo oblongo deaurato ; in cujus 
medio est saphyrus contrafactus ; dicitur fuisse "Willelmi de Norhall*,' Episcopi. 

Capa, quae fuit E. Juvenis, consimilis est per omnia precedent!, sed cum mown 
latiori ; in cujus medio ponitur thopazius. 

Capa Ricardi de "Windlesor"" vetus consimilis eat precedenti, sed juxta auri, 
frigium scripturae sub mento manua cum clavibus breudantur.' 

Capa ejusdem alia est de rubeo samito plana, cum tassellis quadratis et latis ; 
in quorum uno breudatur castrum de Windleaor* ; in alio Eicardus legens evange- 
lium super aquilam ante episcopum. 

Capa quae dicitur magistri Eogeri capellani ^ est de albo samito in anterioribus 
limbis angelis breudatis cum thuribulis. Fulverizatur tota bisantiis breudatis. 
Habet morsum connexum de piano sine gradibus, in cujus medio est presme con- 

Capa magistri Eioardi Ruffi ' est de rubeo samito, breudata sagittariis, cum 
tassellis, iu quorum uno martirizatur Stephanus, in alio Thomas, Haec habet 

* Godfrey de Weeenham, canon in 1243. 

" The words within brackets are added by another hand. • Heniy de N'orhampton. 

A Kamacn : Samahntos, a sardonyx. 
' Bobert de Clifford, prebendaiy of Portpoole in 1192. 
' Presme : see note on page 87. 

> William de Norhall, bishop of Woroestoi-, held the stall of Neaedon iu 1177, when he was 
archdeacon of Gloncester. 

" Richard de Windesore held the stall of Oxgate in 1192. 

i leta po[nitiir] in emeiid&[tionem] alianun. This note is by another hand. 

* Roger the chaplain ; his obit was observed on November 16. 

' Richard Rnffns, archdeacon of Essex 1142-62 ; his obit was observed on January 18. 

Digitized by 


Ihoo Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 477 

Digitized by 


478 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Pa/al, London. 

albo diaspero, opere trifario mirabiliter in ipso panno contexto quasi in orbiculMibus. 
Nova est et bona addubbata mediocri aurifrigio. 

Capa de rubeo samite, quam dedit magister R. de Wendover,' nova est ; habet 
morsum oblongum ; in cujus medio est Onicliinus rotimdus, cum crista argentea 
deaurata, cum thurcliesiis et gravatis.'' 

Capa Rogeri Episcopi de rubeo samito, bene breudato cum steUis et rosis et 

Capa de samito croceo, quam dedit P. Wintoniensis Bpiscopus," tota plana est 
et nova. 

De Gapia minus predosis, 

Capa,*" quae dicitur archidiaconi Nicholai, est de albo sameto piano, cum taaseUo 
pectorali quadrato contexto margaritis albis et viridibus contrafactis* et filo auri 
in orbicularibus pure et tracto contexto. 

Capa alia ejuadem vetus est de panno serico ut dicitur imperiali cum pavonibus 
et arboribus contexto. 

Capa Roberti de CKfford' est de imperiali ' cum leonibua sine morsu. 

Capa de indico sameto aliquantulum vetus breudata laciatura cum leonibus in 
orbicularibus cum morsu consimili superiori morsui H. de Norhamton'; sed ubi 
fuit Kamacu appositus est modo lapis rubeus dublettus.' 

Capa alia indica tota plana et vetus sine morsu, sed addubbata aurifrigio cum 
tassellis de filo auro tracto. 

Capa quae dicitur Eadulfi de Alta Ripa est de sameto rubeo piano cum 
tassellis purpura breudatis. 

Capa quae dicitur Magistri Nicholai est nigra tota plana cum tassellis parvis 
juxta aperturam sub mento gladeolata magnis gladeolis. 

Capae tres quae fuerunt Osberti de Camera, quarom duae sunt de croceo sameto 
et sine tassellis plana©. Tercia de rubeo sameto cum tassellis de purpura breudatis 
cum angelis. 

Capa quae dicitur Alexandri de Sakevile'' est de sameto rubeo piano sine 
tassellis, sed atacbiata est de minutis perils. 

* Bichitrd de Wendover died in 1252* Prebendar; of Neasdon. 
" CouTertitnr in alios nsns. Note b^ another hand. 

" P. Winton : probably Peter de Rnpibns, Sir Pierre dee Roches, knight, consecrated at Borne, 
bishop of Wincheetei- in 1205 ; he died 123S. 

^ Modo inde casnla. Added in the margin by a later hand. 

" Contrafactns : fictos, snpposititios. 

' Imperiali: see note on page 47. ■Dnblettms: a doublet. 

" Alexander de Sackville, prebendary of Cadington Major, about 1162, 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Fault Londonm 479 

Capa Gilberti Banaatr'' est de viridi sandato veteri addubbata aiirifrigio, 
trifuriato nodis et tassellis trifuriatis cum gladeolis purpureiB in limbis aperturae 
anterioris capae. 

Capa Magistri Othonis multipliciter est breduata, et est de panno serioo, in 
bendis enim sunt rosae, in aliis pisciouli.'' 

Capa qua© fuit Braund' est de panno serico purpurae et fiavia virgata sine 
tassellis; vetus est; parum valet. 

Capa quaedam vetus obscura de panno serico breudata floribus gladeolis et 

Capa etiam alia vetustissima de obHcuro panno breudata roais et lunettis ; 
parum valent." 

Capa Eustachii Episcopi est 
deauratum cimi ymagine Beat 
coUateralibus cum iiij" sapliiris 

Capa Abbatis de "Waleden' p 
latia cum tassellis de purpura, 
ascensus. In cujus cristae medi 

Alia ejusdem de panno 8eric( 
tassellis rotundis breudantur ymagines Salvatoris et Beatae Mariae. 

Tertia ejusdem d 
ymaginibus Salvator 

Quarta ejusdem 
texuntur aves cum n 

Quinta ejusdem virgata gemellis croceis gladiolata in Umbis aperturae. 

Capa Abbatis Colecestriae de panno serico rotate cum leonibus croceis in 

Digitized by 


480 Two Inventories .of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

quanim una est sine tassellis, aliae duae cum tassalia rubeis confraotae sunt, et 
quasi niiUius precii. 

Capa quae fuit Vitalis tota nigra subducitur de numero, quia confracta, inter 
quas computantur iiij"* noctumales cum rosis et leonibus. 

Capa etiam Willelmi capellani Decani Radulfi ' de albo diaspero. 

Capa et mantella puerorum ad festum Innocentum, et Stultorum sunt xxviij. 
debiles et contritae. 

Capa vetus de albo baldekino Tineata et arborata purpura gracili cum ymaginibus 
malefactis : fuit R. Archidiaconi Midleses'. 

Oapae duae rubeae sine tassellis cum aurifrigio veteri cum gemellls auro inter* 
laqueatis ; inde deservitur ad matutinas. 

Capa Eustacbii episcopi de rubeo eameto plana cum morsu ligneo contextum 
margaritia albis et nigris. 

Capa de rubeo sameto plana cum tassellis purpureis circulatis interius rotatis 
margaritis; fuit Bicardi de Camera." 

Duae capae virides de sendato Eustacbii episcopi. 

Capa Willelmi Joymer de croceo sameto cum regibus in anteriori parte breu- 

Item alia capa Joymeri de balkeno rotato purpura cum griflonibus comutis. 

Item quaedam Glalfridi Decani de baldekino rubeo cum leonibus, griffonibus, et 

Item capa de Waleden' de panno de Arista rubeo cum aviculis albis. 

II ^m duae capae de panno de Arista,*' quarom una facta fuit de panno, quam 
'.edit Eustachius episcopus; alia de panno episcopi Rogeri, cum trifoliis. Kovae 
simt : tenent inde choristae. 

■ Ralph de Diceto. 

'' Bichard de Camera, prebendaiy of ChamberlainBwood abont 1213. 

• Apad a . . . . Note by another hand. 

^ Arista, or Aresta. Idem omnino videtur qaod Ara», operis scilicet Atrebatici. Dac&nge ; vork 
of Arrae. But Dr. Rock, TesetHe Fabrict, ubserrea that " Arras had not won for itself a repntation 
for its tapestry before the fonrteenth century," and contends that the cloth of Areste took its name 
not from the place vhere it was iroren bnt from the nse to ivhiGh it irae generally pnt, namely, for 
hangings aboat chorchee. This cloth of Areste was however light enough for tanicles. 

Digitized by 


. Ttvo Inventories of the cathedral chwrch of St. Paut, London. 481 

Moram Gaparum, qui non attaekia/atur continue ad Capos. 

Morsus Alardi Decani de auro puro habet amatiBtam in medio oristae, saphyrum 
in sinistro latere, comelinum in deziro Bculptmn, praeter alios minutos lapides et 


Morsus Willelmi Episcopi de auro poro cum saphiro in medio oristae et 
duobus comelinis sculptis sibi collateralibus, cam saphiris et aliis lapidibus 

Morsus petri Blesensis * ex argento deaurato habens Kamacu rubeimi in medio 
et alios lapides, omatus in circuitu margaritis ad modum aliorum. 

Morsus Ricardi Archidiaconi Colecestriae'' argenteus deauratus, habens Majes- 
tatem in medio et quatuor ymagines in quadratis.° 

Morsus Eustacliii episcopi argenteus deauratus, cum Paulo et duobus collatera- 
libus episcopis, omatus quatuor saphiris pulchris duobus topaziis et duabos 
almandinis et aliis lapidibus parris, 

Morsus Johannis de Sancto Laurentio amplus et rotundus argenteus deauratus 
cum magna almandina in medio et xi. aliis lapidibus magnis per extremitates et 
aliis minoribus lapidibus iuterius. Crista argentea deaurata et bene operata, 
omata lapidibus variis et margaritis. 

Morsus Willelmi de Ely argenteus et deauratus cum ymaginibus junctus in 
taibuB f rustris lapides apponuntur multi, preciosi et pulchri. 

Morsus G. decani argenteus bene deauratus cum ymaginibus vj., omatus 
quatuor magnis lapidibus, scilicet, ij. jacintiis et ij. almandinis et aliis minutia 
lapidibus. Crista ad caputium argentea bene operata trifuriata cum perlis et 
aliis lapidibus, habens pomellum trifuriatum, cum broca et cathena argentea. 

Morsus Cintii Bomani argenteus deauratus ad instar lunae semiplenae, cum 
ynu^ine Pauli et duobus angelis collateralibus, omatus preciosis lapidibus per 

Tres morsus argentei et deaurati, quorum unus cum ymaginibus et parvia 
lapidibus, non habens lignum interius ; duo aUi habent Ugnum interius, et lapidibua 
exteriuB omantur, cum trifuriatis gradatim positis. 

' Peter oE BloU, archdeacon of London, and prgbendaiy of Hoxton. See more in Le jVevs, 

ii. 318. 

* Perhaps Richard Poliot, who waa archdeacon of Colchester between 1163 and 1187, 

' Et crista triphura[ta] ? This is written by another hand in the mar^^ bat it is not olear 

to which paragraph it relates. 


Digitized by 


482 Ttffo Inventoriea of the cathedral chvrch of St, Paul, London. 

Supra confcinentur Cathedrae, Pulvinaria, Oapae sericae magis preciosae et minus 
predosae diTisim scriptae. Et Morsus Caparum, qui non attachiantur continue.' 

De Casulis. 

Casula Wlfstani** est de indico sameto confine aurifrigio, in cajus interhumerali 
breudatur floa vinealis, appoeitis lapidibus jaciuctinis. 

Casula Godivae de Coventria" est de quo panno nigro minutissime ginillato," 
cum gemellis purpureia et nibeis cum aurifrigio, fino interhumerali breudatur 
arbor auro sine lapidibus. 

Casula Hugonis de Orivall" eat de diaspero albo piano orbiculariter operata 
avibus et arboribus in orbioularibus, contextum cum optimo aurifrigio cum 
P. 7 b. col. 1. tassellis, anteriori facto de file aureo traoto de eodem breudato ymagine majestatie 
limbis aurifrigia dorsalis oonsutis stricta linea margaritarum. 

Casula de rubea purpura cum nobili tassello in interhumerali breudato Agno 
Dei cum duobus esmallis magnis et rotundis et cristallis cum Uteris interpositis. 

Casula de purpura quasi marmorea plana omata aurifrigio fino anterius auri- 
frigiato et in dorso consuitur margarita interhumeriale consimiliter ; in cujus fine 
est tassellus brevis, a quo egrediuntur iiij" gladeoli, et circumdatur illud per 
tasselloa perlis, in cujus medio est lapis vitreus rubeus. 

Casula quae dicitur Sancti Aelphegi' est de sameto < oroceo viridenti plana, 
omata aurifrigio bono interhumerali lato, breudato cum lapidibus vitreis, auri- 
frigiata posteriori subhumerali texto leonibus et avibus tasselHs anteriori parvo 
de filo auri tracto cum perils. 

' This paragraph has been crossed tlu^ngh with red ink. 

■• WlfetannB, Tlfstan, or Wlmann, dean of St, Panl's in the time of bisbop Manrice, 1085-1107. 
His obit was kept October 3. 

" In 1295 this chasuble is described ae that " Godithae de Coventre," andiB8aidtobe"snBpen8a 
et fracta, resetratnr ad faciendum alias." 

' Orgnnllato. 

* Hngo de OriTslle, a Norman, sncceeded bishop William in 1075 ; he died of leprosy, 12 January 
1084-5. The preciooB stones enumerated in the inventory of 1295 are not mentioned here. 

' St. Alphege, archbishop of Canterbnry, martyred April 19, 1012. 

■ Samite : a stnS composed sometimes wholly of silk, pannu* hcHotericut, but frequently inter- 
woven with gold and silver. Planch^, Cychpadia of Cottttme. Dr. Bock, Textile Fabrics, derives 
the word from H, six, and filroi, threada; the nnmb«- of tbe strings in the warp of the texture. 
" Hence to say of any silken tissue, that it was stamitum or tamit, meant that it was siz-threaded, 
and therefore costly and splendid." 

Digitized by 


Ttoo Inventories of the ca^isdral chwrch of St. Paul, London, 483 

Casula de rubeo aameto alia aliquantulum vetus pluia cum aurifrigio piano 
intus limbata viridi et croceo obacuro sendato. 

Casula quae didtur N. archidiaconi " est de rubeo sameto piano, cum lato 
bumerali ad modum oruciB, breudata usque ad talum, florigerata perlis et vitro 
viridi contrafacto ad modum perlarum anteriori parte eodem modo omata. Hujus 
omatus ponitur super casulam novam de rubeo samito quam dedit 0. Legatua,'' 
et huic apponitur omatus bifatiae rem' casula simplex. 

Casula quae fuit Magistri H. de Norhamton' est de rubeo sameto piano satis 
nova cum aurifrigio ante et retoo operato nodis interlaqueatis. 

Casula ejusdem de nigra purpura quasi marmorea plana cum aurifrigio bono 
interhumerali breudato quadam arbore frondibus quasi vinealibus circumflexis. 

Casula ejusdem de albo diaspero orbioulari opere quasi ex leonibus vetus est 
et addubbata aurifrigiis mediocribus. [Reservatur ad aliud.*] 

Casula quae dicitur Hagistri Rogeri capellani est de rubeo sameto piano sine 
aliquo lineamento interiori aurifrigio solum apposito ad modum arohiepiscopalis 

Casula Badulphi de IHceto, Decani, de rubeo sameto piano cum aurifrigio satis 
stricto, cujus interhumerale crescit in arborem breudatam ramis vinealiter^ circum- 
flexis sine tassellis. 

Casula Alardi Decani est de nigro samito piano, cujus lista anterior et posterior 
breudatur quadam vinea. In interhumerali breudatur arbor ramis vineaUter 
reflexis cum pampinis "* latis. Tassellum habet breudatum ymaginibus Petri et 
PauH et Archangeli Micbelis. 

Casula Ricardi Episcopi est de indico samito piano, aurifrigiata ante et retro 
lato aurifrigio sine furrura. 

Casula R. de Clifford' est de viridi sameto croceali aliquantulum spisso auri- 
frigiata stricto et bono aurifrigio. 

Casula Petri Blesensis est de sameto suigoineo sive epatico piano aurifrigio 
lato. In tassello anteriori scribitur litteris Archidiaconus London'. 

* N. Archidiaconi, or, in the InTeiitoiy of 1295, more fally, Nicliolai. Nicholas was arob- 
deacon of London in 1161. 

^ Otho, the Le^te. See the highly graphic aoooont of the Conncil held in St. PaDl's 1237. 
in Milman'a Annals, jt. 4S et leqq. 

" The words within bracket« are added by tmother band. 

' Pampe, Gallica, videtar dednota a Pampinitt. En nne fienr de lys k trois Pampes on 
flenrons, &c. Dacange. 

Digitized by 


484 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

Caaula episcopi Willelmi est de viridi sameto piano Bimplici aorifrigio omata 
ad modum palleoms sine furrura. 

Casula EuBtacliii Epiecopi est de rubeo sameto aurifrigiata, pallionata.* 

Casula quBB dicitur Prions de Achon est de albo diaapero, videlicet, de eodem 
sicut capa sua praenominata, oum mediocri aurifrigio. 

Casula Mauritii episcopi est de purpura marmorea cum orbicularibus et 
minutis stellis croceis. Interhumerale breudatur ad modum arboris, et est de 
filo auri tracto lapidibus adjeotis sub medio lapide, Mauritius me fecit frater 

Casula de sameto viridi croceali satis mediocri aurifrigio omata ad modum 
palU ; vetua est. 

Casula de panno purpureo rotate contexto leonibus cum minutis rotis croceis, 
deputatur ad missam capitularem. 

Casula qua deservitur in f eriis ad altare beatae Mariae est de dyaepero cum vili 

Casula bendata rubeo et purpura ponitur per annum ad Pascha super sepul- 

Casula de sameto plus croceo quam viridi, et Causula de diaspero albo, 
reclutatae sunt et fractae. 

Archidiaconus London habet casulam albam. 

Casula de rubeo sendato tripolitano, cum aurifrigio Yenetensi quam dedit 
Comes Ricardus. 

Casula de bono sameto rubeo cum lato aurifrigio ante et retro nodato et 
Btrictiori aurifrigio per circuitum, quae fuit Bogeri Episcopi. 

Casula de sameto purpureo bene parata aurifrigio aliquantulum strioto et 
nodato et strictiori aurifrigio per circuitum, fuit G. de Lucy, Decani. 

Casula quae dicitur bifatia, eo quod pannus est extra rubeus et intus niger, 
omata aurifrigio piano, vetus est et confracta, nee valet ad alioujus uBum. Ejus 
aurifrigium ponitur super capam, a qua ablatum fuit oraamentum et positum super 
pannum 0. Legati," ut supra. 

Casula crocea,- quam dedit Vioarius de Bello Campo. 

Jesse, quam dedit Rex in dedicatione eoclesiae. 

Casula de purpureo sameto breudata stellis mi^;ni8 et lunis. Breudator 
bumeraU Crux, Johannes, et Maria, cum arboribus. 

■ This last word ia added by anotlier hand. 
'■ Maurice, bishop of London, 1086-7 to 1107. 
° Otbo, see above. 

Digitized by 


Two Iiwmtories of the cathedral church of 8t. PoMlf L&ndon. 485 

De Thmieis et Dahnatids. 

Tunica et dalmatica de rubeo sameto peroptimo, quaa dedit Mister Laurentius 
Bomanus," aurifrigio competenti in limbis cum borduris de eodem sameto aureis. 

Tunica de croceo sameto, quam dedit P. Wintoniensis Bpiscopufl nova et 
aunfrigiata bene cum bordura ejusdem panni anrea cum avibus espansis et 
GrifonibuB et manicis factis in bordura. 

Tunica de viridi eameto, quam dedit Martinus de Pateshutt, cum bordura bene 
aurifrigiata, et cum borduris strictis inferioribus de eodem panno, et borduris in 
humeria cum leonibus et sagittariis et manicis de eadem bordmra. 

Tunica et dalmatica de rubeo sameto cum stricto aurifrigio omn bordura in 
posteriori parte et floribus cum capitibus draconum deauratis. 

Tunica et dahnatica de rubeo sameto virgulata interlaqueata aurifrigio stricto 
cum superhumerali breudato et limbis ex filio ** argenteo circumligante filum 
grossum ad modum perlarum, qu88 fuerunt Prioria de Achon. 

Tunica de imperiali" cum arboribus rubeis et leonibus cum avibus aureis sine 
bordura inferiori cum humerali ex auro contexto. 

Tunica de alio imperial! florigerata viridi et rubeo cum avibus rubeis ad modum 

Tunica de alio imperial! cum vineis rubeis infra cujus frondes sunt leones. 

Tunica ex alio imperial! quasi marmoreo cum viridibus floribus de panno bono 
et spisso. 

Tunica de panno quodam marmoreo spisso cum rotis et g!ffones'' infra rotas 
de serico purpureo cum humeris undatis albo et oculis croceis. 

Timica de quasi consimil! panno spisso et rotato cum grifEonibus purpureis 
cum humeris undatis croceo et oculis albis. 

Tunica de dyaspero marmoreo spisso quasi purpura sine aurifrigio. 

Tunica et dalmatica de imperial! croceo et iudico contexto arboribus sine 
aurifrigio, quae fuerunt Prions de Achon. 

* LaorentiTiB Bomanne, prebendary of Brownsvood, and of Oxg&te. 

* Sic in orig. 

* Imperiale : Panni preiioris apeciee. Dncange. Probably " wavea at a workshop kept np by 
the Byzantine mnp^vrs [at Constantinople], and bearing about it aome small though noticeable 
mark, it took the designation of Imperial." It was in use in {'ronce u late as the second half of the 
fifteenth centniy. Dr. Rock, Tetetile Fabrics, 40. 

* GiSones: tic, in error for griffonibos. 

Digitized by 


486 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 

Tunica et dalmatica de sendato indico oonstanter cum anrifrigio, quae fuerunt 
Eustachii Episcopi. 

Tunica et dalmatica de panno serico de arest* cum avibus et pomulis croceis 
pinalibus, quae factae fuenmt de duobua pannie quo3 rex dedit. 

Quatuor paria tunicarum et dalmaticarum de dyaepero albo piano. 

Tunica et dalmatica de dyaspero albo veteres, quibus deservitur ad altare 
beatae Mariae. 

Tunica retuB de sameto rubeo valde uaitato^ colore quasi amisso. 

Tunica virgulata croceo et rubeo quibus deservitur in festo Apostolorum. 

Duae tunicae de viridi sameto reteres, quibus deservitur in festo coufessorum. 

Tunica vetustissima de panno rotate, com griffonibus albis. 

Tunica vetus cum arboribus et pavonibus cum capitibus viridibus et leonibus 
conjmictis, deputatae sunt pueris. 

Tunica et dalmatica de purpureo sameto bene parata boni aurifrigii, fuermit 
episcopi Eogeri. 

Tunica et dalmatica de viridi columbino omata lenibns aurifrigiis, fuerunt 
episcopi Eustachii. 

Tunica et dalmatica bene parata veteribus aurifrigiis strictis, fuerunt Episcopi 
Ricardi, [scilicet, de rubeo sameto de quibus a ] ' 

Dalmatica de opere Saracenico inveterata et perforata undique, nullius precii. 

Septem aliae puerorum inveteratae et contritae. 

De Vestimentis et eorum pertinentiis. 

Yestimentum Gilberti Episcopi habet paniras de purpura fusca ; breudantur 
cum stellis et luuulis ; stola et manipulus de eodem panno et amictus. In fine 
stola breudatur Abraham et Melcbisedech. In manipulo Jacob. In amicto zij. 
Apostoli. Deputatur ad officium mortuorum. [Totus deputatur apud Berling.] '' 

Yestimentum Ricardi Episcopi habet paruras de rubeo sameto breudato cimi 
leonibus incedentibus caudis erectis et floribus interlaqueatis. Stola et manipulus 
de eodem panno, in quorum extremitatibus breudatur arbor cum duabus avibus et 
leonibus. Amictus est de aurifrigio pm*o cum barris de margaritis. 

■ The -wads witinn hneiaaia are added by another hand. 

■> The words within brackets are added by another hand. Berling or Barling, a miutor in Essex 
belonging to 8t. Paul's. " Eccleaia de Berling a est in dominio Canon iuoram," &o. Hale's Sometday 
of Bl. Fault, 149. 

Digitized by 


TtDO Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London, 487 

Vestimentum aliud ejusdem Habet paniras indici sameti breudataa apostolis, 
nominibus singulorum suprascriptie. Stola efc manipulus ejusdem paimi et 
breudurae; Apostoli cum albis faciebus. In extremitate BtolaebreudanturSanctue 
Nicholaus et Oswaldos ; manipuli, Erkenwaldus et Edmundus. Medium amictus 
breudatur cum puro aurifrigio tracto, cum margaritis et granis auri. Urlatur' auri- 
frigio puro et stricto. 

Vestimentum Magistri H. de Norhampton' habet paruras rubei sameti. Breu- 
dantur leonibus, serpentibus volantibuB, aquilis, piscibns, interjectis cum punctis 
albis et nigris, cum stola et manipulo de eodem panno breudatie leonibus in circulis. 
In extremitatibus breudantur Uriel Barathiel." Amictus est de piano aurifrig;io 
puri auri. 

Vestimentum aliud ejusdem habet paruras indici sameti breudatas leonibus, 
aquilis, arboribus sibimet superpositis. Stola et manipulus ejnsdem sameti 
breudantur ymaginibus. In eorum extremitatibus breudatur Thomas et Paulus ; 
Erkenwaldus et Ricardus episcopus." Medium amicti de filo auri tracto fioriger- 
atum margaritis. tTrlatur aurifrigio stricto in extremitatibus adaucto. 

Vestimentum Bogeri capellani habet paruras nigri sameti breudatas leonibus 
magnis et griffonibus in rotis gemellatis. Stola et manipulus ejusdem panni 
breudati ymaginibus cum albis faciebus. Breudantur in extremitate Gabriel, 
Michael, Cherubim et Seraphim. Amictus de piano aurifrigio boni auri." 

Vestimentum aliud ejusdem cum paruris nigri sameti breudatas cum majestate 
et apostolis cum albis faciebus sine superscriptione. Stola et manipulus de 
indico sameto breudati ymaginibus apostoloirum et prophetarum, nominibus 
designatis. In quorum extremitatibus breudantur Sanctus Thomas et Oswaldus, 
Hicholaua, et Edmundus. Amictiis est de aurifrigio piano puri auri. Limbatur 
Teteribus aurifrigiis strictis. 

Vestimentum quod dicitur Nicholai Cantoris est cum paruris consuticis, quarum 
campus est rubeus, cum rotis interius viridibus exterius ^bis, oontinentibus 
leones, cervos, aquilas, et d'ohones' volantes. Stola et manipulus de panno serico F. 8, ool. 1. 

■ Urlare : omlam rel limbos inserere : Oall. Orler: Ducange. 

" Uriel, Barathiel. Uriel, an aroliaii^l, " the fire of God." 

' PoBsibly this may be Rioardns de Belmeie I., who died in 1127-8. " He seenu to h«Te 
«nde«TOiired to ^t the arohiepiacopal dignity restored to the see of Iiondon." Le Here, ii. 281. 

^ Alba d[a] tor apnd Ardhle . . et remanet reBidnnm. Ardleigh, Erdele, Erdeley, Sk. a manor 
saiA. to have been given to St. Paul's by Athelstan. Hale's Domesday, iiia 

• D*chones, for dracfumet, i.e., dracones. 
VOL. L. 8 T 

Digitized by 


488 Two Inventories, of the cathedral chv/reh of St. Pa.uly London. 

Digro burellato, barrato minutis barris ami ; extremitates de filo puri auri tracto, 
arboribus interius consutis margaritis. AmictuB aurifrigiatus de puro auro. 
Interius operatur orbo opere limbatua duobus aiuifrigiis strictis. [Deficit totum.]* 

Vestimentnni quod dicitur R. Archidiaconi Colecestria babet parnras de rubeo 
sameto piano sine breudura limbatas aurifrigio et virgidatas. Stela et manipulns 
de rubeo sameto piano. Amictus de aurifrigio puro inciso in medio et ibi 

Yestimentnm F. Blesensis babet paruras de rubeo sameto breudatas floribus 
ad modum cmcis ; stolam et manipulum de eodem opere. In quorum extremi- 
tatibus breudantur Angeli sine nominibus. Amictus de eodem opere et rubeo 

Vestimentum quod dicitur Sweyn'' babet paruras de rubeo sameto breudatas 
martyribus, . confessoribus, virginibus ; nominibus illoram inscriptis ; stellis 
sparsim interjectis. Stola et manipulua de piano rubeo sameto. In quorum 
extremitatibus breudantur Petrus et Paulns, Jobannes et Andreas. Amictus de 
aorifrigio puri auri stricto limbato, veteribua aiuifrigiis albeacentibus. 

Vestimentum quod dicitur Wlfrani habet paruras de panno serico cum avibus 
rubeis et croceis. Stola et manipulus de eodem panno. Breudantur extremitates 
linealiter cum stellis minutis. Amictus de nigro serico breudatur lunulis qoinque, 
foliis bisantiis minutis. [Deficit.]' 

Vestimentum de albo serico cum nigris paruris deputatur ad mortuos. 

Vestimentum aliud habet paruras de rubeo sameto breudatas leonibus sese 
adinvicem respicientibus, et quorundam eorum caudse sese contingunt. Stola et 
manipulua de viridi serico trifuriatim intexto auro, quarum extremitates sunt de 
quibusdam panellis de filo purissimi auri tracto, consutis minutissimis margaritia 
per loca. Amictus de lato aurifrigio puri auri cum gemellis'' strictissimis. 

Vestimentum de albo serico habet paruras de panno serico contexto griffonibus 
rubeis calcantibus leones virides. Amictus ejus vetus de fiavo sameto, breudatua 
floribua cum duobus esmallis et lapidibus cristallinis. [Deficit.]' 

Vestimentum Willelmi Episcopi habet paruras de sameto rubeo breudatas filo 

* The words vjtbui brsokete are inserted by a later hand. 

^ This aeemB to be the same as the "restimeiitiim quod dicitur Sneyl " ot the Inventorf of 1 
' This word is inserted fay a later hand. 

* Gemella : probably dinunutive of gemma, pncaoge. 

* This word is inserted by another hand. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St, Pavi, London. 489 

auri tracto cum perils peroptinds. Humerale breudaiur iiij" ymaginibus, et habet 
amictum de perulis ; quondam Boberti de Clifford. 

Yestimentum Decani Alardi babet paruras de rubeo aameto brendatas majestate 
et apostolis sine inscriptionibus, tendentibus palmas. Habet fuuictum de auri- 
frigio puro cum duabus virgulis in medio elevatis intrioaturis. Stola et 
manipulus cum majestate, [et] ymagine in extremitatibus angeli cum campanellis 

Yestimentum Willelmi Heremitae babet paruras de nigro samite breudatas 
tribus regibus venientibus ab oriente et yma^ine Beatae Yirginis, angelo et 
-pastoribus. Amictum cum ymaginibus Beatae Mariae, Petri et Fanli. De eodem 
sameto stola et manipulus. 

Yestimentum Bustachii Episcopi habet paruras de bordura aurifrigiata de 
«xtremitatibus sameti. Amictum de opera Sarracenico cum a^ibus et floribus. 
Stola et manipulus de rubeo serico contexto. [Stola et manipulus apad Belo'.] * 

Aliud Yestimentum ejusdem sine stola et manipulo de communi aurifrigio. 
[Deficit.] "• 

Yestimenta xij. sunt communia; de tmo deserritur ad altare apostolorum. 

Yestimentum quod dedit Willelmus camerarius° Bogeri Episcopi babet 
paruras de opere saracenico cum scutis.^ Super humerale ' vetus cum perils. 
Amictum de opere sarracenico contexto nodls, sine manipulo et stola, sed zonam 
de serico operatam. 

Yestimentum quod legavit P. Poenitentiarius ' babet paruras de indico sameto 
cum leonibus magnis inh^ rotas ambolantibus. Amlctus de eodem sameto cum 
leonibuB parvls in rotis se adiuTicem respicientibus. Stola et manipulus de eodem 
sameto breudata cum leonibus et lapidibus. 

Yestimentum quod dedit Blcardus Yicarins de Bello Campo' habet paruras 

* The words within bta^kets are mserted by anothco* hand. Proliablj Belchunp, a manor 
belonging to the dean and chapter. 

' This word is inserted hy another hand. 

' William, the chamberlain ot bishop Boger Niger. 

d " et ponontnr pamrae snper veatimentum sericnm." This is added in the margia by a later 

* Snperhnmerale : an amice. |The term occurs in archbishop Ec^berht's Pontifical. Ardtae- 
iilogia, xxv. 28. 

' Poenitentiarins ; the name of the ofSoe appears as late as 1724. See Visitation ot bishop 
Oibson in my S^giitrum, &o. p. 289. 
' Bello Campo ; Beaochamp. 


Digitized by 


490 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, ' 

de serico marmoreo, breudatas leonibus et griffonibuB magnis ambnlantibus in 
rotis. Amictus de aorifrigio lato puro.* Stola et manipulus de eodem serico 
breudata leonibus magnis rampantibus. Dedit etiam duo manutergia ad altare. 

Yestimentum Episcopi Bogeri cum paruris de rubeo sameto, breudatis ad 
modom v. foliorum circulatia aurifrigiis strictis, cum stola et manipulo ejusdem 
opens. Amictus de aurifrigio magno nodato. 

Yestimentum G-. de Lucy, Decani, babet pantras de purpureo sameto breudatas 
duobus episcopis et jmagine Beati Pauli, cum duabus stoUs et duobus manipuUs 
albis contextis viridi. Amictus coneuitur cum Resurrectione et Inferno. 

Yestimentum aliud Willelmi Heremitae habet paruras mbeas breudatas leo-* 
pardia incedentibus et griffonibus in rotis magnis. Amictus ejusdem opens. 

Yestimentum quod babet paruras de serico rubeo cum leopardis sese adin- 
vicem obviantibus. Stola et manipulus breudantur avibus et leonibus obscoris. 
Amictus de aurifrigio virgulato. 

Yestimenta tria Radulfi Decani deputantur ad commendationes mortuorum, 
et tria alia ad opus pueroriim. 

Item sine superioribus vestimentis sunt amicti plures, scilicet, duo de filo pun 
auri tracto aliquantulum lati et plani. 

Amictus cum puro aurifrigio veteri omatus albis aurifrigiis strictis. 

Alius breudatus de auro puro cum rotellis et lapidibus amatistis et perulis. 

Item alius cum aurifrigio puro veteri et piano omato cum veteribus aurifrigiis 

Item alius vetus breudatus cum auro puro et esmallo ** et jaguntiis." 

Item alius breudatus aquilis et floribus super nigrum sendatum. 

Item alius de veteri aurifrigio cum tribus nodls. 

Item alius consutus de serico cum leone, griffone, et agno albo. 

Item alius de veteri aurifrigia nodato cum gemellis strictis aurif rigii veteris- 

Item duae stolae et duo manipuli veteres omati breudura et laqueatura in fine. 

Nota qaod supra in proximis tribus columpnis continentur casulae, Tunicae, 
dalmaticae, vestimenta, et Amictus praeter vestimenta."' 

* Pttro inserted by another hand. 

b Esmall: Esmaillna, encansinm; Qall. Bmail: Docange. Enamel. 

"JagTintiis. Probably for jacintas, hyacinthns, a jacinth. The jacinth, sometimes called 
hyacinth, is an orange-red variety of the garnet. Steeeter's Precious Stones, part ii. p. 81. 
' This entiy is oroseed throngh with red ink. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 491 

De BaiideMnis et Ponnw Sericis. 

Baudekinum* de rubeo sameto cum grifonibus de aniio, quorum alae oontingunt 
86 ; in cujuB oontiguitate est flos ; [de dono Regis.]" 

Baudekinum de rubeo sameto cum leonibus aureis rampantibus, de donO 

Baudekinum de rubeo sameto cum leonibus aureia alatis alia sese contlngen' 
tibuB, leonibus post tergum se respicientibus, de dono ejusdem. 

Baudekinum de indico sameto cum citacis° aureis sese post tergum respicientibus 
et gladioHs auri, de dono ejusdem. 

Item aliud baudekinimi, scilicet quintum, per omnia consimile praeoedenti. 

Item sextum baudekinum purpura tenue ad modum sendati longum Tirgula* 
turn virgulis aureis, [cum pulcra j* 

Item baudekinum de widi sameto cum citacis aureis habentibus roaas ia 
pectore, quod dedit Comes Flandriss.* 

Duo baudekina' purpurei colons cum capitibus griffonum rubeis et rotis aureis 
et leuncellis inter rotas. 

Item duo alii baudekini purpurei coloria cum griffonibus erectis sese post 
tergum respicientibus, quorum alae contigue erigunt flosculum gladeoli aurei, in 
cujus medio est flos rubeus ; et onmes de dono regis. 

Item duo baudekini consimiles de dono reginae, bordati rubeo et purpurea 
rotati, infra quas' sunt volucres biscipites cum alis expansis, in quorum umbilico 
sunt steUae rubeae et purpureae. 

■ Baldalcmna, BaldekinaB (Bandekmas) ; Panniu omninm ditisaimns, onjns ntpote stamen ex 
filo auri, snbtemen ex aerico teiptnr, plnmario opere mtertoxhts, aio dictos quod Baldaceo, aea 
Babylone in Perside, in Occidentales pTOvincias deferretnr. Dacange. 

With samitee and bandekTns 
Were cnrtAined the gardens. 
jRomance of King Alexander. Planch^, Dictionary. 

Dr. Rock, Te^ttiU Faltrica, p. 40, derivee Bandekin from Baldak or Bagdad, which " held for 
DO ahort length of time the lead all over Asia in Treaving fine silks, and, in special, golden atnfFa." 
<* The words within brackets are inserted hy another hand. 

* Citacna, i.e., Paittacna : a parrot, so called, it is said, from Peittace, a city near the Tigris. 
' Added b; another hand, the last word being cat off. 

■ Probably Thomas of Savoy, count of Flandera, who came to London in 1240. See Matthew 
Paria, iv. 19. B.S. 

' The scribe writes bandekini or bandekina as it pleases him. 
' Scil. rotas. 

Digitized by 


:4)92 Two Inventories of the cathedral ehv/rck of St. Paul, London. 

Item unxis baudekiniis cujus campus est rubeus rotatus, et infra rotas leones 
aese a tergo respicientes cum stellis purpureis et rosia albis. 

Item alius baudekinus de dono reginae ex traosverso, bordatus purpura et 
rubeo, cum aquilis expansis, oapitibus siugulorum coronads. 

Item baudekinus de dono regis, cujus campus est rubeus florigeratuacum grif- 
fonibus, quorum oculi purpurei, et aures distillatae purpureae. 

Item baudekinus rubeus donatus cum corpore Episcopi Bogeri,' cum aquilis 
expansis, in quarum umbilico sunt stellae rubeae, oculi purpurei, et capita quasi 

Item baudekinus rubeus grossissimi fili, cum pavonibus et tribus Ustis deau- 
ratis in longum, dicitur contextus de intestinis animalitun" de dono Comitis Bicardi. 

Item de dono regis baudekinus rubeus rotatus, et intra rotas citaci" se 
respicientes adinvicem cum floribus purpureis v. foliomm. 

Baudekinus rubeus cum magnis floribus, cervis, et leonibus, et grifionibus auri, 
de dono regis. 

Item alius rubeus rotatus continens leones et virides flores inter rotas. Bex 

Item alius rubeus et rotatus auro habens iiij" leones in rotis et iiij*' aves inter 
rotas de dono Beginae. 

Item alius rubeus striotus cum longis avibus et leonibus, de dono Comitissae 

Item alius viridis cum parris rotis aureis; continent duos leones sese respicientes, 
et quatuor aves inter rotas. 

Item baudekinus rubeus rotatus cum geminis citacis in rotas, de dono F. 

■ The tomb of bishop Roger Niger, figured in Dogdale, p. 58, stood between the north aisle 
and the choir ; a tablet, recording a remarkable storm which occurred whilst he was celebrating 
muss, hnog beside it. 

" Bishop Niger was canonised by popular acclamation ; Ma tomb was visited by devout 
worshippers, and indulgences granted for this pioos work." Milman, Annali, 56. 

^ The scribe has written tUiwn. I enppose that animatiwm. is intended. 

' Citaci, see above. 

" Comitissa Proyinciae : Beatrice oonntess of Provence, daughter of ThomaB of Savoy, arrived in 
London in 1243 ; " mater reginarnm Franciae et Angliae, mnlier decotis expectabilis, prodens, et civilis." 
See the account of her reception in Matthew Paris, iv. 261. The streets were decorated from 
liondon Bridge to Westminster, " cortinis, aulaeis, et diversis aliia omamentis," at the king's 

• Bishop Fnlke Bassett, see above. 

Digitized by 


Tipo Inventories of the eaihed/raX church of St. Paul, Lonodn. 493 

Item baudekinus rubeiis et strictis cum eeptem bordis in longum aiireis. 
[Item baudekmus de demo Domini Regis in obita A. Thesamwii.* 
Item baudekinum strictius ulna, com oampo viridi posterins et rubeo anterius, 
cum xii. rotellis, quod venit cum corpore Williebni Joimer.'']° 

Fannus de aresta magnus et longus cum campo indioo et minntis avibus et 
floribufi inter virgulas. 

Pannus alius magnus sericos rubeus, cum magnis rotis et binis leonibus 
oristatis in rotis purpureis, et Acres inter rotas. Rex dedit H. Decano,^ et 
decanus postea dedit ecclesiae. 

Pannus alius de aresta bordatus ex transrerso oum aribus et pomis pineorum 

Pannus alius de aresta bordatus ex transverso rubeo et indico cum avibus et 
parvis castris ad caudas. 

Pannus alius de aresta rubeus cum arboribus pineia et parvis avibus, unde 
bordurae virides et strictae, cum parvis rotis ; sunt in capite. [Sic] 

Pannus alius de aresta rubeus, rotatus croceis rotis ; continent croceos leones 
sese respicientes a tergo de done "W. de Rale,* Wintoniensis Bpiscopi. 

Pannus de areata deputatus est ad costas Beati Laurentii involvendas. 

Item pannus sericus de aresta rubeus, cum gemellis croceis. 

Item pannus de aresta rubeus, inseratus cum targis croceis, infra quos leones 
rubei sese reapiciunt. 

Item pannus rubeus, circulatus croceis circulis, infra quos leones post tergum 
sese respiciunt, caudis erectis. 

Pannus de aresta rubeus, virgulatns gemellis purpureis et croceis, cum avibus 
croceis sese post tergum respicientibus, cum gladeolis croceis spissis inter eos. 

Pannus de aresta rubeus, cum circulis minutia, infra quos sedent reges super 
leunculoB, tenentes flores. 

Pannns de aresta cepeatus, tabulatus rubeo et indico, cum pineis et avibus p, g b^ cqi. i. 
post tei^m sese respicientibus. 

' Probably Alexander Swerford, see above. 

" William Joymer was mayor of liondon in 1239. 

' The two items within bracketB are inserted by another hand. 

* Probably Henry de Comhill, dean, 

• William de Raleigh, consecrated bishop of Norwich in St. Paul's, 25 September 1239; trans, 
lated to Winchester 1244 ; died 1250 at Toniaine. The name is aUo spelt Ralee, Raley, or Radl^. 

Digitized by 


494 Two IiwentorieB of the cathedral chv/rch of 8t. Paul, London, 

Duo panni de areata, quos dederunt EuBtacliiuB et Rogerus Episcopi, deputali 
Sant ad casulaa faciendaa. 

Paimua de areata, bordatus rubeo et indico coloribus, cum avibus croceis, de 
dono W. de Rale. NorwiceEsis Episcopi. 

Item duo panni de aresta de dono reginae * pro filio et Alia ex transverso, 
bo3rdati cum avibus a tergo sese respicientibus. 

Item, de dono Comitis Sarum *' in adventu buo de terra sancta, pannus de 
ttresta rubeus, cum citacis croceis et arboribus inteitus. 

Item de t«atamento H. Comitis Kanciae ° i. sametum nigrum. 

De culdtrig et Pa/tmis pendentihus m chore. 

Oulcitra " "WiUehni Episcopi de rubeo sameto, cum panno rotate. 

Culcitra de croceo sendato, cum sameto rotato, cum leonibus post tergum se 
respicientibus, quam legavit Jobannes Tbolosanus.* 

Culcitra quam dedit Comes de Albemarlia,' parvi precii est. 

Culcitra de viridi sameto, cum aameto rotato, et infra ' leones crocei sese poat 
tergum respicientes, fuit uzoris J. Yitalis.'' 

Culcitra lata et Tetua, quam ab antique dedit Ougerus Senescallus. 

* Retina : Eieanor of Provence, queen of Henry III. Edward, the firBt-boni, was bom 16 Jnne, 
1239 ; Margaret her eldest daughter was bom 1241 . 

** Comes Sanun : William Longesp^, ei^l of Salisbury. " Comes Saresbiriensia initio mensis 
Martii [1242] de Terra Sancta rediena, applicuit sanns et incolnmis in Anglia." Matthew Paris, 
Chronica Maj&ra, vol. iv. p. 188. See the accoont of his prowess and death, tb. v. 153, Ac. 

* " Eisdem diebus, comes Cantise, Hnbertns videlicet de Bnrgo, plenns diemm . . quarto idns 
Mail [1243] laudabiliter diem claosit extremum apud Banstude mauerium sunm," Matt. Parisi 
IT. 243. 

' Culcitra or Cnlcita ; cushions. 

■ John de Tholoaan was sheriff of London in 1237. He witnesses a deed preserved among the 
mnniments, press A, box 20, No. 301. 

' Willielmus de Fortibns, comes de Albemarla, in Mari Uediterraneo peregrinaiu, cum nullo 
modo potest comedei-e et octo diebns jojunando martirium protelasset, die Yenens proiima ante 
Pascham [1241] . . spiritnm sunm . . Christo resignavit." Matthew Paris, iv. 174. After many 
vicissitudes he had been left by Hen. HI. in Britany as one of the chiefs of the army. 

■ Scil. rotas. 

*■ Oliver Titalis was the bearer of a letter from Saladin to the Pope in 1184. Ralph de Diceto 
ii. 25. One J. Yitalis was witness to a deed (preserved in St. Paul's) in 1238. He is there called 
John Yital. 

Digitized by 


Two InventoTies of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 495 

Duo paimi aerici de aresta yeterea limbati albo et nigro quos dedit Rex 

Duo panni aerici de aresta Teteres nigri cum griSonibus, quos dedit Q. FoUot> 

Duo panni Teteres ejusdem operis, quos dedit rex Joliannes. 

Quatuor panni de serico veteres, limbati croceo indico sameto, cum griffonibua 
et leonibiis, quoa Bobertua de Clifford dedit. 

Duo panni veteres rotati griffonibua quoa dedit G. Foliot, fere nullius precii. 

Pannua longus rubeus, cum arboribus et pomulia crooeis, qaem dedit Eustachiua 
epiacopus in oonaecratione. 

Pannus purpureus aine cera ma^us, quem dedit Badulfos Decanua. 

Pannus croceus, quem dedit "Willelmua Epiacopus ' in conaecratione. 

Pannus Tirgulatua croceus, de dono ejusdem. 

Pannus croceus, de dono Willelmi de Wrotbam.'' 

Duo panni aerici, quorum unum dedit Magister B. de Bifatiis." 

Unus pannus rotatua, vetua, quem dedit Gilbertiia Epiacopus. 

Pannus sericua magnna, quem dedit Willelmua Joymier. 

Pannus vetus pendena sub cruce, qui dicitur Bruiz.^ 

Pannua rotatus aliua vetus de opere aliorum pannorum aupradictorum. 

Pannus qui jacet super feretrum Sancti Melliti. 

De Tapetiia et Velis. 

Sex tapetia magna ~et apissa. 

Unum tapetium, quod fuit Badulfi Decani. 

Quatuor thalones ' cum kanabo ' lato cortine in choro. 

" William de Sanctae Uariae Eoolesia, consecrated bisliop of London at Westnunster, 23 May, 

" Willelmna de Wrotham, cnstos portnnm muifl," 1211. Matthew Paris ennmerates him 
amongst the evil advisers of king John, ii. 533. 

' Probably Bannlf de Biaaoia, who held the prebendal stall of Newington 1217-43. 

^ Richard de Bros is mentioned as a benefactor to St. Faol'a in the Inventoiy of 1295. Dngdale, 
329; and the lady Isabel de Bros is specially named in ad indolgence granted by Albinos, bishop 
of Brechin, ib, 10. 

* Thalones; tic in HS., but probably we should read chalones, ohalo, chalonns, Pais anpellectilia 
lecti, straguli species. Dncange. 

' Cuiabo, kanabo .- a casmpy. In Angostine, Ser. 61 de tempore, canaba is a hat. 
VOL. L. 3d 

Digitized by 


496 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Pa/ul, London. 

Veteres ymagines cortinarum* sine kanabo. 
Papilio'' quern dedit Alexander Tliesaurarius. 

Yelum qnadragesimale integrum. 

Velum quod est ante magnam crucem. 

Duo vela quae sunt ad duas cruces in duabus alis ecclesiae. 

Yelum quod est ante crucem ad altare Beatae Mariae. 

In istis duabus columpnis supra proxime contentis continentur Baudekmi et 
panni serici, Panni et CuTcitrae pendentes in choro, Tapetia et vela.' 

De libria. 

Prima pws biblia« veteris Anglicae litterae, in cujus prima parte in custodia ** 
inscribitur alfabetum Hebraeycum et Grraecorum, et durat usque ad Zachariam 

Item alia pars bibliae consimiliter Anglicae litterae. sed melioris, in oujus 
custodia prima continentur reliquiae* quas Theodoras Episcopiis'contulit ecclesiae 
in secunda, quot annis Alwredus Rex et successores sui vixerunt ; et dioitur liber 
Hugonis Episcopi.' Finit in Job. 

Item alia biblia in duobus voluminibus nova, peroptimae litterae, cujus prima 
pars finit in Job. In fine ejusdem in custodia inscribitur quomodo Anselmus 
Oantuariensis ** Arohiepiscopus consecravit Bicardum Lond' episcopmn. Secunda 
pars ejosdem litterae incipit in parabolis Salomonis, et finit in epistola Judae ; et 
intitolatur in prima custodia et in margine, Liber Hagistri Henrici de Norbampton'. 
In istis duabus partibus legitur per annum in ecclesia. 

' Cortina : a oartwn. Cf. Vnlg. Exodus xxxTJ. 1. 

" Fapilio : Taberaacalnia, tentoriom. Docange. 

' Thia entry is crossed through with red ink. ' Custodia; the oover. 

• Belies inserted in the cover of a book. See Rock, Chnreh of our I^hav, L 360. A Teztos 
in the British Mnsenm, " beantifally bonnd in plates oi silver, paroel gilt and studded with precious 
stones. On one side stands ont in relief a cmcifix, gUt, bat hollow within, and holding a lump of 
wax in which is imbedded a saint's relic." 

' Theodoras, probably the archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated in 66& 

■ Probably Hugh de Orivalle, bishop <tf London 1075. 

b Arcbbiiihop Anselm oonsecrated Bitdiard de Belmeis as bishop of London at Fsgeham, 
26 Jaly, 1108. 

Digitized by 


Two Inmntories of the cathedral church of 8t. Pauly London. • 497 

Passionarium quod dicitur Piloeum' inciplens in expulsione Symonis Magi, et 
terminatiir in ix.'' milibus Tii^iiiimi, et dicikir esse liber Ricardi Episcopi." 

Item Omeliiurium pilosmn, in oujua margine intitulantur Omelyae, et incipit de 
Saneta Maria m sahbatis, et finit m octaMs Sam;ti Lav/rentii. 

Item Omelyarium, quod intitulatnr parvum, et incipit vespere " eahbati guae 
liicessit, et finit in omelya Ascendente * Jhesu de namcula ; et miesum fuit apud 

Item Bvangeliarium et Epistolarium adeo vetus quod fere nulUus est mo- 

Item Epistolarium adeo retus quod nullios est momenti/ 

Item collectarimn et quaedam missae speciales, et incipit, Deus qui contritorvm; 
finit autem de Sancto Brkenwaldo. Oratio. Chibema familiam Uiam.' 

Item passionale de Scotica littera, praemissis titulis Sanctorum et Kalendario. 
Incipit in pasaione Sanotae Agathae et terminatur in passione Sancti Benigni. 

Item Omelyarium yemale de bona Uttera, quod dicitur esse Ricardi Episcopi. 
Incipiens, Quomodo jvata Mattkaeum i et, finit in omelia, Egrediente Jhesu in 

Item passionale Roberti de Clifford de bona Uttera, satis novum. Anno 
Domini ab incamatione CC. et finit in vita Beati Botulfi. 

Item passionale retus, incipiens in passione Crispini et Crispiniani ; et finit 
[in] legenda de Sancto Bamaba Apostolo. 

Item Passionale aliud de bona littera consimUe priori incipiens in passione 
Beati Bamabae; et finit in qnadam legenda Epistolae ; In diebus illis aivrgens 

Ezpositorium Evangeliorum quorundam in quibusdam festiTitatibus, bonum 
et novum, de grossa littera, incipiens in Nativitate Domini, In illo Evangelic, 
Exiit edActwm ; *" et finit in legenda in festivitate Omnium Sanctorum. 

Item Capifeularium et Collectarium, bonum et novum, et de bona littera, cum 
canone misaae, quod fuit Radulfi de Dicetto, Decani; incipiens in magna 

* Liber A, a cartnlar; of St. Paul's, is still called Liber Filosas on account of its hairy oover. 
» ix. iu text, not xi. 

" Bicardus : probably Richard de Belmeis I. 
^ Yespere, Ac. St. Mattbew, zzviii. 1. 

* Asceudente eo in naTiculam. St. Matthew, viii. 23. 
' " PonuntuF in armariolo." ' Note by another hand. 

■ Oubema, ix. This collect does not occnr tu the office of St. Erkenwald, which I hare printed 
in raj Pommentt, &c. (Camden Society). 
" Exiit edictom : St. Lake, ii. 1. 


Digitized by 


498 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 

rubrica. Si quid in fesHvitatihus rriagnae dignitatis prJmae '; ' et finit in secreto unius 

Item benedictionale Willelmi Episoopi annuale, in quo continentar bene- 
dictiones abbatum et consecrationes Eegum, et qualiter concilium agi debeat et 
omnium ordinandorum ; incipienB ia vigilia Nativitatis Domini cnm littera anrea, 
sic, Omnipoteng D&as, qui incamatiortem ; et finit, Omnipotens Deus, qui simul 
vivorvm dominaris et mortufrrwm. 

Item aliud benedictionale parvum incipit praeter costodias, Leo episcopust 
serous servorum Dei ; Bubsequentibus quibusdam conciliis ; postmodum in initio 
benedictionum incipit in vigilia Nativitatis Domini, et finit in consecratione vir- 

Item Omeliarium magnum, de peroptima littera, quod fuit Radulfi de Dicetto, 
Decani, incipiens in prima rubrica, Quid in festivitatibus primae dignitatis in initio 
primae legendae pro tempore, alleviata est cum littera aurea, in qua depingitur puer- 
perium Beatae Virginia ; et finit in legenda Beati Ambrosii de Beata Tecla. 

Item aliud ejusdem de grossiori littera, incipiens, praeter ea quae scribuntur in 
custodiis, Dominica prima Adventus, in illo Evangelio, Gv/m appropinqvusset JJtesus 
Jerusalem ;' et finit in illo Evangelio, Dominica prima ante Adventum, Ottm sub- 
levasset oculos Jhesus ;'' praeter ea quae scribuntur in custodiis. 

Item Omelimrium Sanctorum magnum de grossa littera intitulatum in grossiori 
littera rubrice, " Liber Radulfus de Diceto, Decani," incipiens in Nativitate 
Domini, in iUo Evangelio, Exiit edictv/m ;" et finit in legenda Jeremiae de virginibus. 

Item novum^ Sanctorum Bicardi de Ely, incipiens in translatione Beati Tbomae 
Martyris, quasi in primia custodiis, et in initio aliarmn legendarum anni, in Natali 
Sancti Felicis. In poAids sic factum, est deinceps ; et finit in legenda de Beato Cedda. 
[Postmodum apponuntur quatemiones ....]* 

Item Bvangeliarium novum et de bona littera, incipiens prima Dominica 
Adventus Domini, in illo Evangelio, Ovm, appropinquasset Jhesus lerosolymam.' 
Et est prima littera partita de nibeo et azorio florata de viridi; et finit in 
Evangelio, THteit Jhesus discipulis suis et turbis Jttdeorum;' et postea sequitur Libei- 
generationis,'' et factum est a/utem cv/m haptizaretur.^ Et eseultet jam angelica turba,^ 

■ Com appropinqnaret : St. Matthew, zxi. 1. >■ Cum snblerasset : St. Jobn, vi. 5. 
° Exiit edictnm : St. Lake, ii. 1. ' Scil. omeliariom P 

■ The words within brackets have been added by another hand. 
' Cnm appropioqnasaet : St. Matthew, xxi. 1. 

■ Dixit Jhesna ; St. John, viii. 21. Feria tectinda post Reminiscere. 

" Liber generationis : St. Matthew, i. 1. ' Pactnm est : St, Luke, iii. 21. 

* Exnltet jam Angelica torba : Daniel, Tkeaavrus HymnologuMs, ii. 303, 305. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral chwrch of St. Paul, London. 499 

Item capitularium et collectarimn, quod dicitar Magistri Henrici de 
ITorhamptofi, mcipiena in Adrentu Domini de bona et grossa littera, praemisso 
kalendario, Capitulum primum, Ecee dies veniwat. Et est grossa littera partita 
de rubeo et azorio, florata de azorio, et finit in benedictionali super scutum 
et baculom. 

Item benedictionale Eustachii Episcopi bonae litterae, incipiens in rubrica, 
ordo ad cathecuminum faciendum. Finit cum oratione, Purificent. [F. Episcopus 
habet.] Hoc postmodum est Adam ' 

Item omeliarium incipiens, Sacrosemcta, Magnus liber. Finit in sermone 
Leonis Fapae, in ootabis Sancti Laurentii. 

Item capitularium et coUectarium, sive manuale Eustacliii Episcopi, incipiens, 
praemisso kalendario, Dominica i' in Adventu Domini, Capitulum, Scientes guod 
jam hora est. Et est littera i* de axiro, et finit in oratione, Adorandam crucem, 
scilicet, Deus onmipotens, Jhesu Christe. 

Item capitularium quo utuntur in choro, non magni precii, sed bonae litterae. 

Item Missale quoddam David capellani, in quo prsemittitur Kalendarium cum 
litteris aureis et bestiis. Kyrye. Gloria in excelsis. Sequentiae. Concordantiae 
evangeliorum ; et est prima littera deaurata, in cujus medio sedet rez cum 
dyademate, vestitus rubeo et azorio. 

Item breviarium quod dicitur Henrici de Norhampton', cum antiphonario 
notato, magnum et bonae litterae, prsBmisso psalterio et kalendario, et ubi iucipit 
legenda, Visio YsaiaefiUi Amos ; et est littera de auro, et medium litterae campus 
rubeus, in quo homo barbatus tenet rotulum. Finit in ilia antiphona de v. panibus 
et ii. piscibus. Fuit H. de Norhampton*. 

Item liber sanctorum ejusdem, de eadem littera, cum antipionario notato, 
incipiens in TigiUa Sancti Andreae, Capitulo Corde creditier." Legenda Passio 
Sancti Andreae ; et est prima de azorio et rubeo, interius deaurata et florata minio 
viridi et croco ; et finit in obsequio mortuorum. 

Item capitularium et coUeotarium, quod fuit Hugonis de Baculfe," praemisso 
kalendario bono, et est liber de valde grossa littera. Incipit, Exdta Domine. ; 
et est littera de auro, sedens in campo de azorio, et est intos florata paupere de 
azorio et viridi et croco. Finit in oratione, Beus infirmitatis huma/nae. 

' TJie words in brockets itre etrook out. The rest are added by another hand. 
■> Corde creditor : see Sarnm fireviary. CapUuhtm, Romans x. 10. In Natali Sancti Andreae. 
" Hngh de Racolf, canon, appears as -witness to a deed in the time of Balph de Diceto. 
Press A, box 2, No. 616. 

Digitized by 


500 Two InverUffries of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

Item capitnlarium, praemissis quibusdam EvangeluB et KaLendario ; mcipiens, 
Ecee dies venvunt ; littera de rubeo, interins florata de azorio et viridi ; et est 
aUquantulum de antiqua littera ; et est prima Rubrica de littera florata grosaa, 
scripta rubeo, viridi, et minio. Finit in oratione, Omnipotens Dominator Christus. 

Item, liber parvua non magni precii vetus, incipiens, Gloria Tihi, Trinitas ; in 
quo praemittitur £alendarium ; in quo continentur missae peculiares, et bene- 
dictiones frumenti candentis et aquae ; quasi quoddam manuale est. Finit in 
missa de Sancta Osida;* in cujus oustodia depinxit Thesaurarius, capud 


InTentarimn omnium vestimentorum et aliorum omamentorum ecclesiastioorum 
ecclesiae Sancti Pauli Londoii in Thesauraria ejusdem ecclesiae existentinm 
in festo Sanoti Thomae Apostoli Anno Domini M'COCO" secundo, factum 
per M. T. Stowe, Decanum, Walterum Cooke, et W. Storteford, Canonicos 
ecclesiae prsedictae.'' 

In primis> in primo Armariolo existente in angulo in pari« occidental! ex 
parte dextra simt xxiiij*^ perticae" in quibus pendent hujusmodi Testimenta, 
videlicet : 

In prima pertioa tres Capae preciosae de panno aureo aibi colons auripictae 
cum floribus et ooronis aureis de dono Domini Johannis Ducis Lancaatriae/ 

* De S. Vitba, in Inventor; of 1295 m printed in Dn^^dale ; bnt in the original it is 8iuicta 

■> Thomas Stowe, dean of St. Paul's, 1400.1405. Walter Coke was prebendary of Holbom in 
1397 and 1421 and treasnrer in 1399. William Stortford, 'formerly treasnrer, archdeacon of 
Middlesex 1393-1416. 

° Fertica : patibnli epeciee, coi rei snspendnntnr : Dncange. Bnt here, obvioosly, a beam oi- 
frame from irhich restments oould be snspended. 

* The stately tomb of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, ia figured in Dngdale, 60. 

Digitized by 


2W Inventories of the cathedral ckwreh of St. Paul, London* 501 

In ij. pertica una Casula et ij Tuniculae ejiiBdem sectae et ex dono ejasdem. 

Item in iij' pertica v Capae ex panno aureo albi Ooloris cum aiirifrigiis panni 
aurei cujos campus est blavij ooloris. 

In iiij. pertica iij Capae de panno aureo albi coloris pulverisatae cum Uteris 
aureis videlicet M. et Angelis et oertis circumferenciis. 

Item in t. pertica j Casula et dua« Tanicae ejusdem Bectae cum Capis proximo 

In TJ. pertica iij Capae de panno aureo albi coloris j Casxila et ij Tuniculae de 
panno aureo et albi coloris. 

In vij. pertica ij Capae j Casula ij Tuniculae de panno aureo albi coloris. 

In viij pertica j Capa j Casula ij Timiculae de panno aureo albi coloris. 

In ix' pertica iij Capae de panno aureo albi coloris cum bonis aurifrigiis 
auripictae cum diversis magnis ymaginibus. 

In x" pertica ij Capae de panno aureo rubij coloris cum j. Casula et ij. Tuniculae 
ejusdem coloris. 

In xj' pertica j Capa j Casula ij Tuniculae de rubeo veluto de dono Domini 
Walteri Aldebery" pulverisato cum coronis aureis. 

In xij pertica j Capa cum Casula et ij Tuniculis de panno aureo rubei coloris 
de dono Domini W. Courtenay" cum aurifrigiis pulverisatia cum cignis argenteis. 

In xiij pertica ij Capae de panno aureo ejusdem sectae et ex dono ejusdem (p. lo.) 
Domini W. cum consimilibus aurifrigiis. 

In xiiij. j Casula et ij Tuniculae de panno aureo rubei coloris pulverizato cum 
Tocabulo Jhesu. 

In XV. pertica ij Capae ejusdem sectae cum aiuifrigiis preciosis. 

In xvj. ij Capae antiquae de panno aureo rubei coloris. 

In xvij. pertica j Casula de rubeo pulverizata cum gladiis et floribus et una 
Capa auripicta preciose cum multis historiis bibUae in ymaginibus aureis. 

In iviij. pertica iij Capae de paimo aureo rubei coloris. 

In lix. pertica ij Capae de panno aureo rubei coloris pulverizato cum diversis 
yma^nibus aureis. 

» Walter de A]debei7 waa cx>IlBted to the deanery of St. Paul's by Simon SndbtuT in 1362. 
Nevoonrt doubts whether the collation took effect. 

^ William Courtenay, bishop of London 1375, translated to Canterbniy in 1381. Lord high 
chtmcelloT in 1381. 

Digitized by 


502 Two Inventories, of the cathedral ehv/rck of St. Paul, London. 

In xz. pertica j Oapa qaondam Sancti Thomae HerefordensiB* ij aliae Capae de 
panno anreo mbei coloris cum magnis ymaginibus. 

In xxj. 3 Capa de panno aureo mbei coloris pulverizato cum diversis ymaginibas 

In xxij. pertica vj Capae de panno aureo mbei coloris cum aurifrigiis blauij 
coloris cum falconibus aureia capuciatis cum araais dominae Reginae Annae,*" et 
cum Morsibus ejusdem aectae. 

In xxiij. iiij" Capae de panno aureo mbei coloris. 

In xxiiij. pertica v Capae de panno aureo rubei colons cum aurifrigiis unius 

(p. 11.) In secundo Armariolo proximo sequenti sunt xxvj perticae, quarum quatuor sunt 

vacuae et nullatenus occupatae, unde de xxij perticis occupatis est nunc 

In prima pertica ij Capae de panno aureo rubei coloris, quarum una de velreto 
rubeo cum leonibus aureis et aurifrigiis de coleriia Domini Ducis Lancastriae et 
^ervo " in medio oujuslibet colerii jacente ex dono domini Roberti WMteby, et 
alia de rubeo veluto cum magnis Rosis aureis et aurifrigiis cum ymaginibufl aureis, 
ex dono M. J. Appelby/ quondam Decani. 

In seounda j Casula ij Tuniculae et ij Capae de panno aureo rubei coloris 
ejusdem sectae cum aurifrigiis blaviis pulverizato cum leopardia aureis. 

In iij. j Capa ij Tuniciilae de panno aureo novo rubei coloris. 

In iiij" pertica j Capa cum j Casula et ij Tunioulae de secta duamm Tunicu- 
larum proxime precedentium. 

In V* pertica ij Capae de panno aureo mbei coloris pulverizato cum aquilis et 
leopardis aureis. 

* St. Thomas de Cantelnpo, bishop of Hereford, canonised 20 April, 1320. His festiral wb« 
observed on October 2. " Many miracles Are recorded as being wrought through the intercessioa 
of this saint." Hittoria AagUcana, Harpsfield 473.) Havergsl, Fatti Herefordensei, 17-19. 

'' Anne of Bohemia, first wife of Bichu^ II. The white falcon was one of the king's badges. 

' Servo, i.e., oervo. The lion passant is seen on Dogdale's plate of the monument of John of 
Gaunt. The collar of 88. is a well-known Lancastrian badge. Probably the cervw was the 

' John de Applet^, dean, 1364-8, 

Digitized by 


Ttvo Inventories of the cathedral chwrch of St. Paul, London. 503 

In vj, pertica iiij" Capae de panno serico novo et satis vilis precii viridis 
coloria palrerizato eum coronis aoreis et leonibus. 

In Yij. pertica ij Capae j Casula ij Tunicalae de panno serico nigri coloris cum 
leopardis de auro. 

In viij. pertica iij Capae ij Tunicalae ejusdem sectae et coloris. 

In is' pertica iij Capae eiusdem coloris et sectae. 

In X* pertica j Caps ejusdem coloris et sectae j Casula et ij Tuniculae de panno 
aureo nigri colons. 

In xj. pertica j Casula ij Tuniculae de panno aureo nigri coloris pulverizato 
cum feris bestiis aureis. 

In xij. pertica ij Capae de panno aureo nigri coloris pulverizato cum feris 
bestiis et floribua et ramia aureis. 

In xiij. pertica j Capa de panno aureo nigri coloris pulverizata cum leopardis 
et ij Capae ejusdem coloris pulverizatae cum ij feris bestiis hincinde jacentibus. (p- 12.) 

In xiiij' iij Capae de panno aureo nigri coloris. 

In XY* iij Capae de panno aureo nigri coloris. 

In xvj' iiij Capae de panno aureo nigri coloris. 

In xvij* ij Capae de panno aureo nigri coloris. 

In xviij. ij Capae de panno aureo cum aurifrigiis auripictis cumdiversis ymagi- 
nibuB in opere aureo. 

In xix. j Capa j Casula et ij Tuniculae de panno aureo blavii coloris pulverizato 
cum coronis aureis, quibus singulis sunt infixae ij pennae de Ostrich.* 

In xx° iij Capae de panno aureo blavii coloris de velveto pulverizatae cum 
coronis aureis de dono domini Simon de Sudbery,* dudiun Bpiscopi Lond'. 

In xxj. j Casula et ij Tuniculae praedictae sectae et ex dono ejusdem domini 

In xxij. una Casula crocei coloris, quae quondam fuit Sancti Alphegi," et j 
Capa ejusdem coloris pulverizata cum angelis. 

In tertio Armariolo sunt sxv perticae occupatae. Fnde in prima pertica sunt (p. 13.) 
duae Tuniculae cum una casula de panno aureo albi coloris auripictae cum 
grifFonibus et liliis de auro, et una casula alba de serico. 

*Tke ostrich feather is a favourite badge of the Plantagenets. 

" SimoD of Sndbmy : bishop of London 1361, translated to Cantorbnry 1375, beheaded by the 
rebels 14 Jnne, 1381. His head is still to he seen in a niche in the vestry of St. Oregoiy'a chnrcb, 
Sndbnry, Suffolk. 

* St. Alphege, see above. 
VOL. L. 3 I 

Digitized by 


504 Ttoo Inventones of the cathedral church of St Paul, London. 

In seciinda pertica tres Casulae albae de serico albi colons. 

In iij. pertica tres Cspae albi coloris de Bakemaskf * vidftlicet de debUi panno 

In iiij' pertica iiij"' Capae de Rakemaskf albi coloris. 

In T. pertica duae Capae de panno aureo albi coloris aunfrisiatae cum magnis 
ymaginibus auripictis. 

In Tj. pertica ij Capae de panno aureo albi coloris auripictae cum diversis 
truffis*" et aorifrisiatac cum magnis ymaginibus. 

In vij. pertica ij Capae de panno aureo albi coloris pulverizato satis tenue cum 
parvis leonibus et floribus diversis. 

In Tiij. pertica sunt una Casula purpurei coloris pulverizata cum lunis et 
stellis aureis, et alia Casula de serico piano ejusdem coloris, ij tunicnlae de blario 
Berico stragulatae. 

In ix. pertica ij Toniculae et j Casula de satyn rubei coloris, et aliae duae 
casula« de satyn ejusdem colons, et una casula cum diversis armis viridis coloris. 

In x' pertica iij Capae de panno aureo purpurei coloris diversimode auripictae. 

In xj. pertica iij. Capae ejusdem coloris et sectae. 

In xij. pertica iij Capae ejusdem coloris et sectae. 

In xiij. pertica ij Tuniculae cum una Casula de panno aureo antique rubei 

In xiiij. pertica ij Tunictdae rubei coloris de panno aureo stragulatae, et ij Capae 
ejusdem sectae. 
(p- **•) In XV pertica ij Tuniculae et una Casula sectae et colons proximo dictis. 

In xvj' pertica ij Capae de rubeo velveto auripictae cum angelis aureis et armis 
dominae Isabellae" quondam Beginae Angliae. 

In xvij* pertica ij Tuniculae et una Casula de rubeo veluto auripictae cum 
angelis et armis praedictae dominae Isabellae." 

In xviij' pertica ij Tuniculae et una Casula de panno aureo rubei coloris. 

In xiz' pertica ij Tuniculae et j Casula et j Capa de done domini Bogeri 
Waltham '' quondam Canonici liujus ecclesiae de panno serico rubei coloris. 

* Rakemask : Bacamae, panni pretiosoris speciee. Racamatnra, omatna Testis aen pictas, ab 
Italico Uaccamere, acu pingere. Gall : Broder. Dncange. 
" Tmffis : perhaps for Tre£Bs, Trefoils. See Dncange. 
■ Isabella, danghter of Charles V. of France, Beoond qneen of Richard II. 
' Roger de Waltham, prebendarjr of Cadington Minor between 1316 and 1329. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London, 505 

In xx' ij Tuniculae cum una Ca8ula de panno aureo de dono Adae Fraunceys 
aurifrisiatae cum magnis ymaginibiis. 

In xxj. pertica ij Tuniculae cum una Casula de panno aureo viridis coloris et 
una Capa ejusdem coloris. 

In xxij. pertica ij Tuniculae cum una Casula de rubeo Batyn pulverizato cum 
diversis crucibus de auro. 

In xxiij. pertica ij Casulae de Satyn nigri coloris. 

In xxiiij. iiij" Tuniculae blavii coloris de panno serico et ij Tuniculae de panno 
serico rubei coloris. 

In xsv pertica duo vexilla processionalia pro tempore Paschae de panno serico 
viridis coloris auripictae ex dono domini Johannis Lyntoii' quondam Camerarij et 
unum aliud vexillum de dono domini Willelmi Coloyme ' viridis coloris. 

In quarto Armariolo, videcet, extra hostium domus Thesaurariae, sunt xvij (P- ^^ ) 
perticae. In quarum prima, videlicet, prope introitum sunt ij Casnla« de 
panno serico viridis coloris, una casula de panno serico albi coloris, et iij 
Capae antiqnae de panno aureo rubei coloris. 

In secunda pertica ij Tuniculae et j Casula de blavio serico stragnlato, j Capa 
de panno aureo blavii coloris auripicto cum castellis et ymaginibus diversis. 

In iij' pertica ij Tuniculae j Casula de panno serico, cum j Capa de panno serico 
blavii coloris, et j Capa de panno aureo rubei coloris. 

In iiij" pertica ij Timiculae j Casula de panno serico viridis coloris auripicto 
cum piscib^l8 et floribus aureis. 

In V. pertica ij Tuniculae j Casula purpurei coloris de serico aUqualiter auripicto. 

In vj. pertica ij Tuniculae j Casula, cum una Capa purpurei coloris, auripictae 
cum garbis et circumferenciis aureis. 

In vij. pertica ij Tuniculae de rubeo baudekyn mixto cum blavio, et j Casula 
de panno aureo ejusdem coloris, pulverizato cum leopardis aureis. 

In viij' pertica ij Tuniculae et j Casula de panno serico blavii coloris. 

In ix' pertica ij Tuniculae j Casula de panno aureo rubei coloris. 

In x' pertica ij Tuniculae j Casula cum j Capa de panno aureo nigri coloris 
pulverizato cum leopardis et leonibus. 

' WiUiam de Coloin);^ was prebendary of Reoalverland in 1371. 


Digitized by 


JoluumU Ducii 

506 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

In xj pertica ij Tuniculae j Casula iij Capae de panno serico de baudekyn nigri 
coloris ex dono domini Jolianuis Ducis Lancastriae quondam. 

In xi] pertica iij Capae de panno aureo blavii coloris auripicto cum arboribus 
ot leopardis de dono domini Thomae Euere/ nuper decani. 

(p. 16.) Item in xiij* pertica j Casula ij Tuniculae ex eadem secta de dono ejusdem. 

Item in xiiij' pertica ij Capae ij Tuniculae de panno aureo, cujus campus est 
blavii coloris, de dono Ducis Lancastriae, pulverizatae cum rosis aureis et pennis 
Ex dono domini | a^bis de ostricti. 

In xv* pertica 3 Capa j Casula ij Tuniculae de eadem secta. 

iln XTJ. pertica vij Capae ejusdem sectae praecedentis. 
In xYij. pertica vij Capae praedictae sectae. 

Item in praedicta domo Thesauraria extra armariola vij Capae antiquae usuales 
et quasi cotidianae albi coloris jaceutes ibidem. 

Item in eadem domo extra armariola sunt xv Capae antiquae usuales et quasi 
cotidianae rubei coloris vel quaai jacentes ibidem. 

Item ij aliae Capae antiquae ex antiquo opere diversi coloris et ij Capae 
antiquae blavij coloris, et j Capa purpurei coloris auripicta cum leopardis, et j 
alia Capa antiqua viridis coloris auripicta diversimode. 

(p. 17.) Albae, Amictae, stolae, et fanones. 

In primis in domo Thesauraria una alba cum una amicta de panno de Reynys" 
cum paruris aureis de historia sancti Thomae Cantuariensis in ymaginibus cum 
j stola et j fanone rubei coloris. 

Item una alia alba de panno de Reynys cum j amicta ejusdem panni et paruris 
ac j stola et j fanon rubei coloris auripictae diversimode cum margaritis. 

• Thomas de Evere, or Eure, dean of St. Paul'§ 1389-1400. 

" Pannos de KeynjB : so called from Bennes in Brittany, the original place of it« mannfactore. 

"I have a shirte of reynes with sleeves pendent." 

Mystery of Mary Magdalen. 1512. 
" Cloth of raynes to sleep on sotte." 

Chaucer's Dream,, 1. 265. 
In 1327 three new clotha of Rains were in use for the high altar at Exeter. Rock, Textile 
Fabria, 68. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paid, London. 507 

Item j alia alba de panno de HejnyB cum j amicta j stola et j fanone cum 
paruris magnanun ymaginum auripictis in rubeo colore. 

Item i alia alba de pauno de Reynjs cum j amicta j stola j fanone et paruris 
auripictis cum capitibus Christi et Petri et Pauli ac armis Angliae et Franciae in 
rubeo colore. 

Item 3 alia alba de panno de Reynys cum j amicta j stola j fanone et paruris 
auripictis cum ymaginibus in colore rubeo. 

Item j alia alba de panno de Reynys cam j amicta j stola j fanone et paruris 
auripictis cum diversis ymaginibus in colore rubeo. 

Item j alia alba de panno lineo cum j amicta j stola j fanone et paruris aureis 
diversorum armorum stragulatis. 

Efc omnia praedicta sunt involuta in uno panno de Oanevae.' 

§ Item in uno alio panno de Canevas j alba j amicta de panno de Reynys cum 
j stola et j fanone et paruris auripictis cum diversis ymaginibus in oolore rubeo 
et albo. 

Item j alia alba de panno de Reynys cam j amicta j stola et j fanone et paruris 
aureis auripictis cum ymaginibus de liistoria beatae Marie Virginis. 

Item i alia alba de panno de Reynys cum j amicta j stola j fanone et paruris 
aureis auripictis cam ymaginibus Cbristo et Apostolis sedentibus in sedibus suis 

Item i alia alba de panno de Reynys cum j amicta j stola fanone et paruris (p. 18.) 
aureis auripictis cum ymagine Christi et passione sua. 

Item j alia alba de panno de Reynys cum j amicta j stola j fanone et paruris 
aureis auripictis cum Christo passo et aliis ymaginibus dirergimode. 

Et omnia proximo dicta sunt involuta et ligata in uno panno de Canevas. 

§ Item in alio panno de Canevas j Alba cum Amicta de panno lineo de Reynys 
et cum Btola fanone et paruris de serico blavio auripiotis cum diversis ymaginibus 

Item j alia alba cum amicta de panno lineo bono cum stola fanone et paruris 
de panno serico blavij coloris auripictis cam G-riffonibus aureis. 

Item iij albae de panno lineo cum iij amictis iij stolis iij fanonibus et iij paruris 

* Canevas = caiiTaB, fV. canevas. Planch^ quotes from Deklcer, in I6I1, " striped canvas for 
donblete." He might Iiave cited Sir P. Sidney, Spencer, and others. See Johnson's Diet- by 

From CanTtabu, the Latin botanical name for hemp, " we have taken onr word canvas to mean 
any texture woven of hempen thread." Boci, Textile Fabrics, 3, 4. 

Digitized by 


508 Tivo Inventories of the cathedral ehv/rck of 8t. Paul, London. 

de veluto blavii colorie enbroudato ciuq ooronis aureis, de douo domini Simonis 
de Sudberya, quondam Episcopi Londoii. 

Item tresaliae albae iij amictae de bono panno lineo cum ij stolis iij fanonibus 
et paruris de serico blaveo enbroudato cum coronis aureis de pennis de Ostrich. 

Item ij frontalia sive duo panni pro summo altari de panno serico albo enbrou- 
dato preciose cum floribus et coronis aureis, et in utroque frontali sunt auripictae 
tres ymagines aureae sedentes in tronis aureis, in quorum uno sunt ymago Sanctae 
Trinitatis, in medio ymago Sanctae Mariae, et ex alio latere ymago Salvatoris. 
Item in alio iij aliae ymagines de eadem secta, videlicet, Sanctae Annae, Sanctae 
Mariae, et Sanctae Elizabeth, cum j parura stricta aurea pro frontal! summi altaris. 
(p. 18.) Item iij albae de panno de Reynys cum tribus amictis ejusdem colons et sectae, 

cum tribus stolis et iij fanonibus enbroudatis preciose cum diversis ymaginibus 
aureis, et uno panno ejusdem sectae, absque tamen ymaginibus. 

Item ij Bidelli* pro summo altari de panno serico stragulato tendente quodam- 
modo ad sectam supradictam. 

Item j frontale pro summo altari de panno serico cum rosis aurei colons et ij 
pennis argenteis de ostrich et j parura longa pro dicto altari ejusdem sectae, et ij 
Ridelli ejusdem sectae. 

Item iij albae iij amictae de panno de Reynys cum ij stolis et iij fanonibus cum 
paruris sectae proxime praedictae, et una capsa pro corporali ejusdem sectae. 

Item ij frontalia et j parura longa de serico nigri coloris pro summo altari, 
quorum unum videlicet principale est enbroudatum cum iij ymaginibus, videlicet, 
Grucifixi, Sanctae Mariae, et Sancti Johannis evangelistae. 

Item iij albae iij amictae de panno lineo cum ij stolis et iij fanonibus de panno 
serico nigri coloris et ij Ridelli ejusdem sectae. 

Item j pannus aureus albi coloris inbroudatus cum ymaginibus " aureis, depu- 
tatus pro frontali summi altaris in festis beatae Mariae, cum j parura longa pro 
eodem altari. 

Item unus pannus aureus nibei coloris operato cum leopardis aureis, deputatus 
pro frontali summi altaris, cum una parura longa pro dicto altari de rubeo velveto 
cum diversis armis inbroudatis. 

Item unus pannus aureus blavii coloris operatus cimi cignis et leopardis aureis 
et rotulis argenteis, et una longa parura pro dicto altari ejusdem coloris, cum 
lepardis aureis." 

" BidelluB : cortina, ex Gallico Bidean, a curtain, Dncange. 
'' Over the word ymagiitibtu ie written avibui. 

' Cum lepardit avreu is redundant, the words et Uopardii aureit having been inserted two lines 

Digitized by 


Tivo Inventories of the cathed/ral chtirck of St. Paul, London. 500 

Item pannufl axireus rubei coloris operatus cum lupis sive aliis bestiis aureis, (p- 20.) 
rosisque et coronis albis, ordinatus pro j frontali pro summo altari ; et unum aliud 
strictum frontale ejusdem Bectae pro dicto altari. 

Item j alius pannus aureus nigri coloris operatus cum damis jacentibus in uno 
nodo, ordinatus pro j frontali pro dicto altari ; cum uno stricto frontali ejusdem 
coloris,. cum cignis aureis, pro eodem altari. 

Item vj ' paria pallarum benedictarum de panno lineo, quarum duo paria sunt 
de opere Parisiensi pro summo altari in uno canevaa. 

Item iiij " Ridelli de serico viridis coloris etragulato cum regTilia de albo et 
rubeo, et ij Ridelli de serico blavii coloris cum pennia duabus de ostrich affixis in 
una rosa auripicta. 

Item trea albae tres. amictae de panno lineo cum paruris de rubeo veluto 
pulverizato et operato cum parvis angelis et armis Angliae, cum ij stolis et iij 
fanonibus ejusdem sectae, de dono dominae Isabellae, quondam reginae Angliae. 

Item iij albae tres amictae cum paruris de rubeo velveto operato cum coronis 
aureis et cum ij stolis et iij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, in uno Canevas. 

Item iij albae iij amictae cum paruris de panno aureo blavii coloris operato cum 
floribus magnis includentibus in se aves mirabiles, cum ij stolis et iij fanonibus 
ejusdem sectae, in uno Canevas. 

Item iij albae iij amictae, quarum duae albae et iij amictae sunt de panno de 
Reynys cum paruris antiquis operatis in purpureo colore, cum diversis ymaginibua 
et garbis aureis, ij stolis, et iij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, in quodam coopertorio de 

Item iij albss iij amictae cum panuis de panno aureo rubei coloris operato cum (p- 21 > 
calicibus aureis et oblatis albis positis inter duas alas aureas, cum ij stolis et iij 
fanonibus ejusdem sectae in uno Canevas. 

Item iiij albae iiij amictae cum paruris de panno aureo rubei coloris pulverizato 
cum diversis gallis et alis aureis, et cum ij stolis et iiij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, 
in uno Canevas. 

Item iij albae iiij amictae cum paruris de panno aureo operato cum draconibus 
aureis et parvis lunis et cum ij stolis et iij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, involute in 
uno Coopertorio de Canevas. 

Item iij alba« iij amictae cum paruris de panno aureo nigri coloris operato cum 
draconibus et foliis aureis et cum ij stolis et iij fanonibiis ejusdem sectae, involutis 
in imo Canevas. 

■ Over the figure vj another hand has written ittj. 

Digitized by 


510 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

Item iiij**' albae et iiij°' amictae cum paruris de panno aureo nigri colons pul- 
Terizato cum leopardis aureis cum iij stolis et iiij'"' fanouibus ejusdem sectae in uno 
Canevas. Item ibidem j alba j amicta j etola et j fanoii pulverizatae cum signis ' 
aureis nigri coloris.'' 

Item iij albae iij amictae cum paruris de pimno aureo rubei coloris pulrerizato 
cum diversis Uteris albis de S. et cum leopardis aureis et cum ij stolis et iij fimoni- 
bus ejusdem sectae, de dono domini Johannis quondam Ducis Lancastriae, inyolutis 
in uno panno de Canevas. 

Item ij albae et ij amictae cum paruris de panno aureo rubei coloris pulverizato 
cum leonibus et arboribus j stola et ij fanones ejusdem sectae, ex dono domini 
"Willelmi Courtenay quondam Episcopi Londofi involuto in j Canevas. 
c,. . Item V. albae v amictae cum paruris de serico blavii coloris, aliquibus ettrum 

operatis cum rosis et ymaginibus aureis, et aliquibus de serico piano, cum iij stolis 
et V. fanonibus ejusdem sectae, omnibus involutis in uno panno de Canevacio. 

Item iij albae iij amictae novae cum paruris de panno aureo blavij coloris 
operatis cum arboribus, videlicet, quercubus aureis, et albis leopardis, cum ij stolis 
et iij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, ex dono Magistri Thomae Euere, quondam Decani 
ecclesiae Sancti Fauli. 

Item iij albae iij amictae novae cum paruris de panno aureo blavii coloris 
pulverizato cum leopardis aureis et foliis albis, cum ij stolis et iij fanonibus 
ejusdem sectae. 

Item iij albae iij amictae de novo panno lineo cum paruris de panno aureo 
viridis coloris operate cum diversis ramis aureis. 

Item iiij"' albae iiij*" amictae quarum duae cum paruris aiireis operatis cum 
diversis ymaginibus sericis antiqui operis, et aliae duae babent paruras de serico 
enbroudato et operato cum diversis armis cum stolis et fanonibus ejusdem sectae, 
in uno coopertorio de Canevas involutis. 

Item iiij'* albae iiij" amictae cum paruris aureis antiqui operis pulverizatae cum 
diversis ymaginibus Rosis bestiis et ramis aureis de colore rubeo cum iij stolis et 
iij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, involutis in quodam coopertorio de Canevas. 

Item iiij" albae iiij"^ amictae cum paruris aureis aliquibus operatis cum ymagi- 
nibus de passione Domini et aliquibus cum diversis armis cum iij stolis et iiij'" 
fanonibiis ejusdem sectae operatis in antique opere diversimode involutis in 
quodam coopertorio de Canevacio. 
(p* 23-) Item iij albae iij amictae de panno de Keynys cum paruris operatis in serico 

* Signie for cygnie, 

b TluB item has been added in another hand. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories tff the catheclriU chwrch of St. Pmd, London, 611 

rubei et riridis coloris cum direrBis amiiB cum ij Btolis iij fanonibus ejuBdem sectae 
ex dono Ricardi Wokyndon'.' 

Item iij albae iij amictae de panno de B^ynjs cum paruris de serico purpurei 
et rubei coloris operatis cum antiquis ymaginibus et leopardis aureis cum ij stolis 
et iij fanonibus ejusdem sectae, ex douo domiui Rogeri Waltham, iuTolutis iu uno 
panno de Canevas. 







Digitized by 


512 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

1. § Item Bunt in eadem Thesauraria vj Calicea, quorum primus est de anro 
puro, ponderante xrij uncias et j qusrterium, videlicet, zziij librae nobiles de 
dono dominae ManEie de Sancto Paulo quondam Comitissae Fenbrochiae.* 

2. Item secundus Calix de auro puro ponderante xx uncias et dimidiam ponderis 
de Troye, videlicet, xxviij libras nobiles de dono domini Alardi, quondam Decani 
hujus ecclesiae. 

3. Item iij** Calix argenteus deauratus de antiqua factura ponderis xxvij 
unciarum et dimidiae de pondere trojano, quae faciunt iij li. iiij s. aterlingorum,'' 
de done Henrici de Norhampton. 

4. Item iiij*" Calix argenteus deauratus ponderis xxj unciarum de pondere 
Trojano, etiam ponderis slix s. sterlingorum de dono Jobannis Teuesbam. 

5. Item T. Calix argenteus deauratus ponderis xvij unciarum et dimidiae de 
Troye xlij e. de dono dominae Elianorae quondam Reginae Angbae. 

6. Item vj. Calix argenteus deauratus magnus et altus ponderis iiij librarum 
de pondere de Troye, videlicet, viij marc, v s. iiij d. factua expensis Decani et 
Capituli de nova factura. 

(p- ^0 7. Item est vij. Calix de auro puro valoris xl Ubrarum vel circiter impignoratus 

per Decanum et Capitulum tempore M. J. Appelby, quondam Decani, pro 1 marcis 
sterlingorum in cista Micbaelis de Northburgh," quondam Epiacopi Londoniensia. 

' " Mary de St. Panl, daughter to Gnido Castillion, Earl of St. Paul in France, third wife to 
Aadomare de Valentia Earl of Pembroke, maid, wife, and widow all in a day (her husband being 
onbappily slain at a tilting at her nuptials), seqaestered herself on that sad accident from all 
worldly delights, bequeathed her bodI to God and her estate to pious uses, amouget which this a 
principal that she founded in Cambridge the college of Mary de Valentia, commonly called 
Pembroke Hall." Thos. Fuller, Eiatory of the Univernly of Cambridge, edit. 1840, p. 61. Oray, 
who was himself a Pembroke man, has helped to give currency to the fable of Aymer de Valence's 
premature death, designating the fonndrees of the collie as 

" sad Chatillon, on her bridal mom. 
That wept her bleeding lore." 
But see Mnllinger, Univeriity of Cambridge, 276 (text and note). " After her marriage she was 
never known by any other name than that of St. Paul." 

" Sterlingorum : see note by Archdeacon Hale in Milman's AnnaU, second edition, p. 518. He 
prints an acconnt of the receipts " de pizide Cmcis Borealis," in 1342 and 1344, and says : " We 
learn from the Patent Roll, 2 Bio. 11., that the common name of the English penny or dmarwi was 
sterUngu*. In the above document the receipt is described as so many pounds * in sterlings and 
half pence,' a phrase which seems to explain the term ' a pound sterling * to mean a pound of 
sterlings, or 240 pence." 

* Michael de Northbnrgh or Northbrook, bishop of Loudon 1354-1361, 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St Paul, London. 513 

§ Item Biint in eadem TheBauraria TJ phiolae sive Cruettae, quarum ij sunt 
argenteae deauratae de una secta, ponderis xxvij uncianim ; duae aliae argenteae 
deauratae diTereae sectae, ponderis x unciarum, et ij aliae argenteae in parte 
deauratae, et in parte non, ponderis xvj unciarum et dimidiae, dimidii quarterii. 

Item una bona navis argentea deaurata cum j parro cocleari argenteo in eadem 
pro incenso imponendo, ponderis xxxvij unciarum, videlicet, iiij li. vj s. viij d. 

Item ii** Thurribula argentea deaurata cum cathenis argenteis ponderantia cxx 
uncias de pondere de Troye, videlicet, xiij li. sterlingorum. 

Item ij Turribula argentea deaurata cum cathenis argenteis ponderis Ixxxvij 
unciarum de pondere de Troye, videlicet/ x U. ij 8. sterlingorum. 

Item ij Turribula argentea deaurata in superficie dumtaxat cum cathenis 
argenteis ponderantia Ixxv] uncias de pondere de Troye, videlicet, viij li. xviij s. 
vj d, sterlingorum. 

Item j parvum Turribulum argenteum deauratum de dono Radulfi de Diceto, 
quondam Decani hujus ecclesiae, ponderis xij unciarium et dimidiae, videlicet, 
xziz s. ij d. sterlingorum. 

Item j Turribulum magnum artificialiter operatum argenteum deauratum cum 
bonis cathenis argenteis ponderis de Troye xij librarum et ij unciarum, videlicet, 
zxv marc, dimid. pro quo dominus Thomas Archiepiscopus libenter dedisset Ixxx 
marcas sterlingorum. 

Item iiij" Angeli depicti lignei deaurati ponendi super quatuor hastas por- 
tandaa supra corpus Dominicmn sive supra Dominnm Regem seu Eeginam cum 
uno panno prout est moris. 

Item ij alta Candelabra argentea cum pomellis et crestis deauratis ponderis de (P' • 
Troye vj librarum i unciarum videlicet, is li. xj s. iiij d. 

Item ij minora candelabra argentea cum pomellis et crestis deauratis ponderis 
de Troye v librarum, videlicet, vij li. sterlingorum. 

§ Item ij pelves sive ij baoini argentei enameliati et deaurati in superficie et 
in medio elevato cum armis quorum campus est rubeus engreilatus cum uno 
griffone aureo rapace, et ex utittque parte unus angelus stans et tenens hujusmodi 
arma sive scutum, de dono domini Ricardi Chikewett, quondam Oanonici hujus 
ecclesiae, ponderis de Troye x librarum dimidiae, videlicet, xxij marc, viij d. 

' Quae valent is erased and videUcel snbetitDted. 


Digitized by 


514 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 

Item ij Bacini argentei [enameliati et erased'] deaurati in superficie et in medio 
cum Bcutis et armis domini Simonis de Sudberya, quondam Arcliiepiscopi 
Cantuarieneis et Bpiscopi London, ponderis de Troye x librarum, videlicet xij 

Item ij Bacini argentei in marginibus et in medio deaurati cum ymagine 
Sancti Petri in uno et Sancti Pauli in alio, quorum unus est bacinus aquarius, 
ponderia vj librarum v unciarum de Troye, videlicet, ix li. sterlingorum sive 

Item iij Bacini argentei dissimiles cum uno lavacro argenteo pendens xij 
librarum de Troye et xxd.,' in quorum uno videlicet in medio est una Rosa 
eleyata deaurata cum ij xx. in medio. Et in alio in medio est una magna Rosa 
deaurata elevata cum ij ymaginibus, videlicet, unius viri et unius feminae, adin- 
vicem stantium. Et in tercia duae ymagines, videlicet, masculi et feminae, 

§ Item unus Oiphus profundus argenteus deauratus ponderis ix unciarum, 
videlicet zxj a. 

Item unus Ciphus de maaero dupplicatus interius cum argentOj cum uno pede 
argenteo, et imo monili * Majestatis in profundo deaurato." 

Item unus Ciphus latus de Berillo pure exterius diversimode concavatus.^ 

Item unum vas argenteum, videlicet, unum Boket, cum uno aspersorio argenteo, 
(p. 27.) ponderans de pondere de Troye iiij libras, videlicet, v li. et xij s. 

Item una magna Crux ' processionalis argentea deaurata cum diverais ymaginibus 
eidem Craci adjunctis, videlicet, cum ymagine Crucifixi, Mariae, et Johannis, 
ac aliis ymaginibus diversis ; et pluribus reliquiis sanctae Crucis et aliis in 
eadem inclusis, ponderis de Troye xij librarum iij unciarum, videlicet, xvij li. 

Item una Crux cristallina pro corpore Christi imponendo et deferendo in festo 
ejusdem Corporis Christi et Paachae, cum corona argentea deaurata supposita et 
impressa diversis margaritis, cum pede et hasta argenteis, valoris ad minus xz 
librarum eterlingorum. 

■ 13.^, i.e. pennyweig'Iit. 

^ Monile, a jewelled anamsai. 

" attre& pectoribne denuBBa monilia pendent." 

Vu^. ^n. Tii. 278. 
• In the maJ^, Defecit ; ei ''In the margin, Defecit. 

' In the mai^in, Non est inventuB in domo Thesanraria, sed est inter reliqniss. Ex[aminatnr]. 

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Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul. London, 515 

Item unum sconaonun argenteum de novo factum cum una hansa argentea, 
ponderis de Troye xivj unciarum, videlicet, Ix s. vj d. monetae. 

Item iij Morsus ' argentei deaurati omati cum diversis lapidibus eb margaritis 
impressi et diversis ymaginibus impositis. 

Item ij sudaria de panno lineo omata cum serico et filia sericiB. 

Item v] sudaria bona antiqua de serico stragulata et operata cum auro et serico 
diversi colons. 

Item V sudaria de serico minoris precii. 

Item X alia sudaria parva de serico et ij" manutergia parva et bona. 

Item i Mitra bona et preciosa de dono bonae memoriae domim Simonis de 
Sudberya impressa cum margaritis et lapidibus preciosiSt et com duobus labellis 
ejusdem sectae 

Item j Mitra antiqua de panno albo serico enbroudato cum ij eteUis magnis 
auireis ex utraque parte et impressa in diversis locis cum margaritis et aliquibus 
lapidibus preciosis cum ij labellis. 

Item i alia Mitra quasi consimilis sed minoris precii cum ij labellis. 

Item j alia Mitra antiqua de panno serico albo impressa cum diversis mai^aritls 
rubeis et aliis paucis albis cum magnis lapidibus aliqualiter preciosis cum ij 
labellis ejusdem sectae. 

Item iij antiquae Mitrae competentes de antiqua factura impressae cimi (p. 28.) 
margaritis et lapidibus diversis cum labellis et aliis pertinentiis suis. 

Item una parva Mitra pro puero Episoopo in festo Sanctorum Innocencium. 

Item iij paria Cirotbecanun episcopalium aurifrisiata cum margaritis et 
monilibus argenteis deauratia. 

Item ij paria Cirothecarum antiquarum episcopalium frisiata cum ymaginibus 
enbroudatis de serico. 

Item iij peciae diversae impressae cum perulis et aliis lapidibus. 

Item iij aniili aurei sive iij pontificalia cum iij lapidibus preciosis. 

Item i pontificale magnum gemmatum diversimode positum in uno hamperio. 

Item i Baculus pastoralis de Mazero sive Cipresso, c\aa. capite argenteo 
deaurato artificialiter composito. 

Et Memorandum, quod dominus Episcopus " habet in sua cnstodia ij baoulos 
pastorales pertinentes ad ecolesiam. 

Item iiij°' magni Quissini de panno aureo antiquo frisiati cum viridi serico. 

*■ In the mai-gin, Deficiimt. 

^ Robert de Braybrooke was then, 1402, bishop of London. He died in 1404. 

Digitized by 


516 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 

Item ij minores QuiBBini de eadem secta. 

Item ij* magni Quiasini de panno serico blavii colons, cmn Cruce alba magna 
per totum, et in quolibet quarterio Orucis eat operatum capud imius leonis aureum. 

Item ij" Quiesini, miua major et alter minor, de rubeo velveto et viridi. 

Item ij' Quissini, unus major et alter minor, de serico rabeo. 

Item ij" Quissini, de panno am-eo viridis coloris pulverizati cum diversis 
leonibus aureis, videlicet, duobus simul sedentibus locis suis. 

Item j Quissinus de panno serico viridis coloris pro majori parte operatus cum 
multis et diversis scutis sive armis. 

Item j Quissinus magnus de panno serico nibei coloris. 

Item vij pulvinaria imius sectae de serico viridi pulverizata cum draconibus 

Item j pulvinar antiquum de serico nigro acupicta cum diversis bestiis, quod 
vocatur pulvinar S^ictae Editbae.' 

Item ij pulvinaria de serico operata cum diversis magnis scutis diversi coloris. 

Item ij pulvinaria de mbeo velveto cum j magno leone argenteo operate. 

Item i pulvinar de blavio serico, cum una magna aquila aurea. 

Item j pulvinar de panno serico cum diversis armis aureis. 

Item j pulvinar de serico cum uno magno Tripode de nigro serico operate.*' 

Item iiij" Quissini de "Worstede " de blavio et albo scaccato.'' 

Item ix pectines ebumei, quorum tres sunt beni, et ij" eorum inclusi in capsis 

Item iiij" paria sandalia bona de panno aureo operata diversi coloris. 

Item unum aliud par sandalium de rubeo serico antique operate cum ymagini- 
bus aiu'eis. 

Item diveraae frengiae de serico diversi coloris invelutae in uno panno pro 
vexiUis frisiandis. 

Item unum vexillmu de serico viridis coloris pre magna Cruce tempore pascali 
cum jmaginibus Petri et Fauli auripictis in eodem. 

Item unus Baculus de ebore pro officio Precenteris in diebus festivis quando 
instruit, cum capite cristallino. 

* Sanctae Edithae : see above. 
** In tke mar^n, Inserantnr ibidem ij. 

" Woretead : a wooUen cloth, so called from its being first manufactured at Worstead in Norfolk 
about the reign of Heniy I. See also Bock, Textile Fabrics, 65. 
' Scaccato ^ cbecked. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 517 

Item ij parvi Baculi pro Bpiscopo puerorum modici precii. 

Item in prima Oieta sunt xxxviij' panni am-ei novi de Rakemaskf ooloris (.?■ 30) 

Item in eadem Cista sunt panni aurei novi xxxij de blavio colore de opere de 

Unde Simuua novorum pannorum in prima Cista Ixi. 

Item in eadem Cista sunt duae magnae peciae de panno aureo antique conauti 
et facti de ij pannis integris de opere antique, tendentes in majori pari» ad 
colorem rubeum. 

Item ij peciae panni aurei antiqoi modici preeii. 

Item iij panni aurei novi de Rakemaskf viridis ooloris. 

Unde Smnma totalis pannorum in una et eadem Cista lixvij, praeter ij peciaa 
parvas praediotas. 

Item in secunda Cista sunt iixviij" panni aurei de Rakemaskf, quorum rviij" 
Bunt rubei ooloris, et xviij sunt blavii coloris. 

§ Item j pannus aureus antiquus rubei coloris auripictus cum Begibus equi- 
tantibus in equis aureis. 

Item unus pannus aureus antiquus purpurei coloris aoripictus cum leonibus 
et magnis servis ' aureis. 

Item j pannus aureus antiquus purpurei coloris cum magnis leopardis aureis. 

Item j pannus aureus antiquus purpurei coloris auripictus segregatim cum ij 
leopardis aureis in circulis aureis. 

Item unua pannus aureus antiquus rubei coloris auripictus cum magnis 
Griffonibus volantibus. 

Item vij panni aurei antiqui quasi unlns sectae de rubeo colore. - 

Item j pannus aureus antiquus rubei coloris cum ymaginibus diversis Sancti 
Petri cimi clavibus pendentibus ad zonam suam. 

Item xvij panni aurei antiqui debiliores diversi coloris et diversae sectae. 

§ Memorandum, quod xxiiij" die Febmarii Anno M'COCC"* quarto liberati 
fuerunt quinque Residenciariis, videlicet, Stowe Decano/ Allerthorp',' Cookes, 

' Ser™, t.e. oervifl, id rapm. 

" ThDniaB Stowe, dean, Walter Cooke, aod W. Storteford, have been already named at the 
begmning of this Inventory, 

B Lani-ence de AUerthorp was prebendary of Cadington Minor in 1388. He was a Baron of 
the Eioheqner. See Eeport of Hi»t. MSS. Com. ix. 56. b. 

Digitized by 


518 Two Inventories of the cathedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 

Storteford*, et Kentewode,* xr panni de Bakemaskf ad dividendum inter eos, 
, g. . videlicet, coiiibet eorum iij panni. 

Item liberati fuenmt x panni aurei de Rakemaskf ad faciendum inde novas 
casulas pro diversis altaribuB in ecclesia. Unde summa pannorum hujusmodi xxv. 

Item postea fuerunt dati et oblati per Johannam Beginam post bellum juxta 
Salopiam," in quo fnit interfectus dominus HenricuB Percy, ij panni ad aunun 
sufficientes et boni valoris campo albo. 

Item postea fuenmt oblati per dominimi Henricum Begem Angliae" in 
exequiis patris sui diversis vicibus vj panni aurei campo rubeo dame ad aitmm 
cum coronis aureis. 

{written on blank leaves of the Inventory of 1402). 

(p- 5.) xviij" Feb. a" 1445. 

Ad Cantariam Thome Stowe '' pondus caUcis vii ix. unciae. 

Ad altare Sancti Dunstani" sub custodia domini Willielmi Bamabe pondus 
oaHcis xiiij unciae et dimidia. 

Ad altare Sancti Johannis/ Cantaria Beatricis de Boos, pondus caHcis zij 

Ad Cantariam Johamiis Beauchamp' in Navi ecclesiae pondus calicis zx unciae 
j quarterium. 

Ad altare Crucifixi apud Northdore'' pondus caUcis iv unciae. 

* Reginald Eentwode was collated to the archdeaconry of London in 1400, and was dean of 
St. Panl's from 1421-2 to 1441. 

'' The battle of Shrewabnry, in whioh Henry Percy was killed, -was fought on July 23, 1403. 
Queen Joan is, of course, Joan of Navarre, eecond queen of Henry IV. 

« Henry V., sou of Henry IV. (who died 20th March, 1412-3). A chantry was founded in the 
chapel of St. Thomas, by the executors of John of Gaunt, " for the good estate of the said King 
Henry IV. during his life in this world, and for his soul after his departure hence." Dugdale, 28. 
This foundation took effect in 13 Henry IT., the king died in the I4th year of his reign. 

* Thomas Stowe, dean of St. Paul's, 1400-1405. For partioularB of his chantry see Dugdale's 
81. Paul's 28, 381. 

* St. Dunstan's altar : see account of its consecration in my Docwnentt illustrating the Eittory of 
Old St. Paul's, 45. 

' St. John Baptist " ad ostium boreale." The foondation deed of this chantry is printed in 
Dngdale 354-356 

' Sir John de Beauchamp. See Dngdale, 26, 386. 

i" The Rood at the North Door, see my Chapters in the Eistory of Old 8t. Paul's, 83. 

Digitized by 


Two InventoricB of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London. 519 

Ad altare sub fferetro Sancti Erkenwaldi pondus calicis 

Ad altare Sancti Dunatani pro Cantaria Hyltofte ' pondue calicia xviij unciae 
j quarterium. 

Ad altare Sancti Joliannis pro Cantaria Joliannis LoveH' et Pulteney" pondua 

Ad Cantariam de Holme' et Bery in capella de Holme pondus calicis 8 unciafl 
i quarterium et dimidium. 

Ad Cantariam Stephani Gravestende ^ pondus [calicis] xvij unciae. 

Item ad Cantariam de Holme efc Bery' alius calix ponderia xix uncianmij alius 
viij imciarum, j quarterii, dimidii quarterii. 

Ad altare Sancti Georgii 

Magna Cruz capellae Domini Ducis Lancastriae ' habet unum magnum pedem 
rotundum de argento ad modum Castelli formatum cum xvj turribus majoribus et 
minoribus per circuitum muri exterioris et xiij turribus infra murum interiorem 
ponderis cum tabula lignea sub base ejusdem xt marcarum et v. unciarum. 

Item in una bursa continetur de pecunia deaurata iij s. iiij d. 

Item in alia bursa continetur de argento fracto ■ ponderis vij unciarum. 

Item in una pixide quadrate continetur de anulia raonilibus et argento fracto 
ponderis xvij unciarum et j quarterii. 

Item in una alia pixide cum anulis pontificalibus continentur xiij anuli de auro 
puro et duo monilia etiam de auro puro et unus dens de auro pure et unum 
coclear de jaspide "■ cum hasta omato cum argento deaurato. 
[Pp. 6, 7, and 8 are blank.] 

• Hyltofte. See Dngdale, 25, 382. 

■• John Lovel, ib. 20, 27. Sir John Pulteney, ib. 22. 

' Roger Holme, ib. 382. " Bishop of London, ib. 388, Ac. 

* For deeds effecting the consolidation of some of the emaller chantries, see my lUgiitrum. 

' John of Gaont, dnke of Lancaster, see Dngdale, 27, 384, 388. This ctoss appears to hare 
been given to the chantry by cardinal Beanfort, son of John of Gannt. A very detailed acconnt 
of it will be fonnd Jn Mr. Maxwell Lyte's Calendar. Hitt. MSS. Committ. Export ix. 54b. Thia 
account is printed at the end of the present Inventory. 

■ Argentnm fractnm, see a valuable note by Archdeacon Hale in Milman's AunaU, second 
edition, 518. The pound and solidns were moneys of account, " the only coin being the penny, 
which broken supplied the half penny and the qnadrans or farthing. The frequent mention of 
argenttimfractum, not carried to acconnt as pence or half pence, would lead to the supposition that 
very small fragments of the penny were frequently amongst the offerings." I have one or two 
specimens of argentttm fractum fonnd in London. 

^ An interesting acconnt of the jasper may be fonnd in Streetei-'s Precwiu SUmee and Qemt, 
part ii. pp. 83-86. 

VOL. L. 3 Z 

Digitized by 


520 Two Inventories of the cathedra} rhnrrh of St. Paul, London. 

Detailed accsount of the cross presented by cardinal Beaufort to the chantry of 
John of Gaunt. 

Una Crux preclare pulcritudinis curiosi operia de argento undique deaurato 
cum ymaginibus Crucifixi, Marie et Johannis et iiij"' Bvangelistarum ad iui" 
comua predicte crucis et sacre Majestatia in medio post, caput. Crucifixi, foliisque 
de lateribus crucis et sub ymaginibus supradictis copiose egredientibus, quorum 
ij sub ymagine Marie, duo sub ymagine Johannis, et ij in capite Crucis, duo in 
cornu sinistro, unuraque in oomu dextro reperiuntur abesse. Brigitur autem 
predicta Crux super basem perpulcram ramis, vitiaque foliis cum splendidis 
Enamulaturis decenter omatum iiij" etiam leonum ymaginibus supportata habet 
autem predicta basis hastam in medio ad modum turris eleratum cum pinnaculis, 
feuestris, et turriculis curiosis cum ymagine Pauli in medio anteriori et ymagine 
Petri in opposita parte posteriori. Appendit autem predicta Crux cum sua base 
de pondere Troiano xix marcas vij uncias. Ex dono reverende memorie domini 
Henrici Sancti Buaebii presbiteri Cardinalis, Episcopi "Wyntoniensis, filii pre- 
potentis Principis Johannis Ducis Lancastrie qui fuit filius Regis Edwardi tercii 
post conquestum Anglie. Habet autem predicta crux in altitudine sua xxvj 
pollices mensurabiles. 

Item ij preciose ymagines Angelorum notabilis quantitatis candelabra ferentes 
in manibus de argento undique deaurato cum alis post terga expanaisj stantes 
super duas altas bases quadratas cum armis predicti reverendissimi patris Henrici 
Cardinalis ex ejusdem magnificencie dono xxvij" die Decembris anno domini 
millesimo ccco°xlTii", anno vero Regis Henrici Sexti post conquestum xxvf. 
Altitude quidem predictorum Angelorum super bases stancium quasi xv digitorum. 
Pondus autem predictorum Angelorum de pondere Troie xxx marce iiij uncie. 

The original of this document is preserved amongst the cathedral archives. 
Press A, Box 74, No. 1946. 

7 JULY, 1445." 

(p. 1.) Tempore T. Lyceua, decani." 

In capella beatae Mariae in custodia Johannis Pembroke a" 1445, 7 Julii. 

* This Inventory ia added on blank leaves of the Inventory of 1402. 
'• Thomas Lisienz, de&n of St. Panl's, 1141-1456. 

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Tivo Inventories of the eaihedral church of 8t. Paul, London. 521 

In primis duo Candelabra cum pomellis et hastis de cristallo omata cum 
argeuto piano cum pedibus et ciphis superius rotundis et stills cupris superius 
ponderis quasi vij marcarum de Troy. 

Item duae parvae pelves planae opens" cum circumfereuciis et circulis in 
medio deauratae, quarum una habet rostrum ad aquam effundendam, ponderis iiij 
marcarum iiij unciarum et dimidiae de Troy. 

It^m una columpna rotunda cristalina continens reliquias diversas emu basa et 
coopertorio rotundis de argento deaurato, et babet in capita crucem cum ymagine 
crucifixi, cum ij lapidibus corallinis ex utraque parte, ponderis vij imciamm et 
j quarterium de Troy. 

Item una parva ymago Crucifixi sine Cruce de argento ponderis quasi dimidiae 
iincia de Troy. 

Item una pulcra tabula pro osculo pacis omata cum argento deaiu-ato operis 
elmatae per totum cum ymagine beatae Mariae puerum tenentis in sinistra et 
pomum in 'dextra in medio praedictae tabulae constituto et habet in planissie 
tabulae v pulcros lapiedes •* virides iij rubies 1 j blodiam in claves argenteos 
infixes non ponderata quia habet tabulam ligniam in dorse. 

Item una parva ymage beatae Mariae de ebore in tabemaculo eburneo sedentis 
cum ij lapidibus rubeis ad pedem tabernaculi affixis cum una capsula de correo. 

Item duo candelabra rotunda de auricalco parva. 

Item unum candelabrum cum ij tenaculis superius cum stile in medio. 

Item unum aliud plate kandilstikkcum cuspide egrediente de latere. 

It«m una antiqua tabula pro osculo pacis de stanne deaurato cum ymagine 
crucifixi beatae Mariae et Johannis. 

Item una alia antiqua tabula pro osculo pacis de cupre deaurato cum cruce 
sine ymagine in medio. 

Item iiij tapeta antiqua mbii celeris quorum tria sunt cum scntis et armis et 
tertium cmn circumferencia viridi et rosis albis. 

Item tria alia tapeta blavii coloris cum popyniayes et rosis rubiis. 

Item ij quissini de veluto rubeo " enbroudato cum cerenis et meremaidf / arma (p. 2.) 
tenentibus ex una parte et scutia in tribus dentricibus ex altera parte. 

* Here and elsewhere the scribe is pleased to ti-eat operis as fembune. ** Sic. 

' Quissini de veluto, or velveto : cnshiona of velvet. Richard 11., in his will, directed his hodj 
to be clothed "in velveto," 1399. The inventory of 1295 makes mention of velvet, with its kindred 
web /u«tuin, for chasubles. "The name of velvet, re/Ztito, seems to point oat Italy as the market 
through which we got it from the Bast, for the word in Italian indicates something which is hair; 
or shaggy, like an animal's skin." Rock, TexfUe Fabrics, 31. 

'' Syrens and mermaids. 


Digitized by 


522 Two Inventones of the cathedral church of St. Paid, London. 

Item unus alius quissinus de veluto rubeo enbroudato cum armia et galea ex 
una parte et nigris avibus ex altera. 

Item ij quissinae unius eectae de rubeo cerioo enbroudato cum rosis albis 
diversis armis et volucribus ex una parte planae ex altera. 

Item quissinus antiquus longns cum ij angelie arma tenentibus in medio et iiij 
evangelistas ad quatuor angulos. 

Item alius quissinus de cerico cum agno Dei ex utraque parte. 

Item ij parvae quissinae vinius sectac cum leonibus albis ex una parte et rubeis 
crucibus ex altera. 

Item iiij pannae lineae depictae de albo et nigro quorum trea pendunt circa 
pulpitum exterius. 

Item unus alius panniia lineus de albo et blodio palido in pulpito. 

Item vj pannae lineae operis elaboratae ad cooperiendnm altare quorum unus 
est debilis et laceratus. 

Item unus alius pannus planus ad idem opus. 
Vestimenta. Unum vestimentum de albo damaaco cum casula alba amicta stola et fanone 

cum leonibus et falconibus in aurificiis casulae. 

Item una alia casula antiqua de albo panno argenteo cum aurificiis auriis et 
cruce argentea in medio cum leonibus ex una parte et flowrdelice ex altera parte 
cum alba amicta stola et fanone de panno albo aureo. 

Item tma alia casula antiqua de albo damasco cum aurificiis rectis medio avibus 
et aliis operibus contextis in eisdem cum alba stola amicta et fanone de panno 
albo enbroudato cum animalibus monstruosis et foliis ederosis ■ de argento. 

Item una bona stola de panno aureo cmn scitis*" diversorum armorum et ramun- 
clis de viridi cerico. 

Item una parura pro amictu de blodio Satyn cum coronis auriis. 
(p- 3.) Item j fanoD de albo damasco aureo. 

Item unum corporale de viridi veluto poaterius et aalutacione angelica interius. 

Item unum frontale de panno Damasceno aureo cum marginibus de cerico rubeo 
lionibus argenteis contestia cmn quinque paginibus de rubeo Damasceno diversis 
ymaginibus et leonibus argenteis desuper contextis cum uno frontello sibi annexo 
cum popynjayes et draconibus de viridi cerico. 

Item unum aliud frontale de panno aureo Damasceno cum frontello sibi annexo 
cum diversis ymaginibus volucribus et animalibus aureis in eodem conatitutis. 

' EderoBiBi i.e. hederoeie. 
•• Sic, for ecatie. 

Digitized by 


Two Inventories of the cathedt-al ekureh of St. Paul, London. 523 

Item rnium aliud frontale de panno aureo opens strt^lati cum frontello sibi 
conjuncto de panno aureo viridi rubeo et purpurei coloris. 

Item unuB pannus niger ad cooperiendum pallium altaris. 

Item unus antiquus pannus aureus ntbei coloris cum e.xtraniis animalibuB de 
blodio cerico cum capiciis auriis. 

Item duo vetustissimae * panni aurei pro altari cooperiendo. 

Item unns alius pannus laneus niger antiquus ad cooperiendum formulare. 

Item unus pannus cilicinus pro magno altari beatae Mariae Virginis. 

Item una magna pulcra Rotula cum diversis canticis notatis incipiena Alma 

Item unum Missale in parva volumine cum kalendario ij" fo. Ah oinni. 

Itein unus pulcher liber de organico** cantu incipiens Salm salcaiidorum. 

Item unus alius liber pulcher de piano cantu ij° fo. Dedicatiim est. 

Item unus alius liber de piano cantu ij" fo. Ave Maria. 

Item alius liber de piano cantu ij" fo. GeUem omnibtis. 

Item alius liber de cantu organico ligatus in tabulis ij" fo. FAeyston. 

Item unus quatemus de cantu organico ij* fo. Vergenie soil. 

Item unus alius quatemus de cantu organico ij" fo. Kiine eleyson. 

Item unus alius minor quatemus pro organis ij' fo. Saplentia. ( 

Item unus alias quatemus de piano cantu incipiens FIoh de spi}m. 

Item unus alius quatemus de piano cantu incipiens Ad ceitam Agni promdl. 

Item unus alius quatemus de cantu organico ij* fo. El In terra. 

Item unus alius quatemus de cantu organico ij° fo. Kirle eteyson. 

Item unus alius quatemus de cantu organico incipiena Patrem otunipotentetn. 

Item unus liber cum Epistolis et Evangeliis beatae Marie Virginis per totum 
annum in tabulis ligatus ij" fo. Gonsummati. 

Item unus alius quatemus de cantu organico ij* fo. Deii» creator. 

Item unus alius quatemus de cantu organico ij*> fo. 

Item una magna cista juxta magnum altarc beatae Mariae pro quiscinis 
imponendis cum cera." 

Item ij candelabra lignia deaurata curta pro cereis super ea stantibus. 

Item una cista parva longa et stricta pro ceriis^ inponendis. 

' Sic. '' The word ji?nH(. Iiei* haw been eiitscd. 

" Gerat i.e. aero, a boll or lock. 
' Ceriis, wax candles of tapen. 

Digitized by 


■524 'hvo Inventories of the cathedral ehnrch of St. Paul, London. 

Item onus panniis lineus in vestibule predictae capellae palidiis ciun blodio et 
albo cum litera de M. et RoBis rubii coloris in eodem contextis. Habet etiam in 
medio ymaginem cnicifixi beatae Mariae [et] Johannis. 

Item una longa cieta in praedicto vestibule pro vestimentis inponendis. 

Item imus antiquus panmis aureus nibei coloris cum floribuB albi et viridis 
coloris in eodem operatis. 

Note on certain pi-ecioae ntones mentioned in the above Inventories. 

Eniclmins : p, .^. 

Pofisibly enicfamne may be connected with the Greek Jfir/ioc, " having moiatnre in it." Can the 
word bare regard to the " water " of the atonei or can the enichmns be the enydroa that " exndat ut 
clansam in eo pntea fontaneam Bcatnriginem " ? Marbodaena de QemmU, 100. 

Compare Onichimij, p. 40. Possibly both may be variations of the same word = onyi. 

Tnrquoise : p. S'-i. 

" It hath its name Tnrcicus," says Baecius, " either because of its excellent beauty, or because it 
is bronght from the Turks." According to old writers, the turquoise was found in their day in the 
remote parts of India, and was conveyed to Turkey to be cut ; whence, probably, it derived its 
name. Streeter's Precious Stonet and Qemt, 2nd ed. part ii. pp. 44, 45. 

Alamandinae : p. 33. 

The precious garnet is sometimes called almandine from the city of Alabanda in Caria. Its 
colour is blood red, cherry, or brownish red. In the mountains below the river Enns in Austiia 
large transparent crystals of almandine are fonnd in serpentine. The crystals which come from 
Siria in Pegu, which arc called Sirian Almandine, are more pi-ized. Ibid, part ii. pp. 79, 80. 

Peridot : p- 35. 

The Peridot waa " at one time considered of more value than the diamond. It is translucent and 
transparent. It is fonnd in the Levant, in Brazil, Atexioo, South Africa, Australia, and other 
countries." Well defined crystals have been fonnd in Vesuvius. It is of a yellowish green colour. 
Ibid, part ii. pp. 101, 102. 

Pi-esmc : p. 38. 

"Presme d'Esmeraude. A base or course Emerauld; whereof there be diners kinds; some 
transparent as the green Jasper ; others of a thick or troubled mallow colour." " Presme," itself 
is defined to be " a near or next kinsman by father or mother, or in a direct line." Probably 
" presme d'Esmeraude " is " next of kin to an emerald." Cotgrave's Dictionary, 1660> 

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The Standing Cup of the city of Westmmgter. 

December I7th, 1865. The Very Rev. the Dean of Westminster exhibited the Standing 
Cup belonging to the city of Westminster, which was thus described by W, H. St. John Hope, 
Esq., Assistant-Secrelary : — 

The Standing Cnp belon^ng to the city of Westminster is one of the finest, as well as tlio 
largest, of its dass and date, in existence. With its cover it stands 28 inches high. It is of 
silver, and wholly gilt within and without. 

The cap is 16^ inches high, with a hemispherical bowl, 10 inches in diameter and 5f inches 
deep. This is joined by a most elaborate batoster stem, 71 inches long, to a wide-spreading foot, 
7 inches in diameter. The general form of the cnp is roughly that of a hnge chalice. (Plate 

The foot has on its lowest edge a bold egg-and-tongoe molding, snrmoonted by a series of 
beaded circles. Then comes the main spread of the foot, which is covered with a fine repooss^ 
scroll-pattern of double roses and daisies, with a tower border of the egg-and-tongne pattern 
The foot is joined to the stem by a bold roll with small stamped pattern. 

The stem itself is difficult to describe. It oonsisbs of a series of richly-ornamented rings of 
various thicknesses and diameters — one of which has three bold lions' faces projecting. Just 
below the bowl, and again lower down, are three scroll corbels like those seen on macee — to which 
probably to secnre a linen napkin when the cup is in nse. 

The bowl is completely covered by a truly splendid scroll of great double roaes and daisies, 
similar to but larger than that on the foot, with a smaller series of the same flowers above and 
below. On one side is a small shield with the arms of the city of Westminster. 

Bonnd.the rim is the following inscription: 


AND lOAre HIS wri^. 168S. 

Under the loot is engraved the weight: 

113 oz. 10 dw.* 

The following hall-marks are stamped on the bowl : 

1. A Lombardio capital 6, the London date-letter for 1604-5 ; 

2. The lion passant gnardant ; 

3. The leopard's head crowned ; 

4. The maker's, I3P in a shaped shield. 

• With the cover it now weighs 8 lb, 6 OB. Avoir, or 122 oz. 8 dwts. Troy. 
VOL. L. 4 A 

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■528 Appendhi. 

So tbat either the cap given in 1588 was re-made in 1604, or Maurice and Joan Pickering gave 
the money with which to bay it. 

The cover is hemispherical in shape, with a pyramidal top. The sur&ce is covered with a 
good pattern of double roses and daisies, with flowers between. One of these ie partly replaced 
by a shield with the city arms. On the top of the cSver is a bold gaflrooned circle, surmounted 
by a smaller one. Above these rises a broad flat boss, ornamented with leaf>work, on which is a 
tall four-legged frame canying a ball surmounted by a winged female figure holding a palm 
branch — representing Peace. 

A very brief inspection of this standing cnp will suflice to show that the cover is of veiy much 
inferior workmanship to the cup itself. Further examination reveals a different maker's mark on 
the top, and the following complete set inside: 

1. An old-Enghsh capital ^ in a plain shield, being the London date letter for 1677-8 

2. The leopard's head crowned ; 

3. The lion passant guardant ; 

4. The maker's mark, I H with a fleur-de-lis between two pellets in base, in a shaped 

So that between cup and cover there is a difference of sevens-three years. 

With respect to the donor of the silver of this cup, I have been fevoured with a few notes by 
Hr. W. M. TroUope, the town clerk of Westminster i 

" Maurice Pickering was keeper of die gatehouse (in Westminster) in the lime of queen Eliza- 
beth, a post which it is supposed his father held before Hm. The oflice was in the gifl^ of the 
dean and chapter, and was considered one of some importance. It cannot be ascertained when 
he was appointed, hut in a paper addressed to lord treasurer Burleigh in 1580, he said, ' My 
predecessor and my wief and I have kept this office of the gatehouse t}iis xxiii yeres and 
upwards,* He was considered a great man in Westminster, and in official documents he was 
styled Morris Pickering, gentleman. At one time he and his wife are mentioned as dining at a 
marriage-feast at the bishop of Rochester's in Westminster Close, and another as supping with 
Sir (George Peckham, justice of the peace. 

On one occasion be got sadly into trouble, for when supping with Sir Gleorge he foolishly let 
out some of the secrete of his office in chatting with lady Peckham (the gatehouse was at that 
time full of poor needy prisoners for religion's sake whose poverty had become notorious). He 
told her ladyship in answer to a question she asked him, ' Yea, I have maneye poore people for 
that cause (meaning religion) and for restrainte (poverty) of their friends, I fear they will 
starve as I have no allowance for them.' For this Pickering fell sadly into trouble, was sum- 
moned before the lord chancellor, examined by the judges and severely reprimanded, upon which 
he sent a most humble and sorrowjul petition to lord Burleigh, praying the comfort of his good 
lord's mercy in the matter, and protesting that he had ever prayed for the prosperous reign of the 
queene, ' who hatli defended us from the tearing of the Deville, the Poope, and all his ravening 
wollves.' It is supposed the Privy Council took no further notice of the matter, as no mention 
is made to tliat effect, only that occasionally he made a return of the prisoners in the gatehouse 
to the justices of the peace assembled at quarter sessions. At times he had some celebrated 

Digitized by 


Appendix. B29 

charaoters aader his oaro — Br. Kyahy, for religion's sake, aud at another time that ' arrant 
scold,' Long Meg of Westnmuter. The beaatifnl silver-gilt standing-cup which he gave to the 
burgesses of Westminster is supposed to be all that is left as a memorial of Pickering. 

The great Standing-Cap is a fine piece of Elizabethan metal>work, and the cover held over 
the heads of those who drank the pledge is sormoonted with what was called in the old art 
language ' an antique ' — properly speaking, ii is a grace oup, not a ' bowle.' The quaint inscrip- 
tion should be read as follows : 

The giver to his brethren wisheth peace, 

With peaoe he wisheth brothers love on earth, 

Which love to seal I as a pledge am given 

A standing bowl to be nsed in mirth. 
The Gift of Maurice Pickering and Joan his wife, 158B. 

These few particulars are gathered from State Papers." 


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580 ' Appendix. 

On cm iron sword of Scandinavum iypefownd in London, now in the British Museum; 
and a bronze stirrup of the same period fownd near Bomsey, in Hampshire, in 
the possession of Philip B. Davis Cook, Esq. 

Noyember 25th, 1886. C. H. Read, Esq., F.8A. exhibited a sword of Scandinavian type 
found in London, and a bronze stirrap of the same period &nnd near Romsej, in Hampshire, on 
which he communicated the following remarks: — 

The sword exhibited this evening by the Rev. J. C. Jackson was bonght from a dealer in 
the north of London by Uie late Mr. Henry Dnnhar Baines. The story told was that it had been 
found in the tomb of the Earl of Pembroke in the Temple ohnrch about forty years ago ; and 
with this history it was left by Mr. Baines at his death, with a desire that it should be presented 
to the British Hosenm. A very slight examination of the sword, however, suffices to show that 
it can have no connection with the Earl of Pembroke ; and the probability is that the whole 
story is an invention, and that the sword was found in the bed of the Thames, a conjecture which 
its condition would Inlly justify' 

Sword of SuudiDATiui tfp« foond in London (oiie-«i^lli llneir). 

This type of sword is of very common occurrence in Scandinavia ; and a certain number of 
examples, differing slightly in details, have also been discovered in this country. For an 
Einglish specimen, however, it is an nnusnaUy fine one, from the elaborate decoration of the 
handle, which, though now much rusted and oxidised, etill bears signs of having been executed 
with much care and skill. The pommel is modelled in the form of two conventional heads of 
animals, once plated with silver, and the detaib are indicate by an intay of copper. The grip is 
formed, in the usual way, of the tang of the blade, which was originally thickened, probably with 
strips of wood, now entirely decayed. There still remains, however, the binding of plain silver 
wire, which entirely covered the grip, and is finished at the top and bottom with a plaited band 
of sinular wire. The present condition of this part of the sword is somewhat deceptive, for the 
wire, which, when the sword was first found, probably encircled the grip very loosely, has been 
bound tightly round it, and thus gives it an unduly slender appearance. The guard is straight, 
with convex faces, and has been entirely plated with silver, and enriched with ornament composed 
of the serpentine animals so 'common in northern art Of this silver plating a great part still 
remains upon the fiices of the guard, but the upper and lower edges are now without any indica- 

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Appendix. 531 

tioo of plalJDg or of ornament. The blade is 2 feet 4) inches long, strught and doable-edged, wiili 
s broad channel down the middle. I Iiave carefiill/ examined the Bur&ce in the hope of finding 

Hilt of BiTOTd of ScaQdiaaTian tjp« found in Loudoti (one-half linear). 

«ome trace upon it either of damascening, or of a maker's stamp, or possibly the remains of one of 
ihose curiouB but unintelligible inscriptions which are sometinies found upon these weapons. 
The state of decay into which the blade has fallen will, however, be sufficient to account for the 
disappearance of any marks that it may once have borne. 

The decoration of the hilt has been very skilfully and laboriously executed ; and the method 
is the same as that now practised by the Indian and Persian smiths in inlaying gold or silver 
over a large surface of iron or steel, viz.: by cross-hatching the whole space to be covered, and 
then hammering the silver pkte upon it, the slight roughing being quite sufficient to give it a 
firm hold. In this sword, however, the details seem to have been first engraved through this 
silver coating, and the lines then filled with copper wire. The animals' heads which form the 
-pommel are bound with twisted and phiited wires bo as to resemble the heads of horses, but the 
-design is purely conventional ; it is not easy to say what animal, if any, is intended. 

In the second part of Dr. 0. Hygh's excellent work on Korwegian antiquities {Norske 
Oldsager, No. 504), is engraved a sword almost identical with our specimen, but found in 
Horway ; and another very similar ia figured in the English translation of Worsaae's Primeval 
Aniiquitiet of Denmark, p. 49. Tboagh the general typo is not uncommon in this conntry, I 
4)ave not been able to find any English specimen which tallies with this one in all points of form. 
ThuD, in the swords of which the base of the pommel and the guard are both straight, the pommel 
itself is triangular, and without the three bosses usually found (and here elaborated into animals* 
heads), while, in those having the bossy pomRiel, the plate at the base is curved upwards and the 
guard downwards. Of this lattor form is the sword found at Santon, Norfolk, with a pur of 
convex oval brooches of bronze, one of which, with the sword, is now in the British Museum. A 
finer example of the same type, found in the river Witham, and also in the Museum series, 
illustrates the sword we have here ; the decoration of tlie hilt consists of rows of lozenges of gold 

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bordered with lines of copper ; the gold plating is Oxed in the same manner, but that in the 
Witham specimen the hatching is formed by perfectly regular vertical lincB. The blade i& 
inscribed with large inlaid letters, perhaps indicating a somewhat more recent date. 

There can be, however, bnt a slight difference in age between the swords of the Santon type 
and of that now under consideration, though the rigid angular form of the latter was gradually 
superseded by the curved guard seen in the Santon sword ; and this form continued to be used, 
with slight variations, for some centuries later. On one occasion, at least, the two types have 
been found together. The discovery is recorded in the Arehaeologieal Journal, vol. viii. p. 424, 
and the objects are figured on the following page. They consist of a sword with straight guard 
and triangular pommel, another pommel with three knobs and the base curved upwards (i.e. the 
Santon type), and a large iron spearhead, with two wings on the socket. These were found, with 
two human skulls, in a field outside the town of Nottingham, Assuming, therefore, that the 
objects were in the same grave, we must conclude that both the swords were iu use at the same 
period. Dr. Sven Soderberg, of Land, informs me, however, that in all the Swedish graves 
excavated by Dr. Stoipe the Santon type of sword is invariably associated with relics of a later 
date than the year 1000, while the straight guard and triangular pommel accompany interments 
of the three centuries preceding this date. The evidence thus seems to point to the conclusion 
that the sword before as was made at the time of transition to the later form of hilt, for while the 
guard remains straight as before, the pommel has already assumed the triple knob form which 
afterwards became its obaraoteristic featare. 

The stirmp which Mr, Davis Cook has been good enough to bring to oar notice is a very 
interesting object, and from its affinity to the sword, as well in period as in style, it is fortmiate 
that they have come before us at tiie same time. This specimen was found in a peat bog at Mot- 
tisfont, near Romsey, in Hampshire ; it is of bronze, 6 inches in length, and, with alight differ- 
ences, is almont of the shape now in use. At the top, where in the modern stirrup is the loop for 
the strap, there is a quadrangular plate, pierced with four holes, by means of which there was 
probably attached to it either the strap itself, or possibly a second plate, now wanting, to which 
the strap was fixed. The only decoration on the stirrup is on the front of this plate, and consists 
of two serpentine monsters facing each other and twisted upon themselves. The silver wire with 
which the design was traced has now almost entirely disapiieared, and only the empty linen 
remain. It is purely Scandinavian in style, and strongly resembles the ornament engraved in 
the bottom of a silver bowl from G-otland, figured in Dr. Hildebrand's charming litUe Handbook 
of Scandinavian Arts, at p. 138. This figure shows also the peculiarity, seen in the animals on 
the stirrup, that tiie tails of the monsters divide into two, and each half forms corves inde- 
pendentiy of the other. In Worsaae's Nordiehe Oldsager (1859), p. 116, fig. 481, is a stirrup, 
8ai<L to be of iron, of the same form, and with similar ornament on the upper plate. The plate 
itself is, however, not a simple square, but has the upper edge extended into a trefoil-headed 
point. In this respect it resembles the preceding figure, No. 480, on the same page, in which tlie 
phite for the strap is hooked through an oblong opening in the top of Hm stirrup. This stirrup is 
much longer in proportion and is triangular in form, not round lite our specimen and Worsaae's 

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Appendix^ 583 

No. 481, and is evidently, moreover, msde in a different fashion. So different is it in make, that 
it seems almost impossible that both are of hammered iron. The connection that there seems to 
be between these two fonns, the ronnd and the elongated triangle, induced me to bring this 

BnniM Btirrnp fonnd neftr JUnnM;, Haute (one-half linear). 

«vening rongh drawings of two stirru[a of the triangular form preserved in the Museum, 
one of which was fonnd in the Thames and the other in the Witbam, at Lincoln. They are of 
iron, and the hoop at eaoh side widens at the base into a broad square plate, ornamented with 
spiral patterns iidaid in brass on a roughly hatched ground. This design is so peculiar that we 
have had some hesitation in assigning the stirrups to any precise period or oottntry. It seems 
probable, however, from their strong likeness to the specimen in the Copenhagen Museum, that 
they are, like it, of Scandinavian make, and doubtless of about the same period of manufacture. 

Ornament of the same kind as that upon Mr. Cook's stirrup ia frequently met with on antiqui- 
ties of northern origin found in this country. A spearhead preserved in the Museum of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle has a silver-pUted socket with serpentine animals, and 
Another, fonnd in the county of Durham, with other iron weapons, is similarly ornamented. 
This latter specimen remains in private bands. Though of a somewhat later date, the ornament 
upon the pastoral staff found in the tomb of Ralph Fhuubard, bishop of Durham (1099-1 128), is 
precisely of this character. A representation of it is given in Arehaeologia, xlv. p. 388, pi. xxxi. 

The antiquaries of Sweden and Norway are now giving considerable attention to the antiqui- 
iies of this interesting period in the history of their countiy and oar own, and it is to be hoped 
that before long we may see a comprehensive account of the ample material at theur disposal, 
-which has been brought to light in great measure by the energy of Dr. Stolpe. 

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584 Appendix. 

Notes on a Danish sword-hilt found near WalUngford. 

Kovember 25tL, 1886. Jolm Emns, Esq., D.C.L., LL.I>., F.R.S., President, exhibited and 
communicated the following notes on n Danish sword-hilt found near Wallingford : 

The fragment of a sword which I exhibit this evening was fonnd some tea or twelve years 
ago at or near Wallingford, and was added to my collection by my son, Mr, Arthur J. Evans^ 
F.S-A. Unfortunately the greater part of the blade had disappeared when he obtained the reliOf 
nod what remained of the iron or steel portion of the weapon was much oxidized, so that the 
silver plates with which the upper and lower guards of tlie hilt were decorated had become 
detached. Of the pommel, which was likewise in silver, only some fragments had been preserved. 
Enough, however, remained to show the shape and character ; so that the restoration, which haa 
been skilfully effected by Mr. W. Talbot Ready, may, I think, be trusted as showing the original 
form of the whole hilt What remains of the blade is about 5^ inches long by about 2 in. broad. 

The guards above and below the actual grip for the hand curve upwards and downwards 
respectively, the upper being about five inches in extreme length and the lower about four and 
a-half. On the sides of the guards are highly-ornamented silver plates, each of which differs 
from the others in the details of its design, though in general features they resemble each other. 
The design is in each case divided into five nearly equal lengths, and in the centre and at both 
ends of every plate is a round-ended or quasi-oval compartment, the intermediate spaces being 
filled in with highly artistic devices. 

It will perhaps be well briefly to describe these plates, the engraving of which was apparently 
iieightened by niello, of which traces remain. 

Upper guard No. 1. (A in phtte.) The three oval compartments are filled with designs 
differing from each other and from those on No. 2, but bearing the same general character. Tbe 
spaces between them are filled with zoomorphic patterns, difficult of description. That on the left 
shows a quadruped with a branched and leafy tail, some portions of which pass over its back and 
through its neck. Its position on the guard is with the back of the animal towards the hand. The 
other figure appears to be that of a dragon twisted into an S-like form, and with a head and 
wings at each end. 

Upper guard No. 2. (B.) The compartments are filled with scroll and leaf patterns, and 
the intermediate spaces are filled, the one with an interlaced band with a central Iret, and the 
other with a dragon having its tail in a triangular interlacing knot, and the head turned back. 

Lower guard No. 1. (C ) The three couipartmente are again filled with different designs, that 
on the right being possibly zoomorphic. In the space on the left is a curious animal with a dog- 
like head lying between its two fore paws ; over the back is a semicircular ring connecting the 
fore legs ; behind appear to be two wings with a bird's tail between them. In the right-hand 
space is an interlaced figure, apparently that of a dragon. 

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Appendix. 535 

Lower guard No 2 (D.) The three oompartmentB are again d-fferentlj ornamented. That 
in the centre has a peculiar design, possibly zoomorphic The space on the left is tilled with a 
pattern in which can be traced the outlines of a bird. On the right is a human figure holding 
a branch in his right hand. The bod; is turned to the right and the head to the left There is 
some appearance of a wing over the left shoulder. 

The pommel (E, F), which is broad and flattened, is unfortonatelj very im]>erfeet The 
outline of each side has formed an ogee curve. The ends next the guard are in the shape of 
animals' heads, like those of squirrels, the ears of which are oval, with three sunk triangular 
spaces upon them Behind the ears is a beaded band, which is continued up the side of the 
pommel. Two similar bands have run down each of the faces of the pommel ; outside them it 
has been ornamented with a foliated pattern. Too little remains of the pommel between the bands 
to determine the character of its ornamentation. 

Judging from the form of the hill and the style of its decoration, there can be little doubt 
that it is of Scandinavian rather than Saxon manufacture At the same time I am unable to 
find an exactly analogous example. The sword from the nver Witham near Ijnooln, engraved 
in florae Feralet (Plate XXVI. 5), has the guards and pommel of nearly the same form as mine, 
but the lower guard is shorter in proportion, and t)ie ornamentation is of a quite different 
character. The pommel of a Viking ' sword found in the island of Eigg is similar to mine in 
outline, but differs from it entirely in details. 

The curved guards find somewhat of a parallel in a sword from Scania ** in the Stockholm 
Museum, but the decoration is quite different. 

Another sword in the Stockholm Museum ° has the curved guards and {lommel ending in 
animals' heads, so as in general character much to resemble that from Wallingford. It is, 
however, ornamented with silver, inlaid in the iron In fine lines and points, and not by means of 
silver plates. 

With the sword there was a small fragment of a thin gold plate [d), which adheres to a piece 
of ruste<l iron. It is only ^ inch Ion;; and f inch broad, and comes to an acute angle at one end, as 
if it had, when perfect, fitted in a triangular recess. The surftice is ornamented with a roughly 
triangular compartment enclosing a spiral, the ornament being formed of flat wire with a cable 
pattern on one e<Ige, which has been burnt on to the plate. It is hard to say to what part of the 
sword this plate belonged. It may, moreover, have been a decoration of the scabbard. On a 
somewhat similar pommel, however, also terminating in animals' heads, preserved in the British 
Museum, is a central plate of gold ornamented with fiUgree work. This pommel, which is 
probably Danish, was found in the Seine at Paris. 

As ahready observed, this sword Is Scandinavian or Danish rather tlian Saxon in character, 
and from its style of ornament it must be assigned to the end of the tenth or tlic beginning of the 

• Proc. >ioc. Ant. Scot. vol. sii. PI. xxx. 

" AarbSg. for Oldkynd. 1880, p. 347. 
' ilontelitti Antiquilen Suiidoiae», fig. 506. 
VOL. L. 4 B 

Digitized by 


636 Appendix. 

eleventh century. It becomes, therefore, a question of interest whether we can in any way 
connect the occurrence of sarh a relic at Wallingford with any of the Danish invasionB recorded 
in history- ; and it is satisfactory to find, that so far ub the presence of the Danes at that inland 
town is concerned, there is not the slightest difficulty. 

In July 1006 it is recorded that an innumerable fleet of Danish ships landed at Sandwich, 
and the warriors it brought ravaged parts of Kent and Sussex, and when attacked by iBthelred 
retreated to their ships, from time to time renewing their plundering expeditions. In the 
autumn they brought great booty to the Isle of Wight, and thence made an incursion at 
ChrtstmaB through Hants into Berks, burning the towns of Beading, Wallingford, and Cholsey.* 

Again, in the year 1013, king Sweyn and his army, when unsuccessful in their siege of 
London, retreated to Wallingford,'' and so over the Thames westward to Bath, burning and 
harr}'ing by the way in their accustomed manner- 

Of one or other of these expeditions it seems most probable that the sword before us is a 
relic ; and it is satisfactory to find that a date, assigned on purely archaeological grounds, so 
accurately accords with that which must be attributed to it upon historical evidence. 

' Flor. Wig.Sen. Eunteftd.—Ang. Sax. Chron. ». a. lOOe. 
» 0pp. oitt. I. a. 1013. 

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Abbey chnrcbee, tee " Battle," " Cleeve," " Qlas- 
tonbury," " Meaui," " Sawtre," " Tyrone," 

Acconnt books of St. Stephen, Coleman Street, 
London, 22 

Acre, definition oE, at Malmosbnry, 434-435 

Adam, resurrection oE, ornamentation subject on 
cross at St. Pftol's cathedral, 445, 471 

Addnbbatam, nee of word, 470 

.^gil, the aun-archer of Teutonic myth, place 
named from, 81 

Affuratores of Aylesbury, 94, 103 

Agriculture, common field system at Bottesford, 
374, 382 ; at Malmesbury, 427, 437 

■ see " Meadow," " Pasture " 

Alamandinae, garnet sometimes so called, 524 

Albigenses, sect of the, 306 

Aldebome manor, burgesses in Cricklade belong- 
ing to, 208 

Aldeburgh (Margery do) will of (1391), 183 

Aldei'man, chief oEBcer of Malmesbury, 428, 434 

Aid helm, work of at Malmesbury, 426 

Ale-tasters of Aylesbury, 103 

Alexander III., Pope, chai-tere by to "Wells, 315, 
316, 353 ; confirmation of the possessions of 
the church at Bath by, 353-355 

Alford (Theophilus), vicar of St. Stephen's, Cole- 
man Street (1660), 32-33 

Alfred (laws of), pre-emption in, 209 

Alien monasteries in Somersetshire, 360 

priories, seizure of by Edward III. 254 

Alienation of lands at Malmeebnry, 436-438 

VOL. L. 4 

Alleys, in the parish of St. Stephen, Coleman 

Street, London, 17, 33 
Allington, possession of Hamble priory in, 

Altar, dedications of, to be recorded, 70 
Amber beads, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 397, 398, 

399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404 
Ambresbury, religious foundation at, by Henry 

II. 302 
Ambrose (St.), representation of, on seal, 126 
American Indians, common rights of food 

amongst, 197 
Amphitheatre, Roman, at Silchester, 266 
Ampallae, silver, belonging to St. Paul's catbe- 

dral (1245), 443, 467 
Ancestral shares of village community, 207 
Ancholme, river, old channel of the, 361, 368- 

Andrew (St.), relics of belonging to St. Paul's 

cathedral (1245), 453 

representations of, 119, 165 

Angelo (Michael),arratigement of Fasti Capitolini 

by, 236, 245 
Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Sleaford, 383-406 

chnrcb at Deerhurst, 66-71 

villeins, holdings of, 207 

Anglo-Saxons, growth of new communities 

amongst the, 200 

— method of settlement in Britain, 214 

conquest of Malmesbury district by, 423, 

ADimal bones discovered i 
tery at Sleaford, 388 

Anglo-Saxon ceme- 

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Animal tooth used as pendant, diBcovered in 

Anglo-Saxon graves, 391 
Annecy (Ricliardde), grants oE to Hamble priory, 

Aqnae Solis, road from Silchester to, 266 
Archer (Dr.), Archdeacon of Tannton and of 

Wells, 295 
Archery bntts at Bottesford, 377 
Architecture, fifteenth centnry, 283 

■ , Norman, in Italy, 409-419 

, Roman, near Late of Nemi, 64-65 

• , Sftion, at Deerhurst, 66-71 

— of Lichfield cathedral, 14 

of the Regia at Rome, 247-250 

of WellB cathedral, 339-344 

of Westminster Hall, 5-8 

Ardleigh Uanor belonging to St. Paul's, 487 

Areete, cloth of, 480 

Argentnm fractnm, 519 

Ariciua (Diana), temple of, 58-65 

Armilla, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 391. 402 
Armour of Sir Philip Hinckaert, fifteenth centnry, 


■ see " Helmet" 

Armourers' and Braziers' Company, mazer belong- 
ing to, 137, 171-172 
Arms of Thomas Ballard, 151, 152 

Beaachamp, 141 

Cotes family, 137, 174 

Hinckaert, 73 

Ironmongers' Company, London, 161 

■ unknown, on mazer, 172 
Arras cloth, 480 

Arrow-head mark used by masons, 2-3 
Art, fifteenth centnry, 283, 284, 286 
Artemisinm (the), excavations on supposed site 

of, 58-65 
Arthnrian legend, publication of, 310 
Arundel (Richard, earl of), will of (1392), 

Arval records, inscribed on walls of temple at 

Rome, 236 
Ascension, representation of at Friskney, 281-283 

n seal, 124 
1 Somerset- 

Asia Minor, masons' mark in, 3 

Assault, actions for, in manor court, 100, 101, 

372, 375 
Assembly, the, at Malmesbnry, 432 
Aflsistants of Malmesbory, 430, 431, 434 
Athelstan (King), grants to Malmesbury by, 

427, 433, 437 
Atkik^ON (Ai.frkd), Notes on an ancient boat 

found at Brigg, 361-370 
Atrium, nse of the woi-d, 243-244 
Atrium Vestae, meaning of, 243-245 
Angnstine (St.), i-epresentation of, c 
Augustinian canons, monasteries of i 

shire, 360 
Anlescomb, church of granted to Wells cathedral 

church, 357 
Anstralian tribes, common rights of food amongst, 

Axe, representation of on sepulchral stones, 202 
Axe, iron, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

Aylesbury, manor of, 81-103 

Badge, party, seventh centnry, 293 

of Plantagenets, 503 

Bakers, licensed by manor court of Aylesbnry, 

Baldwyn (Sir John), acquisition of Aylesbury 

by, 87 
Ballard (Thomas), anns of, 151, 152 
Banewel, villa of, in possession of Bath cathedral 

(1179), 354 
Barbers, wills of (1392), 183 
Baret (John), will of (1463), 189 
Bari, town of in Italy, 409-413, 417, 419 
Barletta, town of in Italy, 416 
Bams, repair of, presentment of owners tor, 372 
Barrow (North), church of, granted to Wells^ 

327, 328, 359 

Digitized by 



Ban-ow (South), grants at, to Wells cathedral, 

Bartholomew (St.), dedications to, 294 
Barton, home farm of, granted to Wells, 326 
Basilica, Roman, excavated at Silcheater, 267 
Basket-work figures of men on scnlptored stones. 

Basona, silver, belonging to St. Panl's cathedral, 

(1245), 443-444. 469 
Bassock, a thick peat used for fnel, 375,. 379, 382 
Bath, site of Aqnae Solis, 266 

Reginald Fitzjocelin, bishop of (1174- 

1191), 295-360 

chnrch of, grants to, tee "Banewel," 

" Ceddre," " Cherleton," " Chyn," "Dorkem- 
feld," "Evercrez," "Gatinton," " Hi wis," 
" Kingsbere," " Lidiard" 

Balhs, Roman, excavation of at Silchester, 272- 

Battle of Wakefield, 22 
Battle Abbey, mazers at, 130 ; plate in the frater, 

" Battle-stones," stones so-called at Gheckley, 

286, 292 
Bandekins, belonging to St. Panl'a cathedral, 

450-451, 491 
Bavaria, succession cnstom in, 204 
Bay trees, sacred, in the Regia at Rome, 

Bead-necklets, Anglo-Saxon, discoTei-ed at Slea- 

ford, 389, 390, 391, 392, .^3, 394, 397, 398, 

399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404 
Beads, amber, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 397, 398, 


bone, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 403 

■ glass, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 397, 398, 
399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404 

■ porcelain, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 396 

seed capsnles used for, in Anglo-Saxon 

cemetery, 387 


Beates, digging of, presentment against in manor 

conrt, 372 
Beanchamp arms, on mazer, 141 
Beankaire (William), payments to at funeral ol 

Edward II. 217, 220 
Becket (Thomas a), attestation of to charter of 

Henry II. 252, 259 

incidents relating to, 297, 298, 299, 300 

■' Beoket's shoe-bnckle," stone so-called, 142 
Beehive bouses in Italy, 407 
Beer, fines for selling contrary to assize, 372 
Beket (Nicholas), agreement with, by Hamble 

priory, temp. Henry III. 253, 259. 
Belchamp manor belonging to St. Paul's cathe- 
dral, 489 
Bell (Richard), episcopnm Karliolensem (1478), 

Benedict (St.), representation of, 168 
Benedictine abbey at Hamble, 251 

monasteries in Somersetshire, 360 

Benedictionale, belonging to St. Paul's cathe- 
dral (1245), 451, 498, 499 
Benetaon (William), will of (1392), 183 
Berkeley (Thomas de), custody of Edward II. by, 

216, 218, 221 
Berkeley Castle, death of Edward II. at, 215- 

Berkshire, see " Newbury," " WallJngford," 

" Windsor " 
Berling Manor, belonging to St. Paul's, 486 
Bertram (St.), residence of at Ham, 294 
Bibles belonging to St, Paul's cathedral (1245), 

451, 496 
Bid-ales, archaic origin of, 197 
Bigberry Hill, triangular bricks discovei-ed at, 

Binding, see " Book Covers " 
Birch rod, mark used by masons, 4 
Bird-dragons, sculptured on stones at Checkley 

and Ham, 289, 290 
Bischop (William), testimony of to murder of 

Edward II. 219 
Bishops, foreign, holding the See of Somerset, 



Digitized by 



Bitonto, town of in Italy, 413, 419 
filackbnni (Margaret), will of (1433), 186 
Bladen, Caer, British fortress of, 422-424 
Blaise (St.), relics of belonging to St. Paul's 

cathedral (1245), 453 
Blenkenaop (Alexander), will of (1442), 187 
Bljthe (Henry de), citizen and painter of York 

(1366), 182 
Boat, ancient, fonnd at Brigg, 361-37.) 
Bodleian library, MS. of Pirrho Ligorio at, 250 
Bohemond, prince of Antiocfa, tomb of, 416 
Bohnn (de), family of, 297 
Bolton (Richatd le Scrop, Lord), will of (1400), 

Bone beads, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

BouueTille (Richard de), grant of to Wells 

cathedral chnroh, 358 
Bone spindle-whorl, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 392 
Book- covers, fifteenth oentniy, 75 
hairy, belonging to St. Panl's cathedral 

(1245), 451, 497 
Books given to priory of Bath, twelfth century, 

— belonging to St. Paul's cathedral (1245), 

451, 457, 496-500, 523 
church, inventory of (1466),36-37; (1542), 

46 ; selling of, temp. Henry VIII. 20 
- tee " Defoe," " Dugdale," " Lingard," 

" Music," " Rapin " 
Borough of Aylesbury, parliamentary represen- 
tation of, 88 
of Malmesbury, history of as a village 

community, 421-438 
Borongh-Engliah, custom of, 195,211-214 
Boston, gild of St. Mary, 191 
Bottesford, manor records of, 371-382 
Boundaries, fixing of, in Ireland, 212 

of manors intermixed, 378 

of township and manor, 371 

Bovey, chnrch of, granted to Wells cathedral 

church, 358 
Bowls, drinking, or mazers, 129-193 

Bowls, bronte, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

£<nd, 396 
Bowyer (Mai^aret), lady of Bottesford manor 

(1591), 381 
Boy.bishop, ceremonial of, at St. Paul's cathe- 
dral, 446-447, 448. 472-473, 480 
Boznn (Simon), grant of, to Wells cathedial 

church, 3.'j8 
Bracelets, amber and glasR, Anglo-Saxon, dis- 
covered at Sleaford, 391, 392 
leathern, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

foi^, 387 
wire, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

Brackens used for bedding for cattle, 377 
Bradenstoke priory, rights of, in church of 

Cheddar, 368 
Brahminism, influence of, on property, 204 
Braikenridge (W. Jerdone), mazer belonging to, 

169, 170 
Braaiatores, in manor of Aylesbury, 103 
Brannaton manor, custom of, 208 
Brer«ton (Richard), will of (1557), 193 
Brette (Johan), will of (1496), 190 
Breviarium, belonging to St. Paul'ii cathedral 

(1245), 451, 452, 499 
Brewers, in manor of Aylesbury, 103 
Bricks, triangular, discovered at Malmeafanry, 

Bride-ales, archaic origin of, 197 
Bri^, ancient boat found at, 361-370 
Brindisi, churches of, 418-419 
Bristol, wills and inventories of inhabitants, 

British camp at South Kyme, 383 

earthworks at Silcheeter, 265, 266 

remains discovered at Sleaford, 383 

British Muaeum, book in, 496 ; book in, once 

belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 452 

sword, Scandinavian, in, 530, 531, 535 

Brito (Simon), grant of, to church, for murder 

of Becket. 317 
Britons, evidence as to clothing of, 292 
Brixedoue, grant of a hide of land at, 252 

Digitized by 



Brocaa (Sir Bernard), fanner of Hatuble priory 
(1394), 254, 258 

Brodie, scalptnred stone at, 292 

Brokenbnr^h, near Ualmesbary, 423 

Bromfield, church of, granted to Wells cathedral, 

Branze, armillae, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 391, 402 

bowl, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 395 

bnctcle, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 393, 396, 403 

buttons, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 392 

clasps, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389,390, 391,393,394, 397, 398, 399,400 

doors to church at Trani, 414; to tomb 

at Canosa, 416 

earring, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389 

fibulae, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 398 

■ girdle-hanger, Anglo-Saxon, discovered 

at Sleaford, 399, 406 

objects (Roman), fonnd near Lake of 

Nemi, 65 

pendant, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 393, 397 

pins, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

389, 390, 394, 397, 399, 404, 406 

rings, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389, 393, 394, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 
403, 404, 406 

stirrup, Scandinavian, fonnd at Mottes- 

font, 532-533 

tweezers, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford. 390, 393, 395, 397, 401, 403 

Bronze-gilt fibula, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 389 

Brooches, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

Browse (Rev. G. F., B.D.), on basket-work 
figures of men repi-esented on sculptured 
stones, 286-294 

Bmg^ (Walter de), canon of York (1396), 184 

Brussels, castle of Termeren near, 74 

Bachan (David, earl of), signet belonging to, 
105, 106, 108 

Bucket, framework of, Anglo-Saxon, discovered 
at Sleaford, 395, 402, 406 

portions of, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 893 

Bnckinghatn, the " Three Cups," inn sign in, 85 

Buckingham (George, marquis of), acquisition of 
Aylesbury by, 88 

Bnckinghamshire, tte " Aylesbury " 

Buckland, Dnrham, grant of, to Wells cathedral 
church, 356 

Backle, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 393, 396, 403 

iron, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

390, 391, 394, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 

Bnclermaker, will of (1400), 185 

Building agreement, earliest example of, 253, 

Bull of Innocent II. relative to priory at Uam- 
ble, 252 

Bullen (Sir William), acqnisition of Aylesbury 
by, 87 

Burcellcs, a manor roll word, 374, 380 

Bui^esses belonging to manors, 208 

Buj^h (Bernard de), payments to, at funeral of 
Edwanl II. 217 

Burial in churchyards in London (1665), 33 

Bnrial-gronnd of Wells cathedral, statute con- 
cerning, 338-339 

Burial-place, see " Cemetery " 

Burmah, land inalienable in, 204 

Bury, wills of inhabitants of, 186, 190, 191, 193 

Bnticlarins, definition of, 348 

Butler (Theobald le), acquisition of Aylesbnry 
by, 83, 92 

Butlers (Earls of Ormoud), pedigree of, 92 

Bnttons, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 392 

Byzantine infiaence on northern architecture, 

Digitized by 



Caen, hall of the excheqaei- at, 3 

Caer Bladoa, near Malmeebury, 422-424 

Caer Dnr, neai- Malmesbury, 4:22-424 

Caer Segonte, British name of Silchester, 265 

Ofesar (Jalias), as Pontifex MaxirauB, 240-241 

remains of villa bnilt by, 60 

Cairns, Anglo-Saxon, «te " Stone Ciet^ " 

Caistor, Roman station of, 370 

Calefactoria belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443 
Calendar, Roman, materials for kept at the 

Calendar, preserved at St. Stephen's, Coleman 

Street, Imp. Henry VIII, 19 
Caligula, incident in life of, 60; villa of near 

Civita la Yigna, 61 
Calleva Atrebatnm, site of at Silchester, 265 
Calvely (Antony), will of (1562-3), 193 
Cambridge, Corpus Cbristi College, mazer at, 

1.36, 144-146, 157-158, 161, 165 
Pembroke College, foundation of, 512 ; 

mazers at, 1.33, 136, 152-153 
■ St. John's College, Irish MS. Psalter at, 

Cambridgeshire, «« " Ely " 
Came (William), will of (1496), 190 
Camp, British, at South Eyme, 383 
Camville family, grant by, 336, 337 
Camville (Richard de),giftof to Wells cathedral 

church, 356 
Canal, Roman, near Sleaford, 384 
Candelabra belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443, 468 ; (144.5), 457, 521 
Candlestick, Egyptian alabaster, at Canosa, 416 
Canosa, town of, in Italy, 415-416, 419 
Cantei'bury, tidangnlar bricks discovered near, 

archbishops of, disputes with Baldwin, 

319, 320 ; election of Reginald, 321 
■ cathedral, crypt altars in, 71 ; baming 

of the choir at (1174), 303 

Canterbury, mazers at, 129, 132, 133, 143-144 

Christcbnrch priory, mazers belonging 

to, 176-181 

St, John's hospital, mazers at, 143-144, 

146, 171 

Canvas, use of, fifteenth century, 507 

Capital burgesses of Malmesbury, 430, 434 

Cardinals' seals, sixteenth century, 118-128 

Carlele (John, of York), will of (1390), 182 

Carnarvonshire, «« " Clynnog " 

Carpenter, will of (1441), 187 

Carthampton, church of, granted to Wells cathe- 
dral church, 358 

Carthusian Order, fii-st house of, in England, 
302 ; monastery in Somersetshire, 360 

Castle near Ban, in Italy, 417, 418 

near Brussels, 74 

■ iee "Windsor" 

Castor, tee "Durobrivae" 

CatalduB (St.), buried at Taranto, 417 

Cathari, sect of the, 306 

Cathedral church funds. Wells, 315 

Catherine (St.), representation of, on seal, 

Cattle, rights of property in, Ireland, 211 

Cattle, diseased, selling of, presented in Ayles- 
bury manor court, 101 ; orders of manor 
court against, 372, 379, 380, 382 

Ceddre, church of, in possession of Bath cathe- 
dral (1179), 354 

Cellini (Benvenuto), seals ascribed to, 118, 122, 
123, 126-127 

Celtic church in Wilts, 424 

strongholds in Wilts, 421-425 

Celtic, «« "British" 

Cemetery, Anglo-Saxon, at Sleaford, 383-406 

Cenae Pontificnm, probable scene of the, at 
Rome, 240 

Cenis, Mont, fortresses on to be ceded to Henry 
II. 301, 302 

Censera, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral (1245), 

Centuries, corporation of Malmesbury divided 
into, 427 

Digitized by 



Cerde, chnrch and maaor of, in possesBion of 

Bath cathedral (1179), 354 
Ceylon, cnstom of inheritance in, 206 
Chairs, belongii^ to St. Paul's cathedral, +47- 

Chalices belonging to St. Panl's cathedral (1245), 

442, 464-466 ; (1402) 455, 512 
Chancellors' roll, Edward III. entry of moneys 

for expenses of Edward II. on, 216, 217, 

Chandler (Thomas), chancellor of Wells (1454)- 

Chandos (Maude de), grant of, to Wells cathe- 
dral church, 359 
Charcoal discovered in Anglo-Saxon cemetery at 

Steaford, 387 ; among Roman remains at 

Silcheater, 274 
Charles I. diamond of, 112-115, 117 

events of hid reign in London, 23-24 

Charles II. events of his reign in London, 29-32 

letters of, 113-115 

Charters at Wells, 315-316 

Anglo-Saxon, pre-emption in, 210 

municipal, of Wells, 312, 350 

Chasubles belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 449, 

454, 457, 482-484 
Chatelaines, discovered at Sleaford, tee " Oirdle- 

h angers " 
Cheales (Rev. Hi:NRir John, M.A.), on the mural 

paintings in All Saints church, Friskney, 

Lincolnshire, 281-286 
Checkley, sculptured stones at, 286-294 
Cheddar, church of, granted to Wells cathedral 

church, 358 
Cherleton, land at, in possession of Bath cathe- 
dral (1179), 364 
Cheshire, see " Sandbach" 
Chieftainship, succession to, 211 
Childcompton, church of, granted to Wells 

cathedral, 357 
Chillenden (Adam de), prior of Canterbury 

1263-1274, 178 
Christ, representations of, at Friskney, 281, 282, 

Christianity, influence of, on propei-ty, 204 

Chlrch (Rev. C. M., M.A.,F.S.A.),on Reginald, 
bishop of Bath 1174-1191 ; his episcopate^ 
and his share in the building of the church 
of WelU, 295-359 

Church, growth of town ronnd the, at Wells, 311 

Church-bailding, twelfth century, by Begizialdr 
bishop of Bath, 307 ; fifteenth century, 283 

Church goods, inventories of, at St. Stephen s^ 
Coleman Street, London, 19-20, 34-48 

Church-plate, mazers included amongst, 134, sf 
" Plato " 

Church of England, importance of parochial in- 
stitutions to, 24 

Churches, eee " Aulescomb," " Bai-row," " Bath," 
"Bovey," "Brindisi," "Bromfield," "Can- 
terbury," " Carthampton," " Oeddre," 
" Childcompton," " Chyu," " Clynnog," 
" Colchester," " Cudworth," " Deerhnrst,'* 
" Dorkemefield," " Dowlishwake," " Ely," 
" Epwoi-th," " Evercrez," " Exeter," " Fair- 
ford," " Friskney," " Henstridge," " Hiwis," 
" Holcombe," " Homchurch," " Hound." 
" Kingsbere," " Lameia," " Lichfield," 
" Lideford," " Lincoln," " London," " Lovin- 
ton," " Pilton," " Shalford," " South Brent," 
" Stowey," " Taon," " Timberscombe," 
" Walenton," " Warminster," " Wells," 
" Winchestor," " Wivelscumb," " World- 
"ham," "Wynesford," "York" 

Churches, Italian (eastern coast), 407-420 

Churchwardens, ordinances of, at St. Stephen's, 
Coleman Street, London, 20, 48 

Chyu, church of, in possession of Bath cathedral 
(1179), 363 

Ciphi de mazero, 129 

Cirencester, survival of ancient constitution at^ 

site of Corininm, 266 

Cistercian monastery in Somersetshire, 360 

Clare (Lady Elizabeth de Bui^h), will of (135o), 

Clarke (SoMEite, F.S.A.), on the west side of 
Westminster Hall, 9-16 

Digitized by 



ClaapB, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, diacovered at Slea- 

ford, 389, 390, 391, 393. 394. 397, 398, 399, 

■ bronze gilt, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 402 
gilt, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

396, 400, 403, 404, 405 
Cleeve Abbey, fonnding of, 317 
Clement III. Pope, charter by to Wells, 316 
Cleric, duties of, at St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, 

London, 21, 49 
Clerk-ales, archaic origin of, 197 
Cloth, chnrch vestments of (1466), 38, 39 
see " Arras," " Canvas," " Fastian," 

" Rains," " Worsted " 
Clothing, early British, evidence as to, 292 
Climiac monastery in Somersetshire, 360 
Clyde, the, prehistoric boats found in, 370 
Clyfford (John de), will of (1392), 183 
Clynnog church, mazer belongii^ to, 155 
Coinage, ai^ntum fractnm, 619 ; see " Sterling " 
Coins (Roman), fonnd near Lake of Nemi, 65; 

at Silchester, 274 ; near Sleafoi-d, 384, 387, 

390, 391, 393, 399, 401, 403, 404 
Colchester, Holy Trinity chnrch, mazer belong- 
ing to, 156 
Cologne, the master of, paintings by, 79 
Comb, silver, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443 
Common field system at Bottesford, 374, 382 ; at 

Malmesbary, 427, 437 
Common Pleas, cotu-t of, at Westminster, 15 
Commoners of Malmesbnry, 430,431, 434 
Communal rights in food, 197 ; propeity, 198 ; 

worship, 197-198 
Conesby (William), will of (1441), 187 
Congresbury, legendary bishop of, 296 
Constables of Aylesbury, 91, 97 
Constantine, coins of discovered at Sleaford, 
■ 387 

Constantinople, masons' mark in, 3 
Conveyance of alien priories, deeds necessary for, 

Cook, will of a (1601), 191 

Cooke (Charles), lord of manor of Little Carlton 

(1603), 382 
Cooke (Sir Robert), will of (1537), 193 
Co-parceny temtncy in Bomesday, 205 
Copenhagen mosenm, stirrup, Scandinavian, in 

Copes, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, t448, 

449, 454, 475-480 
Corato, town of, in Italy, 418 
Corbeil, abbot of St. Exnperius at, 348 
Cordwayner, fine for keeping a, at Bottesford, 

Corinium, road from Silchester to, 266 
Cornwall, succession cnstom in, 204 
, see " Totnes " 

Coronation of Henry, son of Henry II. 329 ; of 

Richard I. 318, 329-330 
Corrody of monks of Hamble, 253-255, 260-262 
Cotes family, arms of, 137, 174 
Coventry, gild of Holy Trinity, 187 
Crace collection, plan of Westminster Hall in, 11 
Crania, Anglo-Saxon, at Sleaford, 388 
Cremation, Anglo-Saxon, at Sleaford, 386 
Cricb, SS. Nicholas and Katherine church, 

majsers belonging to, 135 
Ciichelade, burgesses of. belonging to Aldebome 

Criminal jurisdiction at Wells, 312 
Crismatoria, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443, 468 
Cromwell (Oliver), opposition to, in London, 28 
Crosses, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 445, 

455, 456, 457, 471, 514, 519, 520 
Crown of Robert Gniscard preserved at Bari, 412 
Ci-own- property and rights, selling of by Richard 

Croydon, Whitgift's Hospital, mazer belonging 

to, 164 
Crucifixion, fifteenth century, picture of, 78 
Cruciform fibula, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 391, 392, 393, 395, 396, 398, 399, 

400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405 
Cruets, silver, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443 

Digitized by 



Crystal, known as Becket's shoe-buckle, 142 

Cacking-stool in Aylesbury manoi-, 99 

order for making at Bottesford, 

375, 378 

Cndwoi-th, church of, granted to Wells cathedral 
church, 357 

Cnmberlaud, manor customs in, 206 

Cuming (Mr. H. Syer), mazer belonging to, 137, 

Cumton, villa of, in possession of Bath cathedral 
(1179), 364 

Cnppa de mazero, 129 

Curry, North, grant of manor of, to Wells cathe- 
dral, 319 

Cnrry (Dr.), purchase of signet of Queen Mary 
by, 110 

Dale, a division or baulk between common field 

lands, 377 
Dalton (Richard de), barber of York (1392), 183 
Damask, church vestmenta of (1466), 37, 38, 39. 

41,43,44; (1542), 46, 47 
Danes, Wallingford burnt by, 536 

inflnence of at Malmesbnry, 435 

sword-hilt found near Wallingford, 534- 

Dantre (John), will of (1459), 188 
Darcy (Sir John), payments to, for funeral of 

Edward II. 221-222 
Davenport (John), vicar of St. Stephen's, Cole- 
man Street, London (1624), 18, 23 
Debt, actions for in manor court of Aylesbury, 

Dedication feast of Wells, 335 
Dedications, church, near Ham, in Staffordshire, 

Deerhurst, Saxoa chapel at, 66-71 
Defoe's History of the Plague, 33 
Derbyshire, aee " Crich," " Hope " 

VOL. L. 4 

Devonshire, see " Anlescomb," " Bovey," " Exe- 
ter," " Holcombe Re^s," " Lideford " 
Diamond signet of Henrietta Maria, 104-115 
Diana Ariciua, shrioe of, 58-65 
Dinau (Goce de^, grant of to Hamble priory, 253 
Dionysins (St.), relics of, belonging to 8t. Paul's 

cathedral (1245), 453 
Diptych, fifteenth century, of Chevalier Philip 

Hinckaert, 72-80 
Dish, silver, belonging to St, Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443 
DivuB JdHub, temple of, at Rome, 235 
Dogs, fines for keeping unlawful, 376 
Domesday, burgesses belonging to manors in, 

right of pre-emption mentioned in, 210 

co-parceny tenancy in, 205 

record of Malmesbnry, 429, 438; of Slea- 

ford, 383 
Domestic worship, 198 
Doncaster, wills of citizens of, 191 
Dorkemefeld, church and manor of, in possession 

of Bath cathedral, 354 
Dorsetshire, see " Stockwood " 
Douce (Francis), letters of, to Thomas Kerrick, 

104-105, 107 
Dover, maison de Dien, 192 
Dowlishwake, church of, granted to Wells cathe- 
dral church, 358 
Dragons, sculptured on stones at Checkley, 289 
Drainage, manur court orders for, tee " Sanitary " 
Drapenynge, action for, in manor court of Ayles- 
bury, 97 
Drinking bowls or mazers, 129-193 
Dttffield (William), canon of York (1462), 188 
Dngdale's HiHory of St. Paul's, corrections of, 

Dur, Caer, British fortress of, 422-424 
Durham, mazers at, 130, 133, 134 
Durham priory, plate in the frater, 187 
Durham, see " Backland," " Finchale " 
Durobrivae, road from to Lincoln, 384 
Dynham (Oliver de), gift of to Wells cathedral 
church, 356 

Digitized by 



Ettglea, bronze and steel, found at Silchester, 

E&rring-beadB, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 389, 392, 394, 397 
Earrings, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, disoovered at 

Sleaford, 389 
silver, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 390, 402 
Earthworms, work of, at Silchester, 271 
Eaatwick (Johnde), painter, letup. Edward III. 

Ebro, baildings on the, 2, 3 
Edith (St.), pillow belonging to, preserved in St. 

Panl's cathedral, 445, 471 
Edward the Confessor, bnildings of, at West- 
minster, 5 
Edward I., wardrobe accounts of, qnoted, 176 
Edward II., death aud burial of, 215-226 
Edward lU., seizors of alien priories by, 254, 

Eels, basket nsed for catching, 374 
Egidio of Viterbo, cardinal, seal of, 124, 127 
Eigg (island of). Viking sword fonnd in, 535 
Elding, small sticks for fuel, 378, 380 
Elephant, scnlptnred on atones in Scotland, 292 

pillar supports in Italian churches, 410 

Elizabeth (Queen), bedchamber of, at Westmins- 
ter, 15 
Ely, mason's mark in cathedral, 3 
Embroideryonchurchvestments (1402), 454-455; 
(1466)37,38,41; (1542), 47 

Carlovingian period, ornamentation on, 

Enfield (John de), payments to, at funeral of 

Edward 11. 217 
Engraving, early examples of, preserved at Bari, 

EnichmuB, a precious stone, 524 
Episcopal reveuue, 326 
Epworth church, mazer belonging to, 165 
Brkenwald (St.), shrine of, at St. Paul's cathe- 
dral, 444, 456, 469 

Ermine Street, course of, in Lincolnshire, 369 

Essex, junior right in, 214 

Essex, s« "Ardleigh," " Berling," "Colchester," 
" Homchurch," " Prittlewell," " Saffron 
Walden," " Sbalford," " TilUngham," " Wal- 

Essex (Geoffrey Fitz Piers, earl of), 82, 85 

Essex (Henry Bonchier, earl of), possession of 
Aylesbury by, 86 

Este (Hippolito d'), cardinal, seal of, 126-127 

Esyngwald (Robert), will of (1443), 187 

Ethelbert (king), shrine of, at St. Paul's cathe- 
dral, 445, 470 

Ethelbert of Kent, superstition of, as to house, 

Evans (John, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President), 
on a Danish sword-hilt fonnd near Walling- 
ford, 534-536 

Evercrez, church of, in possession of Bath cathe- 
dral (1179), 354 

Excavations in Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Slea- 
ford, 383.406 

Exchequer, court of, at Westminster, 13 

Exeter, All Hallows church, mazer at, 162-163 

St. Petrock's church, mazer belonging to, 


Exnperius (St.), 348 

Eyes, diseases of, sapphire nsed for, 444, 469 

Fairford church, mazer belonging to, 156 
Fairs, grout of, to Wells, 311 
Family, house inalienable from, 198 

lands, aocredness of, 204 

property and status, 198-199 

Fan, peacock's feathers, belonging to St. Panl'a 

cathedral (1245), 452 
Famese (Cardinal Alexander), preservation of 

monuments at Rome by, 236 
Fasti capitolini at Rome, 235-239 
Father, retirement of, in favour of son, 203 

Digitized by 



Fayi-fax (John), will of (1393), 183 

Feast, the seeking, a manicipal custom at 

Malmeabnry, 134 
Feasts, mral, archaic origin of, 197 
Female, kinship reckoned through, 213 
Festivals, church, in London, 22 
Fibnlae, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at SleafOTd, 388- 

bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 398 
Fieschi (Uannel), letter from, on escape of 

Edward II. 216 
Fighting, presentments for, in manor of Bottes- 

ford, 373 
Fincbale priory, mazer belonging to in (1311), 

Finger-rings, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 399, 403 
— silver, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 391, 402 
Fire at Canterbury cathedral (1174), 303 
Fishing, manor presentments against, 374, 380 ; 

»ee " Eels " 
Fitz Geoffrey (John), lord of Aylesbury (1275), 

83, 92 
Fitzherbert (Herbert), grant of toHamble prioiy, 

Fitzjocelin (Ranald, bishop of Bath, 1174- 
1191), his episcopate and bis share in build- 
ing the churoh at Wells, 295 
Fiti John (Richard), lord of Aylesbniy (1297), 

Fitz Piers (Geoffrey), grant of Aylesbury to, 82, 

Fitz Piera (John), lord of Aylesbury (1227), 83, 

Fitzurse (Robert), grant of to church for murder 

of Becket, 317 
FItzwilliam (Lady Isabella), will of, 1348, 182 
Foli^re scroll, on sculptured stones, 293 
Folk-lore, tee "Hearth Worship," "Medicine," 

" Myth " 
Font, church, in Ham, 294 
Fontaine collection, mazer from the, 168 


Food, common rights of, 197 
Fools, feaat of, staff for the at St. Paul's cathe- 
dral, 446, 448, 472-473, 480 
Fordwich, right of pre-emption at, 210 
Forests submerged, found in Lincolnshire, 369 
Forfeiture of lands to the lord, in Bottesford 

manor, 373 
Fomellis (Alan de), grant of to Wells cathedral 

church, 357 
FoRTNtM (C. Druby E., V.P.S.A,), on some 
further notice of the diamond signet of 
Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I. ; of the 
king's diamond ; and of the sapphire signet 
believed to be that of Mary, queen of Wil- 
liam III. 104-117 

on the seal of Andrea de Talle, A.d. 1517) 

with remarks on some other cardinals' seals 
of that period, ascribed to Lantisio of 
Perugia and to Cellini, 118-128 
Forty-eights, a section of Malmesbury corpora- 
tion, 437, 430, 431 
Forum, Roman, excavated at Silchester, 267 
Fonnce of a mazer, 131 
France, Henry II. 's relations with, 298 
Franchises, municipal, at Wells, 312, 350-352 
Franks (Mr. A. W.), mazers belonging to, 137, 

158, 164, 167, 168 
Frederick II. Emperor, castle built by, near 

Bari, 417-418 
Freedom, municipal, succession to by kinship, 206 
Freehold tenants, presentment of, at manor 
courts, 372 ; orders against in Bottesford 
manor court, 380 
Prere (Everard), of London (1460-1483), 172 
Freshfield (Edwin, LL.D., V.P.), on masons' 
marks at Westminster Hall, 1-4 

on some remarks upon the Book of 

Recoi'ds and History of the parish of St. 
Stephen, Coleman Street, in the city of 
London, 17-57 

on certain churches on the eastern coast 

of Italy, 407-420 
Friskney, All Saints chnrch, mural paintings 
in, 281-286 

Digitized by 



Fronnce of a m&zer, 131 

Pne!, manor coart orders for gathering at Bot- 

tesford, 378, 379 
Fnneral oblations, rights of, in India, 2X1 
Pnatian, church Tcatmenta of (1466), 38, 41; 

(1542), 46, 47 ; at St. Paul's cathedral, Mi 
Fylfot ornamentation on Anglo-Sason fibala, 3B6 


Oannogiatores in manor of Aylesbury, 103 

Gardener (John), will of (1506), 191 

Garnet ornaments, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 403 

ring, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

forf, 400 

Garrard (Robert), will of (1533), 191 

GatehonsCj keeper of, at Westminster, 528-529 

Gates, Roman, at Silchester, 266 

Oatinton, land at, in possession of Bath cathe- 
dral (1179), 354 

Ganlish tombs, inscriptions on, 202 

Gavelkind, flEstom of, 196, 211, 212 

Oeese, keeping of, r^olations for at Bottesford, 

Owns, see "Diamond," "Enichmns," "Garnet," 
" Jacinth," " Uonile," " Peridot," " Sap- 
phire," " Tnrqnoise " 

Geology of the Ancholme Valley, 368 

Geoi^, the, worn by Charles I. on the scaffold, 

George (St.) and Dragon, representation of, 171 

German law of inheritance, archaic, 205 

German (Samuel), vicar of St. Stephen's, Cole- 
man Street, London (1622), 22 

Germany, Henry II. 's relations with, 298 

Gerrelin alias Hinckaert (Chevalier), miraculous 
incident in life of, 77 

Giffard (William, bishop of Winchester, 1098- 
1128), grant by, 251 

Gild of St. Mary, Boston, 191 

. of Holy Trinity, Coventry, 187 

Gild of St. Francis at Lynn, 188 

of Prittlewell, 193 

tee " Guilds " 

Gilt clasps, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

396, 400, 402, 403, 404, 405 
pin, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

Girdle-hangers, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered 

at Sleaford, 399, 406 
ivory, discovered at Sleaford, 386, 387, 

393, 398, 402 
Gist, taking to, fines for, at Bottesford, 375 
Glasgow, prehistoric boats found near, 370 
Glass beads, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 397, 398, 399, 

400, 401, 402, 403, 404 
window, Roman, discovered at Silchester, 

Glastonbury, abbey of, 308-310 
bishopric of, in connection with Bath. 

Glaunvill (Hugh de), expenditure of, respecting 

Edward II. 217, 218, 221 
Glenfemess, sculptured stone at, 292 
Gloucestershire, see " Bristol," " Cirencester," 

" Deerhui-st," " Fairford " 
Gloves belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 447, 

456, 474 
Godwin (Francis), canon of Wells, bishop of 
- Landaff, 296 
Gold cloth belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 


leaf, use of, temp. Edward III. 221 

Goldsmiths' work, temp. Edward III. 444 

sixteenth century, 122 

GouHB (G. Laurence, F.S.A.), on archaic con- 
ceptions of property in relation to the laws 

of succession, and their survival in England, 

on the history of Malmesbnry as a 

village community, 421-438 
Ghmzaga of Mantua (cardinal), seal of, 126 
Goodwin (John), vicar of St. Stephen's, Coleman 

Street, London (1633), 19, 23, 24, 26-27, 32 

Digitized by 



Grammar achool at Wells, 326 

Oravejard on north side of church at Hamble, 

Green (Evebard, F.S. A.), remarks on the fifteenth 

centopy diptych of the Chevalier Philip 

Hinckaert, chastelain de Tervneren in Bra. 

bant, 72-80 
Grey Friars, monastety founded at Ayleshnry, 

Grocer, will of (1437), 185 
Gnienne (Robert de), merchant of Bristol (1352), 

Gnilds, archaic nature of, 206; worlcmen's, 

twelfth century, 3 ; $ee " Gilds " 
Gnmey (Thomas), mnrder of Edward II, by, 219 
Guy of Warwick, representation of, on mazer, 



Hairy book-covers, belonging to St. Fanl's cathe- 
dral (1246), 451, 497 

Hamble, alien priory of St. Andrew at, 251-262 

Hamerton (Sir Richard), will of (1480), 189 

Hamey (Dr. Baldwin), presentation of ring to 
Charles II- by, 113 

Hammer, use of, for killing the aged and infirm, 

Hampshire, «« "Allington," "Hamble," 
" Hound," " Itchen," " Mottisfont," " Sil- 
chester," " Soberton," " Soathampton," 
" Winchester " 

Hampton Court, Wren's drawings of, 9 

HanapB de mazer, 129 

Harbledown hospital, mazers belonging to, 137, 
138-143, 175 

Harpetre (East), chnreb of, granted to Wells 
cathedral church, 357 

Harris, island of, joint ownership in, 205 

Harry (Alice), will of (1538), 193 

Haselbnry, church of, granted to Wells cathedral 
church, 357 

Hastang (Robert de), payments to, at funeral of 

Edward II. 217 
Hawking, love of, by eoclesiaetics, twelfth oen- 
tory, 298 

Hawking (Rev. W. Bentinck), signet^ring belong- 
ing to, 110 

Hayward of Aylesbnry, 102 

Hearth worship, 198 

Hebbels, a wooden bridge, 375 

Hedge (John), will of (1504), 191 

Helmets, fifteenth century, 285 

Hemp, drying of, in chimneys, fined at Bottes- 
ford, 376, 378 

Hemp dykes at Bottesford, 374-375 

Henrietta Maria (Queen), signet>riiig of, 104- 

Henry II. charters of, relative to monks of 
Hamble, 252 ; confirming peQsi<m8 to monks 
of Tyrone, 252, 259; to Wells, 315 

relations of, with the Continent, 298, 301- 


and Becket, 297-300, 302 

Henry, son of Henry II. 314 ; coronation of, 329 

Henry IV. royal treasury of , mazere In the (1399)' 

Henry V. alien priories dissolved by, 256 

plate belonging to, 132 ; in the royal 

treasury, 186 

Henry VI. regalia, Ac. of, 186 

Henry VII. manor rolls of Ayleabnry temp. 89 

Henstridge, chorofa of, belonging to Wells cathe- 
dral churoh, 356 

Heraldic ornaments at St. Paul's cathedral, 455, 

Hereford and Essex (Humphrey de Bohan, Earl 
of), mazer belonging to, 176 

Herefordshire, «« " Orleton " 

Hide, acreage of the, twelfth century, 327 

Hide of land granted, twelfth century, 251, 259 

Hildereley (Mr. Alderman), actions of, against 
Chai-les I. 27, 31-32 

Hinckaert (Chevalier Philip), diptych of, 72-80 

Hindu law parallel to English custom, 432, 434 

Hippolytna, foundation of the Artemisinm by, 60 

Digitized by 



Hiwia, chnrch of, in poaBBBBion of Bath cathe- 
dral (1179), 354 

Hokombe Begis, chnrch of, granted to Wella 
cathedral church, 358 

Holme (Heniy), will of (1471), 189 

Homestead, sacrednese of, 204.209, 212 

primitive, survival of 'at MalmeBbnry, 


Homilies, books of, belonging to St. Fanl'B cathe- 
dral (1245), 451, 497 

Hope (W, H. St, John), on the English medieval 
drinking bowls called mazers, 129-193 

Hope, sculptured stone at, 294 

Horace, description of journey from Rome to 
Brindisi by, 408, 420 

Horn ring, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at. Sleaford, 

p belonging to pariah church. 

Homchurch, n 

135, 193 
HtnuH, ivory, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1295), 452 
Horse-shoe pattern figured on Anglo-Saxon 

fibula, 390 
Hottentots, custom of killing aged and infirm 

amongst, 201 
Hound, chapel of, grant of to Hamble priory 

Hounds, right of keeping, granted to bishop of 

Wells, 316 
House, primitive land rights attached to, 207 
repairs, orders for, at Bottesford manor 

court, 379, 380 

sacrednesB of the, 198 

warming, archaic origin of, 197 

House-mother, archaic position of, 208 
Honses, beehive, in Italy, 407 

half-timbered, at Deerhnrat, 67 

■ (Boman), excavations of, at Silcheater, 

Hugh oF Avalon, appointment of, as prior at 

Witham, 301-302, 808" 
Hull, wills of inhabitants of, 189 
Human sacrifices, offered in the Artemisinm, 60 
Hnmber, prehistoric condition of the, 869 

Hundreds, corporation of Malmesbury divided 

into, 427, 434, 435 
Hunting, right of, granted to bishop of Wells, 

temp. Bichard I. 316 
Hyrsell, a footpath, 876 

Ham, sculptured stonea at, 286-294 
Illuminated MSS., representation of Ascension in, 

Images, inventory of, in St. Stephen's, Coleman 

Street, London (1466), 40-41 
Imperial stuffs, 485 
Incense- boats, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 448, 467 
India, joint rights of food in, 197 

position of hoose-mother in, 208 

primogeniture in, 213 

Ino (laws of), pre-emption in, 209 
Ingelboume Castle, near Malmesbury, 423, 424 
Inheritance, laws of, aee " Succession " 
Inn sign, the "Three Cups," in Buckingham, 

Innholdera, sanctioned by manor court of Ayles- 

bniy, 96, 103 
Innocent II. bull of, relative to priory at Hamble, 


mazei-B, 131, 133 

i), found near Lake of Nemi, 

i), discovered at Deerhurst, 69, 70 
Insowlynge, outfall of a ditch or drain, 374 
Inventories, early, mazers mentioned in, 176, 185, 
188, 189, 191 

of St. Paul's cathedral, London, 4S9-524 

■ of church goods of St. Stephen's, Cole- 

man Street, 19-20,34-48 
Ipswich (college of), plate belonging to, 191 
Ireland, children called by mother's name in, 

Digitized by 


Ireland, right of pre-emption in, 210 
^^— divisioD of property in, 21 1.212 

sacceBsion cnatotna in, 204, 205 

Irish MS. P8alt«T, at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, 292 
Irisfa gaint, Cataldns, bnried at Taranto, 417 
Iron axe, Anglo-Saxon, diBcovered at Sleaford, 

backle, Anglo-Saxon, dinoovered at Slea- 
ford, S90, 391, 894, 897, 898, 399, 400, 401, 
402, 403, 404 
^^^— key, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

896, 397, 399, 400, 404, 406 

^^^— knives, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389, 890, 391, 892, 893, 394, 395, 396, 

897, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 408. 404 

■ ' ' rings, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 389, 390, 895, 396, 397, ii2 
^^^— Bpear-heads, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 890, 391, 392, 894, 395, 396, 897, 

898, 899, 400, 101, 402, 408, 404, 405, 406 

■ ' ■■ stirmp, Scandinavian, fonnd in Thames, 

588 ; in Witham, 533 
—^— Bword, Danish, fonnd near Wallingford, 

534-536 ; Scandinavian, fonnd in London, 


- tweezers, Anglo-Saxon, diaoovered at 

Sleaford, 405 
Ironmongers' Company, London, mazers belong- 
ing to, 160-161 
Isabella (Qaeen of Edward II.), burial of, 221 
Italy, Henry II.'s relation with, 298 
■ eastern coast, churches on the, 407-420 

Itchen, navigation of the, 254 
Ivory chatelaines discovered at Sleaford, 886-387, 

Izworth, will of inhabitant of, 191 

Jacinth, a variety of the garnet, 490 
Jewels at the ehrine of St. Erkenwald, St. Fanl's^ 
cathedral. 444 

of Charles I. 114 

Joanna, representation of, at Friskney church, 

Jocelin, bUhop of Bath and Wells, 318 ; build- 
ings by, 332-345 
John (king), proposed marriage of when prince>- 

charters of, to Malmesbnry. 438 

John (St.), painting of, fifteenth century, 78 
John (St.) Baptist, representations of, 126, 165 
Joseph, representation of, on seal, 123 
Junior right, custom of, 195, 211-214 

Kafirs of Natal, oOmmon rights of food amongst, 


aocoession of youngest son amongst, 218 

Kari (Robert de). grant by, to Wells cathedral 

church, 827 
Kensington palace, Wren's drawings of, 9 
Kent, junior right in, 214 

see " Bigberry Hill, " Canterbury," " Do- 
ver," " Fordwich," " Harbledown," " Eoch- 

ester " 
Kerrick (Thomas), letters from Francis Donce^ 

Kettell (Sir Richard), vicar of St. Stephen's, 

Coleman Street. London (1563), 18 
Kexby (William de), precentor of York (1410), 

Keys, iron, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

396, 397, 399, 400, 404 
fragment of, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 891 
King, dnty of entertaining, in Ireland, 211 

Digitized by 



Kingsbere, charch of, in posseasion of Bath 

cathedral (1 179), S34 
Kinross, BuccesBion coBtom in, 204 
Kinship, the basis of archaic society, 195-214 
■ basis of, for membership of MalmcBborj 

mnnioipality, 431-432, 433 
EiRBT (Thomas F., M.A.), on the alien prior; of 

St. Andrevr Hamble, and its transferto Win. 

Chester college in 1891, 251-262 
Knives, iron, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 889, 390, 891, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 

897, 398, 899, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404 
Kyaby (Dr.)t imprisonment: of at Westminster, 

temp. £liz. 529 

Labour, travelling gangs of workmen in twelfth 

centnry, 3 
Lace, chnrch vestments of (1542), 47 
Lagoon, pre-historic, in Lincolnshire, 869 
Lake dwellings at Morigen, ornaments from, 881} 
Lambert family, mazer belonging to, 175 
Iiambeth library, books in once belonging to St. 

Paul's cathedral, 452 
Lameia, charch of, granted to Wella cathedral 

church, 858 
Lancashire, manor cnstoms in, 206 

see " Bnry," " Preston," " Salford " 

Land, acre of, at Malmesbury, 434-485 

hide of, granted, twelfth century, 251 

use of the term at Malmesbnry, 435-436 

Landholders of Malmesbnry, 430, 431, 434 
Landholding at Malmesbnry, 433-434 
Langton (Enfemia, lady), will of (1463), 188 
Lathnm (John), canon of Beverley (1476), 189 
Laurence (St.), ribs prcBerved at St. Paul's 

cathedral, 445, 470 
Lantizioof Pemgia, seals ascribed to, 118, 122, 

125, 127 
Laws, Anglo-Saxon, of pre-emption, 209 

Lead mining, grant of, to bishop of Wells, temp. 

Ric. I. 316 
Leap, a long wicker basket, 374 
Leather fragments, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleaford, 391,394 
Lee (Roger de la), prior of Canterbury (1284- 

1244), 177 
Leeke (William), vicar of St. Stephen's, Coleman 

Street, London (1459), 18 
Leet (court), of Aylesbury, representatives to 

Parliament returned by, 88 
Leet-ales, archaic origin of, 197 
Legal actions in manor court of Aylesbury, 94 
LetterB of Charles I. 112-113; of Charlee 11. 

LeyceBter (Richard), grant of rent-charge by, 

Lichfield cathedral, architecture of the tower, 14 
Lideford, church of, granted to Wells cathedral 

church, 858 
Lidiard, church and villa of, in possession of Bath 

cathedral (1179), 354 
Ligorjo (Pirrho), MSS. of, 248, 250 
Lincoln, right of pre-emption in, 210 

stirrup, Scandinavian, found at, 583 

Roman road to, from Castor, 384 

cathedral, architecture of the tower, 14 ; 

inventory of, 441 
Lincolnshire, eee "Ancbolme," "Boston," "Bot- 

teeford," " Brigg," " Ermine Street," " Ep- 

worth," "Friskney," "Lindsey," "Sleaford," 

"South Kyme" 
Lindsey, lands called Wamott rents in, 871 
Lingard (Dr.), history of, on death of Edward II. 

Linnen, church vestments of (14(16), 40, 43, 44 
Little Carlton, manor court of, lord fined in, 382 
Liturgy of St. Paul's, 452 
Lombardy, influence of, in twelfth century, 298 
Londininm, road from Silchester to, 266 
London, armourers' and braziers' company, 137 

British Mnseum, tee " British " 

craft of founders, mazers belonging to, 190 

early watching duties at, 91 

Digitized by 



iMidoD, House of Lords and CommonB, Wren's 

drawings of, 9 
' Ironmongers' com pan 7, mazers belonging 

to, 160-161 

■ Kensington palace. Wren's drawings of, 9 

■ Lambeth Palace Library, 452 

~' Merchant Taylors' company, mazers be- 

. longingto (1491), 189, 191 

• St. Gregory's church, inventory of, 463- 


r bo- 

~ ' St. Giles' chnrch, Cripplegate, mi 

longing to, 167 ; verger's staff in, 7S 

■ St, James's palace. Wren's drawings of, 9 
"-■' ■■ St. Margaret Pattens church, mazers be- 
longing to, 134 

— ' St. Paul's cathedral, inventories of, 439- 

524; mazers belonging to (1295), 176; 
(1402), 185; Wren's drawings of, 9 

— ■ ■•— St. Stephen, Coleman Street, parish 
books of, 17-57 

■ South Kensington museum, mazer at, 162 
■■■ Thames at, iron sword, Scandinavian, 

found in, 530.532 
— — - Westminster, standing cup of the city of, 


Westminster Hall, I-IC 

" Long Meg" of Westminster, 529 

LOTd, fining of, 381-382; forfeiture of lands to 

the, in Bottesford manor, 373 ; position of, 

at Aylesbury, 89, 98 
Lorenzo (St.), representation of, on seal, 120 
Louis TIL king of France, charter by, 348 
Levels of Cary, grants by to Wells cathedral 

church, 327, 357, 359 
LovintoQ, church of, granted to Wells cathedral 

chnreh, 327 
Low (Robert), will of (1454), 188 
Lnmley (Sir John Savilo), excavations by, on 

supposed site of Ai-temisium, 53-65 
Lynn, gild of St. Francis at, 188 


Magdalene, painting of, fifteenth century, 78; 

representation of, at Priskney church, 285 
Magi, representation of, on seal, 123 
Malmesbury as a village community, 421-438 
Maltravers (John), custody of Edward II. by, 

216, 217, 218, 221 
Manor of Aylesbury, 81-103 ; of Hamble, de- 

scent of, from the hide, 252 

customs showing joint ownership, 206 

records of Bottesford, 371-382 

i-olls of Aylesbury, 89 

Manors, burgesses belonging to, 208 
Manuscripts, Carlo vingian period, ornamentation 

on, 289; Irish ornamentation on, 292 
- — ■ — ■ illuminated, representation of Ascension 

in, 283 ; preserved at Bari, 413 

at St. Paul's cathedral, Loudon, 441 

of Pirrho Ligorio, 248, 250 

Maple, use of for mazem, 129 

Marble, use of, in ancient Rome, 228-S31, 235 

Mare (Thomas de la), canon of York (1358), 182 

Mark or boundary, at Bottesford manor, 373 

Markets at Wells, 311, 350 

Marks used for signatures, 373-374 

' masons', at Westminster Hall, 1-4 

merebant's, on mazer at St. Giles' cbarch, 

Cripplegate, 167 
— ^— sheep, at Bottesford manor, 373 
Mara, sacrarium of, at Rome, 240 
Mary, wife of Cleophas, painting of, fifteenth 

century, 78 ; representation of, at Frishney 

chnreh, 285 
Mary Magdalene (St.), painting of, fifteenth 

century, 78 ; representation of, at Friskney 

church, 285 
Mary Queen of Scots, signets of, 105-109 
Mary II. (Queen), sapphire signet of, 104-112 
Masonry, examples of, in ancient Rome, 231 
Masons' marks at Westminster Hall, 1-4 
Mawle, the holy, custom, 201-202 
Maxentius, coins of, discovered at Sleaford, 887 

Digitized by 



Mayor (Lord) of LondoD, interference in election 

of, temp. Charles I. 24 
Mazers, medieval Engliah, 129-193 ; belonging to 

St. Panl's cathedral (1402), 45o, 514 
Meadow, common, at Botteaford manor, 374 

at Malmesbaty, 428 

Measnres of Land, see " Acre," " Hide " 

Meaux abbey, mazers belonging to (1390), 

Medici (Ginlio de), cardinal, seal of, 120-121, 

125, 127 
Medici (Hippolito de'), cardinal, seal of, 121, 

Medicine (folk-), sapphire nsed for diseases of the 

eye, 444, 41)9 
Meg (Long), of Westminster, 529 
Meildolf, settlenieat of, at Malmeshnry, 423, 424 
Mellitas (St.), arm of, preserved in St. Paul's 

cathedral, 445, 470, 471 
shrine of, at St. Paul's cathedral, 444, 

Merchants' mark on mazer at St. Giles' church, 

Cripplegate, 1$7 
MicKLETHWAiTB (J. T., P.S. A.), ft uote on the Hall 

■ of William Rufus at Westminster, 5.8 
Middlesex, junior right in, 214 

see " Hampton Court," " London " 

MiDDLETON (John Hemhy, M.A., F.S.A.), on a 

Sason chapel at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire, 

Mill, »ee " Molendinnm " 
Minerva, representation of, on Romaa intaglio, 

Uining, lead, grant of, to Bishop of Wells, temp. 

Richard I. 316 
Mir (Russian), members of, in towns, 208 
Missale, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral (1245), 

451, 452, 499 

set " Salisbury " 

Mitres, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 446, 

456, 473, 515 
Molendinum, manor court presentments concern- 
ing, 94-95 
Moltetta, town of in Italy, 414-415, 419 

Monasteries, eee " Alien," " Aogustinian," " Bene- 
dictine," " Carthusian," " Cistercian," " Clu- 
niac," " Grey Fi-iars " 

Monasticon of Somerset, temp, bishop Reginald, 

Monile, a jewelled ornament, 514 

MooRG (Stuart Archibald, F.S.A.), docnmentH 
relating to the death of king Edward II. 

More (Bertrand de la), payments to at funeral 
of Edward II. 217, 220 

More (Thomas de la), history of on death of 
Edward II. 215, 219-220 

Morses belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 449, 

Morton (Robert), inventory of (1448), 188 

Morton (Thomas), canon of York (1448), 187 

Moss, forming the caulking of prehistoric ship, 

Mother-right, infiuence of on laws of succession, 

Mottisfont, bronze stimtp, Scandinavian, found 
at, 532-583 

Mountford (Katherine), wiU of (1498), 191 

Mount Sorel (James of), grant of to Wells cathe- 
dral church, 357 

Municipal boroughs, right of pre-emption in, 210 

freedoms, succesBion to, by kinship, 206 

history of Wells, 311 

organization of Malmesbury, 427-438 

Ml'kk (Dr.), letter from on signet belonging to- 
Cardinal Wiseman, 106-107 

Mnral paintings at Friskney chnrch, 281-286 

Mnrimnth (Adam), chronicle of, 215, 220 

Murrae, 129 

Music-books belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 
(1402), 457-4.58, 523 

Myths, *M " .^gil," " Arthurian " 

Digitized by 



" Naked Fields," place ao called at Cheekley, 286 

Xames, twelfth centnry, 313 

^^^— giving of, to mazers, 133 

Xaviculae, silver, belonging to St. Panl's cathe- 
dral (1246), 413, 467 

Nawton (John), will of (1436), 186 

Necklets, Anglo-Saxon, discovei'ed at Sleaford, 

bead, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

foi-d, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 397, 398, 
399, 400, 401, 402, 403 

I7emi (Lake), excavations near, 58-65 

Nomorensis, rex, office of at Rome, 60 

New Zealanders, house-life amongst the, 198 

Newark, wills of inhabitants of, 190 

Newbury, site of Spiuse near, 266 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries moseum, spear- 
head in, 533 

Newport (William de), rector of Wearmonth 
(1366), 182 

Newton (John de), treosnrerof York (1414), 185 

Nicholas (St.), feast of celebrated at St. Paul's 
cathedral, 447 

Nicholas of Myra (St.), shrine of at Ban, 411. 

Nicholans (St.), representation of, on seal, 124 

Nichols (F. M., F.S.A.), on some remarks upon 
the Begia, the Atrium Yestae, and the 
original locality of the Fasti Capitolini, 227- 

Norfolk, junior right in, 214 

see " Lynn," " Norwich," " Santon " 

Norham, land at, granted to Wells cathedral 
church, 359 

Norman architecture in Italy, 409-419 

occupation of Italy, 408 

Normandy, masons' marks on buildings in, 3 

North Cnrry, manor of, granted to Wells cathe- 
dral church, 359 

North side of church, graveyard on the, 251 

Northamptonshire, see "Braunston," "Sawtre" 

Northumberland, see " Newcastle," " Norham " 

Norway, prehistoric boat found in, 370 
Norwich, wills of inhabitants of, 191 
Nottingham, right of pre-emption at, 210 

Scandinavian swords found near, 532 

Nottinghamshire, see " Newark," " Southwell " 
Notyngham (John), will of (1437), 186 
Numa, buildings of in the Regia at Rome, 241 
Nunneries in Somersetshire, 360 
Nuremberg, masons' mark in St. Si bald's 
church, 3 

Oak trees, size of, in England, 367 

Obits kept at St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, 

London, 22 
Ocle (William de), murder of Edward II. by, 

Officei-8, village, payment to by land, 438 
■ — — see " Affuratores," " Ale- tasters," "Con- 
stables," " Hayward " 
Old-people, custom of killing in primitive society, 

Open-field system, archaic mode of succession to 

the strips, 207 
Ops Consiva, sacrarium of at Rome, 240 
Orleton, manor custom of, 208 
Ormond (Earls of), possession of Aylesbury 

manor by, 83-87, 92 
Ornamentation on sculptured stones at Cheekley, 

— ——see -'Fylfot," " Hoi'sehoe," "Swastika," 

" Triqnetrae " 
Osier wattle-work in Saxon architecture, (!8 
Ostrich feather, badge of Flantagenets, 503 
Oswald (St.), arm and finger bone of, preserved 

in St. Paul's cathedral, 445, 470, 47 1 
Osyth (St.), arm of, preserved in St. Paul'.s 

cathedral, 445. 471 
Oxford, All Souls college, mazers at, 1S6, 137, 

150-152,155, ICl, 16G 
Bodleian library, MS. at, 250 

Digitized by 



Oxford, Oriel college, mazer belonging to, 158- 

Oyster BhelU, discovered at Silchester, 272 
OjHters, payment of, by monks of Hamble priory, 



Fainted chamber at Westminster, 5 

Painter, will of (1365), 182 

Painting, fifteenth centnry, in diptych, 72-80 

temp. Edward III. 221 

moral, at Friskney church, 281-286 

Pakington (Robert), acquisition of Aylesbury by, 

Palatine Apollo, temple of, at Borne, 235 

Parisb books of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, 
London, 17-57 

Parker (John, P.S.A.), on the manor of Ayles- 
bnry, 81-103 

Partiameut, return of members to, by Aylesbnry 

Parochial institations, importance of, 24 

Party badge, seventh century, 293 

Pastoral staff of Ralph Plambard, bishop of 
Durham, 533 

Pasture, common, at Bottesford manor, 372, 373, 
875, 379, 382 ; at Malmesbnry, 427, 428 

Panl (St.), representation of, on seal, 119, 120 

Pavements, tesselated, discovered at Silchester, 
268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274, 276 

Pawle (WUtiam), vicar of St. Stephen's, Cole- 
man Street, London (1457), 18 

Peacock (Edward, P.S.A.), notes from the 
records of the manor of Bottesford, Lin' 
colnshire, 371-382 

Peas, gathering of, orders of manor conrta con- 
cerning, 378 

Peckham (Robert), monk of Rochester, 168 

Pedigree of Bntlers, Earls of Ormond, 92 

Pendants, bronze, Anglo'Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 393, 397 

Pendants, bronze gilt, Anglo-Saxon, diacovered 

at Sleaford, 389 
Roman coins nsed as, by Anglo-Saxons, 

387, 391, 393, 399, 401, 403 

silver, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 391, 406 

Pennington (Mr. Alderman), action of, against 

Charles T. 23-30 
Pepys (S.), visit of, to Saffron Walden, 163 
Perci (Gilbert de), grant of, to Wells cath«dna 

charch, 357 
Pereson (Thomas), sob-dean of York (1490), 189 
Peridot, a precious stone, 524 
Peru, ornamentation of men and animals in, 294 
Peter (St.), representation of, on seal, 119, 120; 

at Friskney, 282 
Peter of Blois, as the deacon of Bath (1175-1190), 

314, 320 
Peters (Uagh), trial of, as a regicide, 31-32 
PewB, antiqnity of, in London, 22 
Phialae, silver, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 

(1245), 443, 466 
Philip (St.), the apostle, figure of, fifteenth cen. 

tnry, 74, 76 

re)ics of, belonging to St. Paul's cathe- 
dral (1245), 433 

Photographs of Westminster hall, 2, 3, 9 

Pickering (Maurice), keeper of gatehouse, West- 
minster, sixteenth centnry, 528-529 

Pig, scapula of, in Anglo-Saxon grave at Slea- 
ford, 395 

Pigs, ordei-8 concerning in manor court, 373, 377 

Pillory, in Aylesbury manor, 99 

Pilton, church of, 309 ; belonging to the chnrcli 
at WelU, 356 

Pin, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 
389, 390, 394, 397, 399, 404, 406 

gilt, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 


Fix, silver, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral 
(1245), 443, 468 

Place names, different methods of spelling Ayles- 
bury, 81 

Plague, evidences of, in London (1665), 33 

Digitized by 



Plans of WeBtmineter hall, 9-11 
Plate belonging to Heniy V. 132 

(church), inventory of (1466), 34-35 ; 

(1542), 45-46 

tee " Censers, " Chalices," •' Comb," 

" Crismatoria," " Crosses," " Desk," "Ma- 
" sen," "Mitres," "Phlalae," "Pix," "Salt," 

Plnmpton (Robert), will of (1506), 191 
PoisoQing, practice of, in England, temp. Edward 

III. 220 
Poma, silver, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 

(1245), 443, 467 468 
Pomcerinm, position of the, at Silchester, 280 
Pontes, road from Silchester to, 266 
Pontifex Maximns, hoase of, at Rome, 241-243 
Porcelain beads, Anglo-S»ion, discovered at 

Sleaford, 39G 
Postnmns, coins of, discovered at Sleaford, 408 
Potesgrave (Richard de), payments to, at funeral 

of Edward 11. 217 
Pottery, Roman, discovered near Sleaford, 384 

■ see " Urns " 
Pr«.emption, right of, 209-210 
Prehistoric remains, <« " Boat " 
Presme, a term used of precions stones, 524 
Preston (John), bncler-maker, of York (1400), 

Preston, right of pre-emption at, 210 
Peice (F. G. Hiltos, F.S.A.), farther notes npon 

excavations at Silchester, 263-280 
Priest's di-ess, scnlptnred on stone at Sandbach, 

Primogeniture, cnstom of, 195, 210, 212 
Priors of Hamble, list of, 258 
Priory, alien, of St. Andrew at Hamble, 251-262 
Prisca (St.), representation of, on seal, 119 
Prittlewell, gild or fraternity of, 198 
Privy, common, in St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, 

London (1480-1307), 22 
Processions at St. Paul's cathedral, 459 

in London (1243), 492 

Property, archaic conceptions of, 195.214 

■ insecurity of, temp. Henry II. 315 

PtLLAN (B. P., F.SA.), Notes on recent excava- 
tioDS on the supposed site of the Artemisium 
near the Lake of Nemi, made by Sir John 
Savile Lumley, G.C.B. 68-65 

Punjab, right of pre-emption in, 209 

Punson (Alured de), grant of, to Wells cathedral, 
828, 359 

Race influences on constitution of Malmesbnry 

Corporation, 435 
Radclive, borough and market granted to, temp. 

Richard I. 816 
Rains cloth, 506 

Bapin, history of, on death of Edward II. 215 
Ravenna sculpture, ornamentation on, 289 
Read (C. H., F.S.A.) on a sword of Scandinavian 

make found in London and bronze stirrup 

of the same period found near Romsey, 

Rebus, device formed from, on name of Hinck- 

aert, 73-74 
Reeds used in church ceremonial, 442 
Refuge, temple of at Rome, 60 
Regalia, &c. of Henry VI. 186 

of Scotland, 111 

Regia at Rome, rebuilding of the, 233, 235; 

uses and character of, 236, 240-242, 245-250 
Regicides, trial of, 29-32 
Registers, parish, of St. Stephen, Coleman Street, 

London, 18 
Relics, at St. Paul's cathedral, 445, 453, 470 
Requests, Court of, at Westminster, 5 
Resurrection, representation of at Friskney, 283 
Revenue, episcopal, 326 
Rex nemorensis, office of, at Rome, 60 
Rex, use of the title in ancient Rome, 241 
Reynes, see " Rains " 

Rhyming formula used at 3£a1mesbury, 433 
Richard I. captivity of, 358 
charter by, to Wells, 315, 316 356-359 

Digitized by 



Richtti-d I. coronation of, 318, 329-330 

Richard II, alteration of Westminster hall by, 

12, 13-14 
Richaj'd de Ely.shi-ine of at St. Paul's cathedral, 

Richard (Thomas), will of (1488), 189 
Ring§, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discoTered at Slea- 

ford, 389, 393, 394, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 

403, 404, 406 
ii-on, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 

;i89, 390, 395, 396, 397, 402 
horn, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 391 
silver, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 391, 402 
pontifical, belonging to St. Panl's cathe- 
dral, 456 

of Qneen Mary II. 104-115 

River navigation in. Hants, 2bi 

^^— ordinances concerning the, in Aylesbnry 

manor, 99 
Rivers, tee " Ancholme," " Clyde," " Ebro,'' 

" Humber," " Itchen," " Thames," " Wi- 

Roada, Roman, in Lincolnshire, 369-370, 384 

■ see " Ermine Street " 

Roadways at Bottesford, orders concerning, 879, 

Robert Ooiscard, crown of, pi-eserved at Bari, 412 
Rochester, mazer belonging to monks at, 134 

■ Benedictine priory, mazer belonging to, 

wills of inhabitants of, 187 

Roges (Lady Alicia de), grant of, to bishop of 
Wells, 317 

Romanus (St.), day of, 334-833 

Romara (William de. Earl of Lincoln), grant of, 
to bishop of Wells, 317 

Rome, Artemisinm (the), excavations on sup- 
posed site of, 58-65 

■ Regia, Atriom Vestoe, and Fasti Capi- 
tolini, 227-250 

.-_-■_- wall of Servins Tallas, masons' mark 
on, 3 

Roman basilica excavated at Silchester, 267 

■ canal sear Sleaford, 884 

. coins discovered near Sleaford, 384, 387, 

890, 391, 393, 399, 401, 403, 404 
~^— fibnla discovered in Anglo-Saxon grave, 


— fomm excavated at Silchester, 267 

intaglio discovered in Anglo-Saxon grave, 

. pavements, ornamentation on, 289 

pottery discovered near Sleaford, 384 

remains at Caer Dur, 422 ; at Silchester, 

road to Lincoln, 384; in Lincolnshire, 

Romnlna, inscription of the triumph of, dis- 
covered at Rome, 246 
Bowe (Colonel Owen), one of Charles I.'s judges, 

Bnasia, joint rights of the community in, 197 

nomad family groups in, 200 

^ I ■ town population of, belong to the mir, 

Ruvo, town of, in Italy, 418 


administering of, in London, temp. 

Charles I. 25 
Sacrifices, human, offered in the Ai'temisium, 60 
SamGcial rites, evidence of, in Anglo-Saxon 

cemetery at Sleaford, 387-388 
Saffron Walden, Edward Vl.'s almshouses at 

mazer belonging to, 1C3-1C4 
St. John (Rev. H. F.), mazer belonging to, 137, 

St. John of Jerusalem, knights of, possessions of, 

St. Lo, consecration of church at, to St. Thomas, 

St. Paul (Mary de), benefaction of, to St. Paul's 

cathedral, 612 

Digitized by 



Saints, images of, In St. St«plien'a, Coleman 

Street, London (1466), 40^1 
Salerno, Nomuui cathedivl at, 4 1 9 
Salford, right of pre-emption at, 210 
Salisbary missal, evidence as to establitiliiiig 

general nae of, 20 
Salome, representation of, at Friskney church, 

Salt, vessel for, osed in baptism, belonging to 

St. Paul's cathedral, 443 
Samite stuff, 482 

Samoans, house life amongst the, 197 
Samson, figured on silver bason, St. Paul's 

cathedral, 444 
Sandals, episcopal, belonging to St. Paul's cathe- 
dral, 447, 474 
Sandbach, sculptured stone at, 291-292, 293 
Sandwich (A. de), prior of Canterbury (1244- 

1258), 178 
Sanitary condition of St. Stephen's, Coleman 

Street, Loudon, temp. Edward IV. 21 
orders at Bottesford manor conrt, 873, 

374, 376, 877, 380 

presentments in Aylesbury manor, 99 

Santon, Scandinavian sword found at, 531, 532 
Sapphire used for disease of the eyee, 444, 


signet of Queen Mary II. 104-115 

Saraanet, church vestments of (1466), 39 
Sarum, road from Silcheater to, 266 
Satin, church vestments of (1466), 38, 41 
Savage (Robert), -will of (1391), 183 
Sawtro abbey, 192 
Saxon, see "Anglo-Saxon" 
Scandti-ford, see " Shalford " 
Scandinavian boat- building, 370 

stirrup, found near Romsey, 632-533 

flword, found in London, 530-532 

succession custom,' 203 

■ «« '* Danish " 

Scardeburgh (John de), will of (1395), 183 

School, grammar, at Wells, 326 

Scolds, orders against at Bottesford manor oourt, 


Scotland, children called by mothers' name in, 

' joint tenancies in, 205 

tee " Brodie," " Glasgovr," " Glenfer- 

ness" "Harris" 

Scrope of Uasham (Hem-y, Lord), will of (1415), 

Sculptured stones at Hope, 294; at Sandbach, 

291-292; in Scotland, 292 
■■■'■ basket-work figures of men on, 286-294 
Scnta, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral (1245). 

Seals, abbots, of the abbey of Tyrone, 255, 256 
cardinals', sixteenth century, 118-128 

of Charles I. Henrietta Maria, and Marj- 

n. 104-115 

of Reginald, bishop of Bath (1174-1180), 


• of the prior of Hamble, 255-256 

to charter of Henry II. 252 

— of the convent of St. Swithun at Win- 
chester, 255 ; at Tyrone, 255, 256, 257 
on grant by William Giffard, bishop of 

Winchester (1098-1128), 251-252 

of bishop Wykeham, 254 

Sebastian (St.), representation of, on seal, 119 

Sects, nee " Albigenses," " Cathari " 

Seed capsules, used for beads, in Anglo-Saxon 

cemetery, 387 
Seeking-feast, custom of, at Malmesbury, 434 
Segonte (Caer), British name of Silcheeter, 

Selby (Agnes de), will of (1359), 182 
Separation of primitive groups, 200 
Serapenm, excavation of, at Silchester, 267 
Serpent-dragon, sculptured on stone pillar at 

Checkley, 289, 291 
Servants, swearing of, in Aylesbnry manor courts, 

Sexton, duties of, at St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, 

London, 21, 49 
Shalford, church of, granted to Wells cathedral, 

Shardlowe (Lady Ella), will of (1457), 188 

Digitized by 



Shaw (William), lord of Botteaford manor (1595), 

Sheep-marks at Bottesford manor, 373 
Shoppey, priory of Minster in, 192 
Shield, bosB of, Anglo-Saxon, disooverod at Slea- 
ford, 390, 391, 892, 393, 394, 397, 398, 899, 
■100, 408, 404, 405, 406 
Shirley (S. E.), maier belonging to, 159-160 
Shrines at St. Panl's cathedral, 444-445, 452-453, 

Sibald (St. ), church dedicated to, at Nnremberg, 3 
Signatures, marks used for, 373-374 
Signets of Chariea 1. Henrietta Maria, and Mary 

n. 104-115 
Silcheeter, excaTatioos at, 263-280 
Silk, chnroh veBtments of (1466), 37, 38, 41, 42, 

43,44; (1542), 46, 48 
Silk, marble, nsed for vestmentB at St. Panl's 

cathedral, 450 
Silken staffs, belonging to St. Panl's cathedral, 

450-461, 455 
Silver armillae, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 398 

bulla, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 398 

discs, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 894, 398 
■ earring, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

ford, 300, 402 
' ornament, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 

Sleafoid, 397 
^— ^ pendant, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 391, 405 
■ ■ plate, tee " Plate " 
^— -■ " ring, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 

fold, 891, 402 
Silversmiths' work, sixteenth century, 122 
Simpson (W. Sparbow, D.D., F.S.A.), the in- 
ventories of the cathedral church of St. 
Paul, London, dated respectively 1245 and 
1402, 439-524 
Six-fold division of Malmesbury corporation, 435 
Skeleton, human, discovered in Roman bath at 
Silchester, 274 

Skirlaw (Walter de), bishop of Durham (1407), 

185; will of, 132 
Sleaford, Anglo'Saxon cemetery at, 383-406 
—~ — British remains near, 383 

Roman remains near, 384 

Smirke (Sidney), drawings of Westminster hall 

by. 6 

Smith (Mrs. J. W.), mazer belonging to, 150 
Soberton, possession of Hamble priory in, 253 
Sokbom (Richard), fellow of Pembroke collie, 

Cambridge, 153 
Solemn league and covenant, signing of in Lon- 
don, 23 
Somersetshire, monasticon of, 360 

tee " Banewell," " Barrow (North)," 

"Barrow (South)," "Bath," "Carthampton," 
"Ceddre," "Childcompton," "Congresbury," 
"Curry (North)," " Dowlishwake," "Olas- 
tonbnry," "Harpetre (East)," "Haselbnry," 
" Henstridge," " Lovinton," " Pilton," 
"Taunton Deane," "Timberscombe," "Wed- 
more," " Wells," " White Lackington," 
" Witham," " Wivelscombe," " Tattoo " 
Sonahip among the New Zealanders, 203 
South Brent, church of, belonging to the church 

at Wells, 3.^6 
South Kensington museum, mazer at, 162 
South Kyme, British camp at, 383 
Soathampton, land in, belonging to Hamble 

priory, 253 
Southwark, St. Saviour's, mazer belonging to, 

Sonthwell, manor custom of, 208 
Spade-shaped fibula discovered at Sleaford, 389, 

391, 392, 394, 396, 397, 400, 403 
Spears, iron, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 390, 391, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 
399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406 
Spears of Mars, myatorious moving of, at Rome, 

Spinae, road from Silcheetor to, 266 
Spiti, succession custom of, 203 
Spindle- whorl, bone, Anglo-Saxon, discovered 
at Sleaford, 392 

Digitized by 



Staffordahire, tee " Cheokley," " Ham," " Lich- 
Stt^s, Terger'B, Biirmonitted bj efmbolio fiffure, 

Staines, site of Pontes, 266 
Staithea, children called by mother's name at, 

Stanton Fitzwarreii, chiirch of, granted to Hamble 

priory, 253 
Stanza dei Fasti, marble trail of, 237, 215 
Staves, episcopal, belonging to St. Panl's cathe- 
dral, U5-U6, 456, 472 
Sterling, common name of English penny, 513 
Stirmp, Scandinavian, foand at Mottisfont, 532- 

Stockholm mnsonm, sword in, 535 
Stockings, episcopal, belonging to St. Paal's 

cathedral, 447 
Stocks, pnniahment by, at AyleBbnry, 101 
Stock wood, manor cnstom of, 208 
Stone cists, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford' 

389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 

Stones, scnlptnred, basket-work figores of men 

on, 286-294 
Stock, ten sheaves of com set for stacking, 

Stowey, church of, granted to Wells cathedral 

church, 369 
Stnbbard de Bnry (Agues de), will of (1418), 185 
Stnbbs (Dr. W. bishop of Cheater), on death of 

Ednard II. 216 
Stucco plastering, Roman, discovered at Sil- 

chester, 278 
Sncceesion to property, archaic laws of, 195-214 ; 

evidence for, at Malmesbnry, 431, 4S2 
SnfEolk, see "Ipswich," "Iiworth" 
SnperBtition,«ee " Eyes," " North " 
Surnames, example of early modes of acquiring, 

88, 92 
Snn-ey, tee " Croydon," " Lambeth," " Soutii- 

wark " 
Snssez, jnnior right in, 214 

•« " Battle " 

VOL. L. 4 

Sntton (Charles), porchase of Bottesford n 

by, temp. Heniy VIII. 371 
Swastika ornamentation on Anglo<Saxon fibula, 

38C, 894, 398, 401 
Sweden, prehistoric boat found in, 370 
Sword, iron, Danish, fonnd near WalUngford, 

584-536; Scandinavian, fonnd in London, 



Talbot (Galfired), grant of, to Wells cathedral 

chnrch, 359 
Tamil, custom of inheritance in, 208 
Taon, chnrch at, S 
Taranto, town of, in Italy, 416-417 
Tannton Deane, manor cnstom of, 208 
Tayler (William), vicar of St. Stephen's, Cole- 
man Street, 25, S2 
Temple of Diana Aricina, near Lake of Nemi, 

excavations, 58-65 
Roman, excavated at SUchester, 267 

Terra-cotta, female 6garee, fonnd near Lake of 

Nemi, 63 
■ votive figures, on site of temple to Diana 

Aricina, 61-62, C4 
Tervneren, castle of, near Bmssels, 74 
Tesselated pavements discovered at Silchester, 

268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274 
Thames, stirmp, Scandinavian, fonnd in, 533 

■ sword, Scandinavian, fonnd in, 530-532 

Thanksgiving procession to St. Panl's cathedral 

(1536), 459 
Theft, presentments for, in manor of Bottesford, 

378, 377 
Theodosins, bronze statne of, at Barletta, 416 
Thesawaleme code of Ceylon law, 208 
Thirtoens, a section of Malmesbnry corpto^tion, 

427, 430 431 

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Tbohab (George William), on excavations in an 
Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Steaford, in Lin- 
colnshire, 363.406 

ThomaB (St.), canonisation of, 300 ; first chnrch 
consecrated to, 303 

■■ relics of, preserved in St. Panl's cathe- 

dral, Ub, 471 

ThoDiBs (St.), de Caatelapo, feast of, 503 

Thor, the hammer of 201 

" Three Gaps," inn aiga in Bacfcipgham, 85 

" Three Kings " caps, examples of, 156, 157 

Thuribala, belonging to St. Paul's cathedral, 

Tideman de Winchcomb, bishop of Worcester, 
254, 257 

Tillingham (manor of), belonging to St. Paul's 
cathedral, 445, 470 

Timbei-scombe, chnrch of, granted to Wells 
cathedral chorch, 358 

Tindal (Mr. Acton), acqnisition of Aylesbniy by, 

Tirwhitt (Marmadoke), lord of Bottesford manor 
(1591), 381 

Tooth, animal's, naed as pendant in Anglo<Sazon 
grave, 391, 401, 406 

Totnes, guild organisation of, 206 

Towells, chnrch vestments (1466), 39 ; (1542), 48 

Town, growth of, round the church at Wells, 811 

Township and manor, boundaries of, 871 

Traci (Oliver de), grant of, to Wells cathedral 
church, 358 

Trades, see " Barber," " Bucler-mafcer," " Car- 
penter," " Cook," " Grocer," " Painter " 

Trani, town of, in Italy, 413-414, 419 

Transvaal, land inalienable in, 204 

Travelling to York, temp. Edward III. 218 

-' dangers of, temp. Henry VII, 89 

Treasury (Royal), masera in the (1337-1840), 
182, 184 

Tree, mark used by masons, 4 

Trees, size of, in England, 367 

sacrificial rite connected with, at the 

Artemisinm, 60 

-■-■ bay, sacred, in the Begia at Rome, 240 

Treminet (Jocelin de), grant of, to Wells cathe- 
dral church, 857 

Trial of regicides, 29-32 

Tribal communities, Welsh, constitution of, 428 

Tribes, corporation of Malmesbnry divided into, 

Triquetrae, ornamentation on stones atCheckley, 

Tnniclesbelongingto St. Panl's cathedral (1402), 
454, 501-506 

Turf, regulations for cutting at Bottesford, 377 

Tnrqnoise, fonnd in India, 524 

Tweezers, bronze, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at 
Sleaford, 390, 893, 895, 397, 401, 403 

u-on, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Slea- 
ford, 406 

"Twelve " (the), of Aylesbniy manor, 90 

" Twenty-fonrs," a section of Malmeabnry cor- 
poration, 427, 480 

" Twenty-two " (the), of Aylesbury manor, 90 

Twig, transference of, as sjrmbol of landholding, 

Tyrone, Benedictine abbey of, 251, 252, 255 


Ughtred (Sir Thomas), will of (1400), 184 

Uist, North, joint ownership in, 205 

Urn, Anglo-Saxon, discovered at Sleaford, 389, 

890, 391, 392, 393, 395, 396, 397, 398, 400,. 

401, 402, 403, 404, 406 
Urrie (Thomas), lord of Bottesford manor (1595), 

Useflet (Thomas de), accounts of, for funeral of 

Edward II. 221 

Valence (Mary de), founder of Pembroke college, 

Cambridge, 158 
Valhalla, custom of the, 201 
Valle (Andrea de), seal of (1517), 118-120. 125, 


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Velvet, chiucb Testmenta of (1466), 88, 89, 41 , 42 ; 

(1542), 46, 47 ; at St. Paal'a cathednd, 52 1 
Tenta Belg&rum, road from Silcheater to, 366 
Yenns Genetrix, temple of, at Rome, 235 
Veeta, temple of, at Some, 227, 231-232, 236, 

worship of, at SilcheBter, 267 

Vestal virgins, ceremonies at the appointment 

of, 244-245 
Vestments, chnrch, inventory of (1466), 37.45; 

(1542), 46-48 
belonging to St. Panl's cathedral, 450, 

Yich (Ouglielmo Raimondo de), cardinal, seal of, 

123-124, J25, 127 
Vienna, imperial cabinet of antiquities at, 116-117 

masoos' mark on St. Stephen's at, 3 

Viking ship discovered in Norway, 870 
Villa of Ctesar (remains of), 60 ; of Calignla, 61 
Village, composition of the archaio, 198 
Village-commanity at Ualmesbnry, 421-438 
Villeins, Anglo-Saxon, holdings of, 207 
Vincent (St.), tooth of, preserved at St. Paul's 

cathedral. 445, 470 
Vineyard antiquities in ItAly, 407 
Virgin (the Blessed), titles of, 76 
hair of, preserved at St. Paul's cathedral, 

Virgin and Child, representation of, 144, 163, 

175; on seals, 119, 120, 123, 124, 126 
Votive figures, terra-cotta, on site of temple of 

Diana Aricina, 61-62, 64 
Vyner (Captain), mazer belonging to, 154 

Wac (Radnlf), grant of, to Wells cathedral 

church, 358 
Wakefield, battle of, anniversary of, kept in 

London, 22 
Walenton, chnrch and manor of, in possession of 

Bath cathedral (1179), 354 

Wales, children called by mother's name in, 213 

joint rights of food in, 197 

— law of succession in, 205 

' tribal communities of, 428 

Wallingford, Danish sword-hilt found near, 534- 

Walls, external, insoriptions on, at Rome, 236 

(Roman), of Silobester, 265 

WaJtham Holy Cross, religions fonudatioD at, by 

Henry II. 302 

mazers at abbey, 130, 193 

Walwyn (Francis), furtist employed by Charles I. 

Wardrobe accounts, 1299, mazers mentioned in, 

belonging to St. Paul's cathedral (1402), 

Warenot rents [Wamott, WaiBott], lands so 

called, 371 
Warminster, church of, granted to Wella cathe- 
dral church, 359 
Warwickshire, «* " Coventry " 
Wasteneys (Edmund), payments to, at fnneral of 

Edward H. 217 
Watching, duty of, at Aylesbury, 91 ; at London, 

91, 100 
Water pipes, Roman, discovered at. Silchester, 

274 ^ 

Water supply, system of, in castle near Bari,418 
Waterlot, drains so called, 373 
Wattle- work, ozier, in Saxon arobitectore, 68 
Wedmor, lands in, in possession of Bath cathe- 
dral (1179), 354 
Wells, history of, 311 ; MS. histoiy of, by Dr. 

Archer, 295 

bishopric of, 304, 305, 307, 311 

cathedral church of, 323-346 ; grants to, 

Vicars' Collie, mazer belonging to (1888- 

1861), 181-182 
Wenchepe (Richard de), prior of Dover (1268- 

1272), 177 
Westminster, mazers at, 180 
standing cnp of the city of, 527-529 

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WeatnuDBter Abbey, possessions of, at Deer- 

hnrst, 66-67 
Hall, arcbitectare of, 5-8 ; masonB' marks 

at, 1-4 ; west side of, 9>16 
White Lackmgton, chmvh of, granted to Wells 

cathedral church, S57 
Whitehead (Jeffrey), mazer belonging to, 149- 

150, 175 
Wickei^work, tee " Basket-irork " 
Widow, origin of manorial rights of, 206 
William II. hall of, at Westminster, 5-8 
William (Bishop of London), Rhrine of, at St- 

Panl's cathedral, 445, 470 
WiUonghby (Isabella de), will of (1415), 1S5 
Willonghby (Sir Hugh), will of (1448), 187 
Willows, orders for planting, at Botteefoi-d 

manor, 380 
Wilton (Isabel), will of (1486), 189 
Wiltshire, see "Aldebome," " Bradenstoke," 

" Criokelade," " Malmesbnry," " Stanton 

Fifzwarren," " Warminster " 
Winchester, right of pre-emption at, 210 

site of Venta Belgamm, 266 

cathedral, Wykeham's chantry at, 254- 

255 ; masons' nuu-k in, 3 

convent of St. Swithin at, 258-255 

college, alien priory at Hamble trans- 
ferred to, 251-262 
Window-glass, Roman, discovered at Silchester, 

Windsor Caiitle, representation of on cope at St. 

Paul's cathedral, 448 ; Wren's drawings of, 9 
Witham, religions fonndation at, temp. Henry II. 

302, 307, 308 
Witham, river, Scandinavian, stirrup, fonnd in, 

— — Scandinavian sword found in, 531, 535 
Wiseman (Cardinal), signet belonging to, 106, 107 
Wivelescnmb, church and villa of, in possession 

of Bath cathedral, 354 
Wokyndon family, interest of in St. Paul's 

cathedral, 511 

Wolsey (Cardinal), plate of, 191 
Wood, fine for cutting at Bottesford manor, 375 
Wooderove (Robert), will of (1501), 191 
Wool, dragged off by bushes, a manorial perqui- 
site, 382 
Worldham, West, chapel of, grant of to Hamble 

priory, 253 
Worms, earth, work of at Silchester, 271 
Worship, joint rights of, 197-198 
Worsted, cloth, 516 ; church vestments of (1466), 

42; (1542) 46 
Wren (Sir C), drawings of Westminster ball 

by, 9-10 
Wulfrio (the hermit), scene of life and miracles 

of, 857 
Wiirtemberg, succession custom in, 204 
Wyclyff (Robert de), rector of Budby (temp. 

1423), 186 
Wykeham (bishop of Winchester), decree by, 

254 ; chantiy of, at Winchester cathedral, 

Wyman (Henry), goldsmith of York, 147 
Wymbyssch (Thomas), will of (1447), 187 
Wynestord, church of, granted to bishop of 

Wells, 317 

Yatton, villa of, in possession of Bath cathedral 

(1179), 853 
York, gild of Corpus Christi, 148 
—~— cathedral, inventory of, 440 ; mazer at, 

131, 133, 146-149 
mazers belonging to inhabitants of, 182, 

183,185, 186, 187, 191 
Yorke (Thomas), lord of manor of Bottesford 

(1547), 372 
Yorkshire, East Riding, lands called "Wamntt," 

rents in, 372 
tee " DoDcaster," " Hull," " Staitfaee," 

" Wakefield " 

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